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Advantage and Disadvantage of Modern Medicine

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Excretory System

1) Respiration(CO2 2) Digestive System 3) Kidney 4) Skin(Sweat, Sebum

Kidney • Elimination of waste product of body • Maintain body volume and composition of body fluids • Kidneys are paired situated in lumbosaccral region • Covered by peritoneal • Shape o Mostly it is bean shaped o Cattle it is lobulated o Horse it is heart shaped
Urinary System • Kidneys • Ureters • Urinary Bladder • Urethra • Epithelial cells are transitional
Muscle of bladder is known as Detruser Muscle
Kidney contains 3 main parts • Cortex • Medulla o Outer medulla • Pelvis
Types of Nephrons 1) Cortical a. Nephron in cortex but portion is also medullary is known as cortical. 2) Juxta Medullary
Nephron has 2 parts 1) Bowmans Capsule 2) Tubular system
# of Nephrons in each species
|CATTLE |40 LACK |
|PIG |12.5 LACK |
|HUMAN |10 LACK |
|DOG |4.15 LACK |
|CAT |1.9 LACK |

Note Diagram

Tubular System 1) Renal Tubule 2) Loop of Henli a. Descending Lymph b. Thin segment of Ascending Lymph c. Thick segment of Ascending Lymph 3) Collecting Tubule form Collecting Duct 4) Capillary unit work around the structure is known as peritubular capillaries 5) Vasa rectum capillary not around the loop of H.

Juxta Glomerular Apparatus 1) Maculla Densa a. Located in Lumen of DCT 2) Juxta Glomerulus Cells- Secrete Renin 3) Renal Pelvicis- Horse 4) Renal Calicos- Cattle & Buffalo

URINE FORMATION 1) Glomerullus Filtration 2) Tubular Reabsorbtion 3) Tubular Secretion

Note Figure of Glomerillus Membrane…...

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