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Aircraft Basic Workshop

In: Other Topics

Submitted By danyalarif
Words 2652
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NO. | CHAPTERS | Pg. |



The workshops and every working place have its own rules and regulations. We should obey the rules and regulations of the places in which we are working to be safe.
In the following assaignment there are some use information is given such as:
Health and safety act, precautions to be taken while working with gasses & electricity, first aid procedures and ATA specifications etc.

SAFE WORKING PRACTICES AT WORKSHOP: The following safe working instructions should be taken at workshop. * We should practise safe working techniques so that we are in habit of practising them. * We should protect our feet by wearing safety shoes, which has steel toecaps to protect our feet. * We should not attempt to lift a part alone if it is too heavy or too awkward to handle by one person. When lifting weight from floor exert the force from your leg muscle. Never strain the muscles of your back or spinal cord. * Smoking should be prohibited in workshops and hangers. We should know the locations of fire hydrants and fire extinguishers. * We should wear overalls and roll-up its sleeves. We should not wear neckties, watches and rings, while working in workshops. * Safety goggles should be weared at the time of grinding, drilling etc. * Every thing should be placed on its own place. Tools, workplace and floors should be kept clean and clear of rags, lubricants and waste pieces. * Tools should be used when they are required according to the situations. We should not miss used them as they can harm ourselves and other people. * There are number of machines which are power operated and designed to help us. But there are many risk while using such machines we can overcome these risk by following safety precautions such as: a) Do not operate equipment for which you are not authorized and properly guided. b) Do not operate the machine from which safety guards have been removed. c) Do not leave keys in the machine chucks. d) Do not try to stop a rotating part by hand. e) Read, understand and follow the related instructions while operating power tools.
REPORT AN ACCIDENT: An accident should not be kept hidden from the supervisor. An immediate report should be given to the supervisor. We should know the location of the first aid box and the eye wash point present in the workshop.
HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT: Health and safety act (HSWA) is the act of the parliament of United kingdom. This Act defines general principles for the management of health and safety at work, enabling the creation of specific requirements through regulations or through codes of practice. It defines the fundamental structure and authority for the encouragement, regulation and enforcement of workplace health, safety with in the United kingdom (U.K.).
The main objectives of this act are: * To secure the health, safety and welfare of persons at work. * To protect persons, other than the persons at work, against risks to health or safety arising out of the activities of persons at work. * To controll the keeping and usage of highly explosives or highly flammable materials or dangerous substances, and generally to prevent the unlawful usage of such substances. * To Controll the emission toxic or offensive substances into the atmosphere.
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING [ NDT ]: It can detect both production faults like grinding cracks etc and in-service damage like fatigue and overload cracks. The following are the safe procedure of performing the magnetic particle test: * The parts of surface of given substnce should be dry and cleaned before the inspection. * The magnetic field can be produced for the inspection of the component in a number of ways such as: a) By the help of a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. b) By allowing the current to flow through a metal piece. c) By alowing the current to flow through a coil of wire. d) By using a central conductor running near the part. * Wet particles are usually visible or fluorescent. Visible particles can be seen under normal light while fluorescent particles are viewed under black light. * After applying the magnetic field the indications are revealed. This indications requires the inspector skills to distinguish between wheter the indications are relevant or Non-relevant. * The substance which is used for the magnetic particle testing should be demagenetized before putting it back to service. Ref.

PRECAUTIONS: * We should never touch or hold anything around,near,inside of a coil in a machine specially during demagnetization. The attraction of the part coil is strong enough to cause injury. * We should avoid casual clothes and should wear the overalls while using magnetic testing due to the arc which usually strikes. * The current is normally low in this type methods but still we should take care when dealing with it.
RADIOGRAPHY [ NDT ]: In this type of process a film is placed on the object which is opposite to the source of rays. The film is sensitive to the radiation which penetrates the object. The film absorbed someof the radiation on its passage through it. The thicker or more solid the material the greater absorption take place which will not produce an effective image on the film. Hence, thin material material shows up darker image than solid or thicker material. The image is in the form of a negative. This film, when developed can be studied with back light and the defects can be seen. Two types of rays are used in this type of process X-rays and Gamma rays. Ref.
* We should have the knowledge about the serious hazards that may occur due to radiation flux and intensity before using radiography process. * We should always be aware of fire and burning, as they can occur due to the carelessness of the operator. * We should wear eye goggles. * We should avoid direct contact or indirect contact with the radioactive parts of the machine.
EDDY CURRENTS: In this type process induced currents are introduced parallel to the surface of the material under test. Eddy current testers are used in this type of process to detect:


* Surface cracks. * Internal corrosion. * Thickness measurement and fire damaged skins.
The biggest advantage of this test is that we do not have to tear of the paint and it can still detect the cracks.
* We should be aware of the limitations of the eddy current tester. * The surface of the material under test should be clean and dry.
The following precauions should be taken when working with electricity: * The switch should be turned OFF before disconnecting or plugging any instrument in to the main supply. * A three pin plug must be used so that the instrument can be connected with an earth wire. * We should stand on a dry floor or stand on a wooden platform when connecting an instrument with the main supply. * The electrical wires should be placed on a smooth and a dry surface. * We should keep away from a transmitting aerial or a radar until making sure that the equipment is switched off.
The following precautions should be taken when working with gases: * We should always use gas mask before handling gasses. * We should avoid direct inhaling of gasses. * We should report the supervisor, in case of an accident . * We should not weld near to those locations were degreasing, cleaning, or spraying operations are going on. * The heat and rays of the arc can react with vapors to form a fire. * Regular testing and maintenance of the gas detectors should be carried out for the safety of the persons.

FIRST AID IN CASE OF FIRE: All workplaces have fire precautions and fire fighting equipments. We should know the location of fire fighting equipment, alarm bells and fire exits of the specific place in which we are working. We should know that a room can be filled with smoke in case of fire which can make it more difficult in the sense of finding a way out, so we should know the fire exits of our workplace.
In the case of any burning following first aid steps should be kept in mind: * The pain and spread of heat should be reduced by using a tooth paste or by flooding lean cold water on the burning part. * We should not try to pull out any burnt cloth from the burnt part of the person. * Burnt part should be covered by help of a light dressing. * The patient should seek a medical help. * Treat for minor injury only.
FIRST AID IN CASE OF PERSONAL INJURY: In case of personal injury following steps should be kept in mind: * The should be cleaned by washing it under a running tap. * The wound should be cleaned thoroughly as infection can start even from a small wound. * A light dressing should be used without touching a wound. * Any serious bleeding should be stopped. * Artificial respiration should be given if it is necessary. * The person should be rolled into recovery position, unless there is spinal injury. * If there is a major injury we should seek for medical help. * We should not attempt to straighten any injured part. * We should not move the patient without using any type of supporting to the injured part. * We should keep a seriously injured person alive and prevent a worsening of his condition.
FIRST AID IN CASE OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK: * Do not touch the victim while he is still in contact with the electric supply. Switch off the supply first. If this is not possible, then try to move the victim by using an insulated object. * Once the victim is free from the source of electricity examine him/her. * As the victim is alive and conscious he will be in a state of shock. So it should be treated as for this condition accordingly. * As the patient is unconscious, then treatment should be carried out accordingly unconscious condition. * If there is any type of burn present on the body then treat for burns in the approved manner. * If the breathing of the patient is stopped, then apply mouth to mouth artificial respiration. * Seek for medical help as quickly as possible.

TASK 3 Some of the common hand tools used in the workshop are; * HACK SAW * SCREWDRIVER * HAMMER * FILES * PUNCHES
HOW A METRIC MICROMETER IS USED: The basic operating principles of a micrometer are as follows:
First the object is placed between the spindle and anvil and hold tightly ad locked with the help of a lock nut. The micrometer is checked wether it has an error or not by watching that the thimble scale is covering the barrel scale 0 point under it. If it is not covering then the micrometer has an error which is also known as calibration date. The thimble is rotated to hold the object tightly. The thimble slides on the barrel scale . To read the metric micrometer, the number of whole millimeters are present on the bottom row of the barrel of the micrometer. These are called whole millimeters. Thimble scale should be conciding with the whole millimeter scale. After that these two are added. The error is added or subtracted from the main answer according to the given micrometer error.
CONTROL CABLES: Control cables are used in aircraft systems and have simple or complex tensioning systems. Multiple strand flexible cables are mostly used and they are simple, strong and reliable. Cable tension has to be checked on a regular basis to ensure that they are not too tight or not too loose. Cables are made up of wires and strands. Each strand is made up of a number of wires.The control cables are classified as following: * Nonflexible cables * Flexible cables * Extra flexible cables * Attaching cables * Swaged terminals * Nicopress oval sleeves * Turnbuckles

RIVETS: There are number of methods which are being used for joining the two metal parts. The most common technique of joining metal plates are by riveting. A rivet is a metal pin with a formed head on one end. A rivet is inserted into a drilled hole, and its shank is then deformed by a hand or pneumatic tool. Rivets create a union of metals as strong as the material being joined. The rivet diameter should be 3 times the thickness of a single sheet. Ref. * Distance between the centers of adjacent rivets in the same row is known as pitch. * Distance between the sheet edge and the center of the rivetis known as land. * The length of the protruding shank which is flattened to close a rivet is called allowance. * Rivets are given part codes that indicate their size, head style and alloy material.
EXAPMLE OF RIVET IDENTIFICATION [ AN470-AD4-5 ]: * A express the numbering system used. It can be AN or MS * 470 express the style of the rivet head. * AD express a one or 2-letter code representing the alloy material. * 4 is the shank diameter in 1/32 of an inch. * 5 is the length in increments of 1/16 of an inch.
TORQUE LOADING: To assure proper service and prevent failures. A bolt which is too tight or too loose may create a hazardous situation and result in the untimely failure of a part. Torque is the product of the force applied and the distance at which it is applied.The nuts, bolts and set screws used on an aircraft are subject to a standard torque value, depending on their material, finish, lubrication, thread type and size. But particular applications may use a different torque loading and this will be specified in Appropriate Maintenance Manual.
TASK 4 The Air Transport Association is a trade organization of the largest U.S. airlines. The ATA was formed in 1936. ATA numbers are used to identify parts of an aircraft in a standard way.ATA specification 100 contains format and content guidelines for technical manuals written by aviation manufacturers and suppliers and is used by airlines and other segments of the industry in the maintenance of their respective products. This document provides the industry-wide standard for aircraft systems numbering, often referred to as ATA system or chapter numbers. The format and content guidelines define the data prepared as conventional printed documentation.
The first 40 chapters of ATA are as follows:
The ATA chapters from 1 to 4 are not allocated
ATA chapters from 13 to 19 are allocated. 20. STANDARD PRACTICES AIRFRAME 21. AIR CONDITIONING


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