Anatomy and Physiology

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Submitted By clairebear27
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Unit 303, Outcome 2, Skin & Hair

The skin is the largest organ of the body, with a total area of about 20 square feet. The skin protects us from microbes and the elements, helps regulate body temperature, and permits the sensations of touch, heat, and cold.

Skin has three layers:

* The epidermis, the outermost layer of skin, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone. * The dermis, beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands. * The deeper subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is made of fat and connective tissue.

The skin’s colour is created by special cells called melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin. Melanocytes are located in the epidermis.

Functions of the Skin
The main functions of the skin include:

* Protection of the human body * Sensation i.e. transmitting to the brain information about surroundings * Temperature regulation * Immunity i.e. the role of the skin within the immune system * Enables movement and growth without injury * Excretion from the body of certain types of waste materials * Endocrine function e.g. re. Vitamin D Function of the Skin | Example(s) | How does the skin perform this function?
What is/are the mechanism(s) ? | 1. Protection | Of the body from: * ultraviolet (UV) radiation e.g. sun damage * dehydration * microorganisms
e.g. bacterial invasion * mechanical trauma / physical injuries | * The physical/mechanical barrier formed by the surface (stratum corneum layer) of the skin. * Mechanical strength of the tissues that form the skin. * Keratin - a type of protein that is found in the skin. * Melanin - a dark-coloured light-sensitive pigment that is found in the skin and that protects against excessive amounts of…...

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