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Ancient Roman Institutions

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La política, tal como la conocemos hoy; discursos, campañas electorales etc, tiene como muchos otros aspectos de nuestra cultura occidental, una base en la de la antigua Roma. La historia romana se puede dividir en tres etapas, la monarquía, la república y el periodo imperial.

A lo largo de este tiempo la política sufrió cambios. En un principio roma estaba gobernada por reyes , este cargo no era hereditario pero si vitalicio, de esta época vienen las distinciones de clases (patricios, clase ecuestre plebeyos y esclavos) el senado, los magistrados.

Mas tarde cambiaria a un sistema republicano, donde se abolieron muchas desigualdades entre plebeyos y patricios.

Y después a el llamado sistema imperial que no era mas que una dictadura camuflada que termino por consumirse a si misma. Después roma sería dividida en dos; imperio de oriente y de occidente. El primero aguantara hasta el fin de la edad media, pero el de occidente caerá pasto de los barbaros invasores del norte que se repartirán las tierras e iniciaran el sistema feudal acabando con la edad antigua y comenzando con la edad media.

La República
La desigualdad generó el primer cambio político, el paso de la monarquía a la república. En esta etapadesaparece la figura del rey, y el poder recae sobre el senado.
La Constitución de la República romana reposaba sobre el equilibrio de 3 órganos políticos que se controlan mutuamente y que se crean para evitar la restauración del poder personal: * Los magistrados: poder monárquico * El Senado: poder aristocrático. * La Asamblea del pueblo: poder democrático
Durante esta etapa aparecen los Censores en el 435 a.C. que se encargaban de clasificar a los ciudadanos por medio del Censo, llevado hasta entonces por los Cónsules. Son elegidos cada 5 años entre los antiguos Cónsules y permanecen en el cargo 18 meses como máximo. Convocan al Senado, cuidan las costumbres, proceden a las adjudicaciones y a la ceremonia de purificación quinquenal o lustrum.

Los patricios eran un grupo dentro de la nobleza romana. Era un grado hereditario y solo reconocido por padre patricio. Tienen el monopolio de los cargos políticos y religiosos.

La plebe son todos los ciudadanos no patricios. En el 494 a.C. hay una crisis social debido a la lucha por el acceso a los cargos públicos por parte de la plebe. Se marchan de la ciudad y forma su propia asamblea, el concilium plebis, con sus propios magistrados. Nombran 2 Tribunos de la plebe en el 493 para defender los intereses plebeyos contra la opresión del patriciado. Son asistidos por 2 Ediles. Los patricios ceden y aceptan la incorporación de los tribunos de la plebe en las magistraturas. En el 471 aumentan a 5 y en el 457 son 10 tribunos.

Los patricios no podían ser Tribunos de la plebe. Los Tribunos de la plebe juran defender la lex sacrata para defender a la plebe. Poseen el ius intercessionis, el derecho de veto, contra todos los magistrados cum imperium salvo el Dictador, creado en el Estado de Excepción.
Cónsules designa a un Dictador, elegido entre los antiguos Cónsules con una duración de 6 meses, con plenos poderes, como un rey. Los poderes de los otros magistrados quedan suspendidos, excepto los Tribunos de la Plebe.
El Dictador elige un Maestro de Caballería, magíster equitum, como Jefe del Estado Mayor. Tras el 202 el Senado no pedirá más designación de Dictadores y se limitará a reforzar temporalmente los poderes de los Cónsules.
Los magistrados después del cargo se les envía a gobernar una Provincia con el título de Procónsules o Propretores. En el 52 a.C. la Lex Pompeia impone un plazo de 5 años entre la magistratura y la promagistratura.
Durante esta época y debido a numerosas guerras, roma se extendió por el mediterráneo, ocupando los actuales territorios de España, Francia,
El imperio
Años más tarde, y tras una serie de crisis, se formaron dos triunviratos consecutivos, i del segundo salió el primer emperador de Roma Octavio Augusto. Durante este periodo decayó el poder del senado y de los magistrados a favor de la figura del emperador, que acaparaba todos los cargos hasta el punto de que llegó a ser tratado de forma divinizada

El régimen instaurado por Octavio reposa sobre dos derechos: * La concentración de todos los poderes en un solo hombre: el Príncipe. * La creación de nuevos órganos por él.

En realidad se podría considerar la restauración del poder monárquico pero que intenta conservar las formas de la república.

De la época republicana sobreviven las Magistraturas aunque empiezan a perder poder a favor del emperador. El Emperador

Debe ser elegido por el Senado. El nombre personal del Emperador queda encuadrado por los títulos Imperator Caesar Augustus. Tiene derecho a 12 lictores, lleva la corona de laurel y la toga praetexta y el paludamentum o manto militar.

Los poderes de los que disfrutaba el Emperador eran: * Poderes políticos: * Tiene el poder legislativo y judicial * Interviene en las elecciones * Nombra a los funcionarios * Acuña moneda * Asume los encargos extranjeros * Recluta el Senado * * Poderes militares: Tiene el mando de las armas * Poderes financieros: no distinguen su fortuna personal con la de la administración * Poderes religiosos: Sumo Pontífice, Emperador y Jefe de la religión nacional.

Asi pues El principado era en la práctica el sistema político imperial diseñado por Augusto que se mantuvo en lo esencial a lo largo de más de 400 años a través de auténticas dinastías familiares.

Pero aunque el modelo institucional del Alto Imperio demostró gran eficacia, la inestabilidad que se vivió durante el Bajo Imperio obligó a reforzar la autoridad del emperador (Dominado) y esto determinó algunos cambios en las Instituciones del Bajo Imperio.

La vida política estaba bien considerada en Roma, y había una carrera política específica que se tardaba mucho el llevar a cabo, esta recibía el nombre de cursus honorum.

EL CURSUS HONORUM:
La carrera política durante la República Romana recibía el nombre de cursus honorum y siguió existiendo durante el imperio, sobre todo para la administración de las provincias dependientes del Senado. El cursus honorum establecía el orden y la jerarquía por la que se regían las magistraturas romanas, así como el modo de cumplirlas. Dicha carrera quedó regulada en el año 180 a. C. por un decreto que estipulaba su ordenación de menor a mayor rango y la edad mínima para desempeñar cada uno de los cargos.
El cursus honorum solía desarrollarse según las siguientes fases: * Vigintivirato: 20 funciones de iniciación para jóvenes, encargados de colaborar y formarse en algunas funciones importantes para la República: derechos civil (10: stlitibus iudicandis) y penal (3: kapitales), emisión de moneda (3: monetales) y obras públicas, sobre todo calzadas (4: viarum curandarum). * Cuestura: Tesorero, encargado de las finanzas y de pagar a los ejércitos; en las provincias están subordinados al gobernador. * * Tribunado: Estar al mando de unidades del ejército o ser tribuno de la plebe. * * Edilidad: Funciones sobre todo urbanas, de orden público, distribución de alimentos, etc. Frente a la plebeya, la edilidad curul la desempeñan sólo los senadores de origen patricio.

* Pretura: Funciones relacionadas sobre todo con la administración de justicia. Los ex-pretores podían gobernar provincias menores y obtener el mando de legiones.

* Consulado: equivalentes a jefes del estado. Había dos cónsules anuales: ordinarii u ordinarios, que daban nombre al año, y sustitutos o suffecti, encargados de presidir las sesiones del Senado, la política exterior y de comandar los ejércitos en batalla.

* Censura: Magistrados (eran dos) elegidos cada cinco años de entre los senadores que habían desempeñado el consulado, aunque sólo ejercían los primeros 18 meses, encardados de revisar la lista de ciudadanos y senadores y de controlar las cuentas del estado, promoviendo nuevos proyectos de obras públicas, como templos, acueductos o calzadas. Al terminar sus 18 meses efectivos de mando realizaban una ceremonia pública de purificación de la Urbs, llamana lustrum. Durante el Imperio sólo la ejercieron los emperadores, algunos con carácter perpetuo.

* Dictador: Cargo extraordinario que se ejercía sólo en tiempos difíciles, amenaza externa o desordenes internos. Uno de los dos consules era elegido y duraba tres meses en el cargo, durante ese período de tiempo tenia mando militar y civil absoluto para reestablecer el orden. Una vez cumplido ese lapso de tiempo, debía abandonar el cargo, si los problemas continuaban se nombra a un nuevo Dictator. No se podía ejercer dos veces en la vida ese cargo extraordinario

LA IMPORTANCIA DEL EJÉRCITO EN LA POLITICA:

El ejército, sobre todo durante la época imperial tuvo una gran importancia política, hasta el punto de que llegó a ser más importante ola carrera militar que el cursus honorum. Los generales, al fin al del imperio, eran los que controlaban el poder político de Roma, lo que tuvo como consecuencia una corta duración del cargo de los emperadores y un debilitamiento del poder de estos

El ejercito también tuvo importancia durante la república, de hecho, los que tenían el poder principal eran los cónsules, que eran los que poseían la potestad militar, el imperium. El primero en acumular todos los caros fue el general Julio Cesar, que se proclamo dictator del imperio, y aunque no llegó a ser emperador, se le considera por muchos historiadores, el precursor del Imperio.

Durante el periodo republicano, los generales también tuvieron bastante poder, si bien no tanto como en las épocas posteriores. Se conoce de generales , que durante épocas de crisis, como la revuelta de Espartaco,consiguieron cargos similares a los de el emperador. Fue el debilitamiento del ejército y la falta de conquistas las que de hecho provocaron la caída del imperio romano.

Bibliografía:

www.wikipedia.es www.encarta.com www.roma.it www.ministero_di_cultura.it Enciclopedia Larousse latin 4 eso cultura clásica 3 eso historia 2 eso
ARTORIUS (CESAR VIDAL)
POMPONIO FLATO…...

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