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Analysis Model Shortstories and Novels Danish a

In: Novels

Submitted By gutterskulk
Words 1194
Pages 5
Analysemodel til noveller og romaner:
Giv en kort præsentation, hvor du omtaler titel, forfatter, årstal og genre.
Giv et meget kort handlingsresumé. Handlingsresuméet drejer sig om den konkrete handling i teksten, personerne og de steder de færdes. En kort objektiv genfortælling af hvad der sker i teksten – uden fortolkning..
Komposition: Tekstens opbygning. Inddel i forbindelse med resuméet gerne teksten i afsnit med overskrifter. Er der indledning eller begynder teksten in medias res ? ( betyder ”i tingenes midte”, dvs. hvor læseren uden forvarsel kastes ind i handlingen).
Er teksten kronologisk opbygget (= begivenhederne fortælles i den rækkefølge som de foregår i)? Eller bruger teksten flash-back (tilbageblik)? Virkning?
Er der et klimaks i teksten og hvor ligger det? (Klimaks er tekstens højdepunkt og kulmination, der hvor der sker mest handlingsmæssigt, og det er mest spændende). Bemærk at ikke alle tekster er bygget op omkring et spændingselement. Nogle tekster har fokus på f.eks. personers følelser frem for spænding i den ydre handling.
Følger teksten den traditionelle berettermodel?
Er der åben eller lukket slutning? (Dvs. lader forfatteren noget være op til læseren eller udtaler han / hun selv en konklusion eller morale?)
Fortæller: Bestem tekstens fortæller. Fortælleren er en person, som forfatteren har anbragt i teksten og som læseren oplever begivenhederne igennem. Fortælleren og forfatteren er ikke den samme. Der findes to typer fortællere: Jeg-fortælleren (hvor der optræder et tydeligt jeg i teksten) og tredjepersonsfortælleren (hvor fortælleren er en han eller hun og ofte optræder med et konkret navn).
Synsvinkel: Synsvinklen er det sted, som læseren ser begivenheder og situationer fra. Der hvor kameraet ville have stået, hvis der var tale om film, er synsvinklen. Der findes tre hovedtyper synsvinkel:
Den alvidende fortæller: Kan gå ind og ud af personer og beskrive dem udefra, gengive deres tanker, vurdere dem, forudsige begivenheder og fremdrage ting, der ligger lang tid før fortælletidspunktet. Den alvidende fortæller har den totale indsigt i alle begivenheder og personer.
Personbunden fortæller: Har indsigt i én af tekstens personer. Det er en slags alvidende fortæller, der bare kun ved noget om én person.
Objektiv fortæller: Kan ikke udlægge personers tanker og følelser. Den objektive fortæller viser gennem personers adfærd, hvordan de er. Denne fortæller kan ikke sige: ”Nu følte hun sig forladt”, men må gennem skildringen af personens adfærd få læseren til at tænke og fornemme det. Den objektive fortæller fortæller kun det, som objektivt kan ses, høres og sanses.
Fortællerkommentar: I nogle tekster bryder fortælleren ind med en kommentar til det fortalte. Fortællerkommentaren er ofte et forsøg på fra fortællerens side at fremdrage en pointe eller en morale af det, der er blevet fortalt.
Personer: Beskriv hvordan de vigtigste personer er karakteriserede: det ydre, det indre og evt. udvikling. Beskriv både det, der står direkte i teksten om personerne, men især det, der står indirekte: Hvad viser det om personerne, at de siger, tænker, handler sådan og sådan? Vigtigt er også at beskrive forhold mellem personerne og samspillet mellem personerne og deres miljø. Ofte vil der være problemstillinger knyttet til personerne eller til relationen mellem dem. Beskriv også hvad disse problemstillinger går ud på.
Miljø: Giv en karakteristik af miljøet / miljøerne i teksten. Ved en miljøkarakteristik forstås en beskrivelse af de forhold og omgivelser personerne lever i. For eksempel kan man undersøge:
Boligforholdene, hvordan beskrives det / de steder personerne lever.
Omgivelser, er det et landligt miljø eller et bymiljø, og hvordan beskrives det.
Sociale forhold, hvilken socialgruppe i samfundet lever / færdes personerne i. I gamle dage talte man om ”stænder”, dvs. f.eks. husmandsstand, bondestand, borgerstand eller adelsstand (frem til 1800-tallet). Senere har man talt om ”klasser”, f.eks. arbejderklasse, middelklasse, overklasse. Afgørende for bestemmelse af socialklasse vil være iagttagelser af materiel status: Er der tegn på fattigdom eller rigdom? Andre ”miljøer” kunne være undergrundsmiljøer, subkulturer, indvandrermiljø, akademisk / bogligt miljø mm.
Tid: Hvilken tid beskriver teksten? Er der oplysninger som peger på en bestemt tidsperiode?
Tema: Beskriv tekstens hovedtema(er), dvs. overordnede emner, som teksten drejer sig om. Man kan sige, at temaet er det emne som ligger ”bag ved” handlingen. Temaet er ikke direkte til stede i teksten, men er et resultat af læserens fortolkning. Temaet er noget alment, som drejer sig om menneskets grundvilkår. Hvis man har læst en tekst, f.eks. ”Irene Holm” af Herman Bang – og får spørgsmålet ”Hvad handler den om?”, kan man svare på to måder. Man kan sige, at den handler om en enlig danselærerinde, der rejser fra landsby til landsby for at undervise i dans. Med dette svar har man givet en præsentation af handlingen. Man kan også svare, at den handler om en kvindes kamp med sin ungdoms traumer. Dette svar drejer sig om temaet. Det vil ofte være nødvendigt at arbejde grundigt med en tekst før man bestemmer temaet, derfor kan det være en god idé at gemme dette punkt til slut i analysen. Vær opmærksom på, at der kan forekomme flere temaer i en tekst.
Symboler: Er der elementer i teksten som kan / skal forstås symbolsk, dvs. som et billede på noget andet?
Nøglepassager: Er der sætninger i teksten, som er særligt vigtige med henblik på f.eks. karakterisering af en person eller bestemmelse af tekstens problematik?
Ledemotiver: Er der ledemotiver i teksten? (Ord, replikker, situationer der gentages igen og igen, og som fører til tekstens idé).
Titel: Ligger der en særlig hensigt eller pointe i titlen på teksten?
Slutning: Slutningen på en tekst har ofte en særlig betydning. Hvorfor har forfatteren valgt netop denne slutning?
Forfatterhensigt / holdning: Hvad vil forfatteren med sin tekst? Hvilken holdning giver han / hun (evt. indirekte) udtryk for?
Fremstillingsmåde /sprog: Hvad kendetegner forfatterens måde at skrive på? Er der meget beskrivelse, er der handlingsbetonet beretning eller scenisk fremstilling (med bl.a. replikker)? Er der mange af bestemte typer ord (f.eks. mange tillægsord)? Er teksten skrevet i nutid eller datid? Er der tidsskift undervejs? Lange eller korte sætninger? Ældre eller nutidigt sprog? Brug af billedsprog? (Se modellen til digtanalyse under billedsprog) Andet karakteristisk som du lægger mærke til ved skrivemåden? Hvilken virkning har det?
Perspektivering: Perspektivering betyder at sætte teksten ind i en større sammenhæng. Man kan f.eks. sammenligne den med andre tekster af forfatteren eller andre tekster indenfor samme genre. Man kan placere teksten i den periode den er skrevet i, og vise hvordan perioden afspejler sig i teksten. Man kan også sammenligne med andre tekster med samme emne.
Modtager: Herunder kan f.eks. undersøges: Hvem er den ideelle modtager (læser) af teksten? Hvad kan vedkommende evt. få ud af at læse teksten? Hvem er den / de faktiske læsere af teksten? Hvordan blev teksten modtaget, da den udkom – af læsere / anmeldere? Hvor mange eksemplarer er novellesamlingen eller romanen blevet solgt i?
Vurdering: Din egen mening om teksten. Begrund hvorfor du finder teksten god eller dårlig, interessant eller uinteressant.
NB! Husk altid når du analyserer at henvise til teksten som belæg for det du siger, enten ved side og linjer eller ved at sige / skrive, at det du har analyseret frem / beskrevet kan ses i den og den replik, tanke, handling, situation o lign.

ANALYSE: en ”skille-ad-proces”, en iagttagelse af enkeltdele i teksten.
FORTOLKNING: en ”samle-igen-proces” for at få en helhedsforståelse ud af enkeltdelene.…...

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