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国花市花鉴赏课程论文
——玫瑰与欧洲文化

施文珺 安泰经济与管理学院 5101209029 指导老师:申晓辉

课程论文
——玫瑰与欧洲文化
施文珺 (上海交通大学,安泰经济与管理学院)
[摘要] 从古罗马时期直至今日,玫瑰都与欧洲文化紧密缠绕在了一起。从最初的狂热,到神话的崇拜,到宗教的神化,到画作、诗句乃至建筑的刻画,玫瑰就这样渗透到了欧洲文化的各个角落。本文从欧洲文化的诸多方面探讨了玫瑰与欧洲文化间的互相影响,从起源来分析玫瑰为欧洲人所崇拜的原因。
[关键词] 玫瑰;欧洲;神话;宗教;艺术;国花
玫瑰之于欧洲有其独一无二的地位。在通常的印象中,玫瑰的形象总是与欧洲那些古老的城堡抑或优雅的贵族联系在一起,密不可分。事实上,玫瑰并不是原产于欧洲,那么,这种根深蒂固的联系又是源自于哪里呢?
这就要从欧洲历史长河的源头说起……

玫瑰简介: 科属:蔷薇科蔷薇属灌木
形态:直立灌木。茎丛生,有茎刺。单数羽状复叶互生,花单生于叶腋或数朵聚生。
别称:玫瑰花可提取高级香料玫瑰油,玫瑰油价值比黄金还要昂贵,故玫瑰有“金花”之称。玫瑰花色香诱人,特别是其香浓烈、甜蜜,有催情剂的成分,往往引人止步赞叹,留恋徘徊,又称“徘徊花”。 玫瑰因其美丽、香甜、雅洁,在中东和欧洲又称它为花中之王。人们把它看作是圣洁、完美、幸福和纯贞爱情的象征,伊斯兰教和基督教建筑的装饰中都有它的身影。

历史渊源:
玫瑰原产于中亚和中国,后来越过阿尔泰和高加索山脉传到波斯,最后到达希腊、埃及和罗马。据说,是萨冈国王在几千年前从一次军事远征中带回了玫瑰。另有文物为证:在许多早期的硬币上,人们发现了五花瓣玫瑰的图案。
可见玫瑰在欧洲的历史也颇为悠久,几千年的相伴相随,无怪乎它在欧洲有着这般深远的影响。

神话中的玫瑰:
当时的欧洲尚处于人类文明初具雏形的时期,诸多人们的所思所想,都诉诸于那些动人的神话保留了下来。其中最为著名的要数希腊神话了。也许,就是从那时起,玫瑰与欧洲文化结下了不解之缘。
在希腊和其他西亚人看来,玫瑰是诸神的赏赐,也是对他们的感谢。传说,爱与美之神,阿弗洛狄忒从海水泡沫中诞生时,其腰部四周有汹涌的海浪泡沫保护,当她离水登岸时,就变成了玫瑰彩带。在这里,玫瑰被赋予了生命与美的多重含义。将这诸多的殊荣冠之于一朵花的头上,在欧洲那是前无古人,后无来者。玫瑰的柔美、艳丽,自此在欧洲人的心中有了更为鲜活的化身——爱与美之神。
玫瑰,之所以象征着爱情,也是与一则缠绵悱恻的希腊神话息息相关。从前,据说玫瑰都是白色的。有一天,阿芙洛狄特的情人——主宰自然界的神,阿多尼斯,在打猎时不幸为野猪所伤。女神闻讯后失魂落魄地向阿多尼斯遇难处奔去,途中被玫瑰花刺伤了双脚,鲜血滴在花瓣上,于是白玫瑰变成了红玫瑰。正因为这玫瑰花曾被爱神的鲜血染过,象征着爱神对恋人坚贞的爱,才最有资格代表爱情。
甚至,玫瑰的英文名的也是由希腊神话演变而来的。传说,花神弗洛拉对爱神阿摩尔并无感情,对他的追求烦不胜烦,只好长期躲着他。但有一天,狡猾的爱神用爱神之箭射中了她。从此弗洛拉为之倾心,但阿摩尔喜新厌旧,抛弃了弗洛拉。女神伤心之余决定自己创造一种会哭会笑、集悲喜于一身的花来安抚自己。经过无数个不眠之夜,女神看到自己的创造物,惊喜得不禁喊出心上人的名字——厄洛斯。但由于生性腼腆、情绪激动,她只喊出了洛斯这两个音节。从此,一种植物诞生了,名为洛斯(Rose),即为玫瑰。这则稍带悲伤的神话,为玫瑰的爱情色彩增添了一份凄美。
说到玫瑰,就不得不提起一句俚语“under the rose”。相传是因为沉默之神哈波克拉提斯偶然撞见爱与美之神维纳斯与情人约会。维纳斯之子,小爱神丘比特知道后,摘了一朵玫瑰“贿赂”他,请他严守秘密。从此,玫瑰花被西方视为沉默的象征。众多的秘密社团,比如玫瑰游艇和共济会,都不约而同地选取了玫瑰作为社团标志。…...

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