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Advantage and Disadvantage of Advertising

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“Adalah menjadi harapan saya agar rakyat Malaysia akan sentiasa beringat dan berwaspada semasa dalam perjalanan pulang ke kampung halaman. Bersama kita jadikan jalan raya kita jalan yang selamat”.
Demikianlah sedutan ucapan Yang Amat Berhormat Perdana Menteri Malaysia, Dato’ Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi ketika menghadiri majlis berbuka puasa bersama-sama anak yatim di Putrajaya baru-baru ini. Peribahasa alah bisa tegal biasa kini telah menjadi sinonim dengan masyarakat Malaysia memandangkan saban hari rakyat Malaysia disajikan dengan berita-berita kemalangan jalan raya yang menyayatkan hati sama ada di dada akhbar mahupun di kaca televisyen. Walaupun OPS Sikap XIII sempena Aidilfitri baru-baru ini berjaya mengurangkan kes kemalangan maut daripada 213 kes kepada 203 kes, namun statistik masih menunjukkan bahawa kemalangan keseluruhan pada tahun ini meningkat sebanyak lima peratus berbanding tahun lalu. Persoalannya, apakah punca-punca yang menyebabkan berlakunya kemalangan jalan raya walaupun pelbagai pihak telah memainkan peranan mereka dalam mengurangkan kadar kemalangan jalan raya?
Mengikut kajian yang dijalankan oleh Universiti Teknologi Mara (UTM), sikap pemandu ketika berada di jalan raya merupakan faktor dominan berlakunya kemalangan jalan raya. Memang tidak dapat dinafikan, pemandu marcapada ini memandang enteng terhadap peraturan-peraturan jalan raya yang telah ditetapkan oleh pihak berkuasa.. Buktinya, ramai pemandu yang tidak mematuhi ‘speed limit’ terutamanya ketika memandu di lebuh raya sehingga menyebabkan mereka gagal mengawal kenderaan apabila cuba membelok ke kanan atau ke kiri di selekoh-selekoh jalan. Di sisi itu, risiko untuk seseorang mengalami kecelakaan jalan raya adalah lebih tinggi bagi mereka yang memandu dalam keadaan mengantuk atau pun mabuk. Hal ini demikian kerana pemandu yang memandu kenderaan ketika mengantuk akan hilang konsentrasi semasa memandu dan secara tidak langsung menyebabkan kenderaan dikawal secara ‘auto-pilot’ yang akhirnya membawa kepada kemalangan jalan raya. Selain itu, sikap sesetengah pemandu yang leka berbual-bual dengan rakan sebelah serta mengggunakan telefon bimbit ketika memandu turut menyebabkan kemalangan. Pernyataan ini diperkuatkan lagi apabila statistik menunjukkan bahawa 94 peratus pengguna jalan raya terlibat dalam kemalangan jalan raya berpunca daripada sikap acuh tak acuh mereka ketika berada di jalan raya. Pendek kata, kecuaian pemandu ketika di jalan raya merupakan penyumbang utama kemalangan jalan raya.
Bak kata pepatah Melayu, “kalau tidak ada angin, masakan pokok bergoyang” kerana setiap perkara yang berlaku pasti ada sebabnya. Selain daripada faktor manusia, keadaan fizikal jalan raya yang tidak memuaskan turut membawa kepada kemalangan jalan raya. Di samping struktur jalan yang berlekak-lekuk serta mempunyai permukaan yang tidak rata, infrastruktur jalan yang turut gagal berfungsi juga boleh membahayakan pengguna jalan raya khususnya bagi mereka yang memandu pada waktu malam. Seperti yang kita ketahui, rakyat Malaysia gemar memulakan perjalanan mereka pada waktu malam khususnya pada musim perayaan bagi mengelakkan masalah kesesakan lalu lintas. Namun, ketiadaan lampu jalan di sepanjang jalan raya menyebabkan keadaan sekeliling menjadi gelap dan seterusnya membataskan penglihatan para pemandu terhadap objek di hadapan mereka. Kondisi sebegini bukan sahaja mengganggu tumpuan pemandu malah secara tidak langsung menyebabkan pemandu tidak sedar akan posisi sebenar kenderaan mereka. Tambahan pula, ketiadaan penghadang jalan raya terutamanya di kawasan-kawasan yang tinggi seperti Genting Highlands meningkatkan lagi risiko untuk sesebuah kenderaan terbabas jatuh ke dalam lembah yang curam. Oleh itu, jelaslah bahawa kemalangan jalan raya turut berlaku apabila prasarana jalan raya berada dalam keadaan yang kurang memuaskan.
Melihat dari perspektif yang berbeza, aktiviti lumba haram yang semakin menjad-jadi juga sering menyebabkan kemalangan maut terutamanya dalam kalangan katak-katak rempit. Tanpa mengira keadaan trafik, para pelumba motosikal haram ini akan berkumpul dan berlumba di tengah-tengah kota pada malam hujung minggu. Kodok-kodok rempit ini akan bermaharajalela di jalan-jalan raya dan menjadi pemandu yang beraja di mata dan bersultan di hati dengan aksi-aksi yang membanggakan diri masing-masing. Aksi-aksi lumba haram yang ganas seperti ‘drift and drag’, gaya aerospace dan superman bukan sahaja salah di sisi undang-undang negara, malah membahayakan nyawa penguna jalan raya yang lain serta nyawa pelumba haram itu sendiri. Cuba kita bayangkan pelbagai kemungkinan yang akan menimpa pelumba haram yang memecut laju dengan kelajuan 200 kilometer sejam secara tiba-tiba gagal mengawal motosikalnya dan melanggar seorang kanak-kanak. Adakah dia dan kanak-kanak itu masih terselamat? Dan adakah dia akan dibawa ke muka pengadilan setelah menyebabkan kematian seorang kanak-kanak yang tidak berdosa? Maka, tidak hairanlah jika aktiviti lumba haram menjadi salah satu punca utama peningkatan kadar kemalangan jalan raya yang kini bagaikan cendawan tumbuh selepas hujan.
Dalam pada itu, kelemahan penguatkuasaan undang-undang dan peraturan juga merupakan punca kecelakaan di jalan raya. Walaupun Malaysia mempunyai undang-undang dan peraturan yang ketat serta mampu memberi kesan terhadap psikologi masyarakat tempatan, namun ketidaktegasan dalam pelaksanaan undang-undang sudah pasti membuka ruang kepada sesetengah pihak untuk terus melakukan kesalahan di jalan raya. Sebagai contoh, akibat daripada ketidakjujuran segelintir pihak berkuasa yang sanggup menerima rasuah, pemandu bas yang mempunyai 13 saman dan dua waran tangkap masih terlepas daripada tindakan undang-undang. Hal ini diperkukuhkan lagi apabila sebuah bas yang digunakan sejak tahun 1987 serta telah empat kali gagal dalam pemeriksaan Puspakom Sdn Bhd kerana masalah brek, serta disaman 19 kali oleh pihak polis sejak tahun 1991 dan merekodkan 79 saman daripada pihak JPJ semenjak lima tahun lalu masih lagi dibenarkan beroperasi di jalan raya. Adakah pihak berkuasa terlalu alpa akan tanggungjawab mereka dalam memakmurkan alam sehingga memandang enteng terhadap perkara sebegini? Di manakah terletaknya keadilan dan keunggulan undang-undang negara sehinggakan fenomena sebegini masih diberi muka? Tuntasnya, kelemahan penguatkuasaan undang-undang turut menjadi dalang dalam masalah kemalangan jalan raya.
Secara intihanya, kemalangan maut di jalan raya berpunca daripada pelbagai faktor. Pada hakikatnya, kecelakaan jalan raya bukan sahaja mengakibatkan kecederaan serta menyebabkan banyak nyawa terkorban, malah telah memusnahkan alam sekitar dan kemudahan-kemudahan yang terdapat di jalan raya. Hal ini secara tidak lansung telah menyumbang kepada kejatuhan ekonomi negara memandangkan pihak kerajaan terpaksa menghabiskan berjuta-juta ringgit untuk membaik pulih infrastruktur jalan. Oleh hal yang demikian, pelbagai pihak haruslah berganding bahu dalam mencari ikhtiar supaya kadar kemalangan maut jalan raya di Malaysia dapat dikurangkan.…...

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