In: Historical Events

Submitted By wijray
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This paper will discuss two opposing views regarding citizenship and ethnicity within the DR Congo. On the one hand the denial of citizenship of the Banyarwanda who had been forced to the Congo could be seen as infringing on human rights. On the other side it could be viewed as unsettling to accept such numbers as Congolese citizens after thousands of refugees had flooded into North Kivu upsetting the regional politics and economy. This paper will also examine the role that the denial of citizenship has played in contributing to the ongoing war in Eastern DRC, in order to analyze the potential for forgiveness by the Congolese people to Rwandans.

Annotated Bibliography

Reyntjens, Filip. (2009). The Great African War: Congo and Regional Politics, 1996-2006. New York: Cambridge University Press.

This publication tells an in depth account of Congolese history throughout the North and South. It will be useful in the forthcoming paper as Reyntjens talks about how governors in the North wanted to strike against immigrants to scare them out of the country and discusses how in exiling the Rwandan refugees, the Zairean government began contributing to the country’s instability in 1995.

Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges. (2004). “Citizenship, Politial Violence, and Democratization in Africa,” Global Governance, 4 (October): 403-409.

In this article Nzongola-Ntalaja discusses the history of the denial of citizenship beginning with late president Mobutu who had originally granted citizenship to all Rwandan refugees who had been living in DRC since 1950. It also discusses how he manipulated anti- Rwandan feelings in eastern DRC as an excuse for ethnic cleansing. This article will be used to examine citizenship reform and the current state of Rwandan and Congolese relations.

Jackson, Stephen. "Of “Doubtful Nationality”: political manipulation of citizenship in…...

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