Ap Bio

In: Science

Submitted By junee617
Words 336
Pages 2
a. 1. redox reactions means the transfer of electrons . In a redox reaction, the loss of electrons from one substance is called oxidation, and the addition of electrons to another substance is known as reduction.

In photosynthesis, the reaction is

Water is split, and electrons are transferred along with hydrogen ions from the water to carbon dioxide, reducing it to sugar.
Because the electrons increase in potential energy as they move from water(H-O bond) to sugar(C-H bond), this process requires energy—in other words is endergonic. This energy boost is provided by light.

In cellular respiration, the summary equation is 
Glucose loss electrons and become oxidized, oxygen get electrons and become reduced, so this reaction is redox reaction.
In cellular respiration, C-H bond are broken and release energy as the electrons from hydrogen form H-O bonds in water, so this reaction is endergonic.

according to the second law of thermodynamics------every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe, which also can be understood that during every energy transfer or transformation, some energy becomes unavailable to do work, like heat.

we use this equation to show energy transfer or tranformation,ΔG means The change in free energy; ΔH symbolizes the change in the system’s total energy; ΔS is the change in the system’s entropy; and T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin (K) units. When ΔG is negative, mean the reaction can happen spontaneously, release energy; if posivitive, need energy input.

autotrophs capture Light energy by photosynthesis, energy transformed from light energy into chemical energy stored in organic molecules like sugar, some is lost as heat when chlorophyll’s electrons go back to its ground state from exited state. ΔG is positive, andΔS is negative, thus entropy is decreased.
In cellular…...

Similar Documents

Ap Bio Ecology Take Home Yesy

...James Shin Per 7b/8 Ecology Take Home Test 1) In the given info, there were two groups, an experimental and control group of flowers and sagebrush in a desert landscape that were identical except that the experimental group had a fence enclosed around it. Also, there was a predation relationship between the wildflowers and the kangaroo rats because the kangaroo rats eat wildflowers. Assuming that the fence was limiting the space of the experimental plot, competitive exclusion caused the extinction of the 4 other wild flowers. To begin, there was some interspecific competition, which happens when individuals of different species compete for a resource that limits their survival, between the 5 flower species in the experimental plot because they had their space limited to the fence that they were enclosed in. this competition was a density dependent factor in that the death rate rose when population density in the plot rose. Also, some of the specie’s ecological niches (like what nutrients they needed and how many branches would form) would have had to been the same or else they could coexist together. Then, one of the species of wildflower might have had a reproductive advantage like thorns to repel the kangaroo rats which would have allowed them to prosper and the other species to die out. This is the principle of competitive exclusion. On a tangent, the kangaroo rats would have learned to stay away from the wildflower with thorns by classical conditioning because they...

Words: 6385 - Pages: 26

Bios

...Video Summary BIOS One of the most common uses of Flash memory is for the basic input/out put system of you computer, commonly known as the BIOS. The BIOS makes sure all other chips, hard drives, ports and CPU function together. BIOS is the first program that is activated during the boot, running on ROM, ready only memory. Start up BIOS activates the POST bootstrap loader which runs POST. POST checks the basic system hardware testing memory and assigning system resources. Startup BIOS also check the CMOS, comparing them to the hardware found during POST. CMOS setting are stored in the RAM ( Random Access Memory) and are not permanent as BIOS setting are and can be changed by the user. BOIS and CMOS are different they are stored on different chips. BIOS are stored in ROM and CMOS are stored in RAM. BIOS are permanent, while CMOS are volatile, it can be erased if the power goes off. BIOS cannot be edited by users. CMOS can be edited by users, configuration can be saved. CMOS setting are not lost because of the CMOS battery, providing power during shutdown. Preserves CMOS configuration stored in RAM. If the battery dies the symptoms would be low battery= slow clock, dead battery which means checksum error during boot. The system will reboot once you clear the checksum error. After POST is complete and the CMOS are checked, the BIOS check the MBR (Master Boot Record), which is located on the first sector on the hard drive. MBR finds the activate partition and loads the......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Ap for Alam

...AP for ATLAM Summary Termination of Mr. Lim A. Not rational to terminate Lim  A loss for ATLAM once the SAP is successful to be implemented Negative impact to members Suggestion: seminar by an expert in SAP system cost constraints impractical to Atlam better integrate operational data match the group reporting system or Implementation of  SAP 1. SAP's Cost Type of cost Non- financial costs Financial costs Should implement as its benefits is more than costs. Needs to ensure SAP system runs smoothly and efficiently. ATLAM Train & prepare the Malaysians for the Maritime industry Wholly owned by MICT Berhad Privatized on 1 Jan 1997 Vision: Leader in maritime education & training Mission: facilitate valued added learning via a conducive environment & provide excellent services to its clients Single user system 1981 - 2001 used to enter debit & credit SAP system link with PETRA's system to match with group reporting structure B. Conclusion Implementation of SAP benefit > cost Termination of Mr. Lim is unethical 3. Staff Resistance Resistance to change is a normal response. Lim as user representative refuse to accept the implementation of SAP system because of the higher cost of implementation that he voice up in the meeting Lim showed aggression and anger towards Zulkifli in meeting as signs and symptoms of an adverse reaction to change Staff resistance can be one of the factors of failure in implementing new system Example : Gopal as User......

Words: 481 - Pages: 2

Bios

...November 2013 BIOS: The BIOS is software which is stored on the motherboard. It tells the computer how to perform a number of basic functions such as booting and keyboard control. It is also used to identify and configure the hardware in a computer such as hard drive, floppy drive, optical drive, CPU, memory and so on. CMOS: The complementary metal oxide semiconductor is the type of semiconductor chip on the motherboard which stores the system information and computer settings such as date, time, hard drive settings, boot sequence, parallel part settings, on-base audio and video etc. Firmware: Firmware is a combination of software and hardware. Computer chips that have data or programs recorded on them are firmware. POST: The POST or power on self test is a test the computer does when it first boots up. Its to verify all the hardware is working. If all checks out it usually gives a single beep. If not a beep code could come up. Beep Code: A beep code is an audible code which is generated during the POST (Power On Self Test) when the BIOS has an issue but has not made it all the way up the boot sequence that it can give you the error as a message on the monitor BIOS update: Updating the BIOS can fix or enhance aspects of a computers performance. Or it may provide support for newly installed hardware. 1 Flash BIOS update: A BIOS chip that is capable of being written to by software or code. Older BIOS chips required that the chip be replaced. But with the flash BIOS......

Words: 357 - Pages: 2

Aps Presentation

...INDIAN AVIATION INDUSTRY CURRENT CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES COVENTRY UNIVERSITY LONDON CAMPUS APS-PROFESSIONAL AND ACADEMIC SKILLS ASSIGNMENT 4 NAME: VINITHA R STUDENT ID: 5216846 COURSE: MBA Global Business DATE: 28/02/2014 SUBJECT: APSLON EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Aviation plays a vital role in nation’s economic growth. This is an industry which consistently contributes the growth of GDP and provides employment massively. In this study I have found out the challenges faced by the industry and the opportunities raised on aviation industry. INTRODUCTION: The aviation industry in India has the rapid growth in the world with private airline acquiring more than domestic aviation. There are huge annual growth rate of airport and airstrips along with the domestic aviation .The Government have offered many steps in order to develop the growth of the industry players. The Government aim is to change the industry to more equality and investment of social atomosphere.The government added a lot of new airports and converted Morden airports for the country. It also improved the policies which provide eventual opportunities. In the aviation Industry there are also severe challenges faced by the air carriers in order to survive in the marketing industry. Though there are a lot of new entrants entered the industry they were unable to compete and eventually withdrawn them from the industry. They also met......

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

Bios

...08 Fall 08 Fall BIOS – Instructor: Mrs. Nicholas – NT1110 – 1 May 2014 Lavon Hawkins BIOS SUMMARY Lavon Hawkins BIOS SUMMARY BIOS BIOS: The BIOS is software which is stored on the motherboard. It tells the computer how to perform a number of basic functions such as booting and keyboard control. It is also used to identify and configure the hardware in a computer such as hard drive, floppy drive, optical drive, CPU, memory and so on. CMOS: The complementary metal oxide semiconductor is the type of semiconductor chip on the motherboard which stores the system information and computer settings such as date, time, hard drive settings, boot sequence, parallel part settings, on-base audio and video etc. Firmware: Firmware is a combination of software and hardware. Computer chips that have data or programs recorded on them are firmware. POST: The POST or power on self-test is a test the computer does when it first boots up. It’s to verify all the hardware is working. If all checks out it usually gives a single beep. If not a beep code could come up. Beep Code: A beep code is an audible code which is generated during the POST (Power On Self Test) when the BIOS has an issue but has not made it all the way up the boot sequence that it can give you the error as a message on the monitor BIOS update: Updating the BIOS can fix or enhance aspects of a computers performance. Or it may provide support for newly installed hardware. 1 Flash BIOS update: A BIOS chip that is......

Words: 355 - Pages: 2

Ap Psychology

...for the survey to be handed out. When permission was granted, two classes were given the survey to fill out. Before officially handing out the surveys, an explanation was given that the results would be completely confidential and that if anyone did not want to participate they did not have to. The students were asked to be completely honest in filling the survey out. No student declined to take the survey. The students were asked to give their GPA, how many parents they live with, and the gender of the one parent (if only living with one) they had. To see the survey that was given, refer to Appendix A. After everyone was finished, the surveys were collected and the participants were debriefed. It was explained that a research project for AP Psychology class was being conducted. Results In Figure 1, students’ average GPA and number of parents are shown. GPA is on the y-axis and number of parents on the x-axis. The lines are straight across and GPA is also. The outliers did not affect the graph because there weren’t any that existed. There is no positive or negative correlation. There is a gap between the two variables because there was also a gap in the average grade point average from students. Discussion The data collected did not support the researchers’ hypothesis. Some students with a low GPA had two parents and some students with a high GPA had one parent. There was no correlation between having one parent and a low GPA or having two parents and high GPA. The data......

Words: 1650 - Pages: 7

Ap Rubric

...|AP English Language and Composition 9-point Rubric | | |9 |Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for 8 papers and, in addition, are especially full or apt in their analysis or demonstrate | | |particularly impressive control of language. | |8 |Essays earning a score of 8 effectively respond to the prompt. They refer to the passage explicitly or implicitly and explain the function of | | |specific strategies. Their prose demonstrates an ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not flawless. | |7 |Essays earning a score of 7 fit the description of 6 essays but provide a more complete analysis or demonstrate a more mature prose style. | |6 |Essays earning a score of 6 adequately respond to the prompt. They refer to the passage, explicitly or implicitly, but their discussion is more | | |limited. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is clear. | |5 |Essays earning a score of 5 analyze the strategies, but they may provide uneven or inconsistent analysis. They may treat the prompt in a | | |superficial way or demonstrate a limited understanding of the prompt. While the writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, it usually | | ...

Words: 374 - Pages: 2

Ap Literature

...CynthiaF September 6, 2015 AP Literature Summer Reading Assignment 2015 Introduction- “How’d he do that?” * Memory affects the reading of literature because it helps you make connections and recognize patterns. Patterns in turn, can reveal hidden meaning and truths in the test. If something is mentioned frequently then it is probably of some importance. That piece of information is probably vital to understanding the literature. Symbols show what the text cannot and they help guide you to a more complete understanding of the literature. * The recognition of patterns help make it easier to read complicated literature because they help recognize the relationships between ideas. In advanced literature all of the ideas are mixed in a more complex way so if you are used to looking for patterns while reading it will help ease the complexity * While reading this book I noticed that the author uses a pattern of introducing mysteries that kept my attention. Irving kept my attention because he left the mysteries unsolved until the end He didn’t develop the plot directly. The pattern he uses is a pattern of suspense. For example he spent all of Chapter 1 explaining several unimportant stories and then at the end he finally tells the story of the baseball. Chapter 1- “Every Trip is a Quest” * Our quester: John A place to go: A stated reason to go there: He wants to figure out who is father is Challenges and trials: Owen kills John’s mother before she......

Words: 638 - Pages: 3

Bios

...Nonvolatile BIOS memory - CMOS [pic] CMOS Battery in a Pico ITX motherboard Non-volatile BIOS memory refers to the memory on a personal computer motherboard containing BIOS settings and sometimes the code used to initialize the computer and load the operating system. The non-volatile memory was historically called CMOS RAM or just CMOS because it traditionally used a low-power CMOS memory chip (the Motorola MC146818, or one of its higher-capacity clones), which was powered by a small battery when the system power was off. The term remains in wide use in this context, but has also grown into a misnomer. The non-volatile BIOS storage in contemporary computers might be in an EEPROM or flash memory chip and not in a volatile CMOS RAM. In these cases, the battery back-up is meant to keep the RTC chip synchronized. The NVRAM normally has a storage capacity of 512 Bytes, which is enough for all BIOS-settings. CMOS mismatch CMOS mismatch errors typically occur if the computer's power-on self-test program: 1. Finds a device that is not recorded in the CMOS. 2. Does not find a device that is recorded in the CMOS. 3. Finds a device that has different settings than those recorded for it in CMOS. 4. Detects a CMOS checksum error. [1] [2] CMOS battery [pic] Type CR2032 button cell, most common CMOS battery. The memory and real-time clock are generally powered by a CR2032 lithium coin cell. These cells last two to ten years, depending on the type of......

Words: 11993 - Pages: 48

Ap Government

...| | | AP U.S. Govt-Blue Days 2015 Sun | Mon | Tue | Wed | Thu | Fri | Sat | | | 1 | 2*Unit I Exam*Timed Writing | 3 | 4*Chp 6 Due/Quiz*Review Editorial CE | 5 | 6 | 7*No School | 8 | 9*Editorial CE Due*Chp 10 Due/Quiz | 10*Unit I Make-up & Corrections Due | 11*Unit II Exam*Timed Writing | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15*Chp 8 Due/Quiz | 16 | 17*Chp 9 Due/Quiz | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21*Unit III Exam*Timed Writing | 22*Unit II Make-up & Corrections Due | 23*Chp 7 Due/Quiz | 24 | 25*Homecoming-Be Safe-Be Smart-Have Fun | 26 | 27 | 28*Chp 13 Due/Quiz | 29*Unit III Make-up & Corrections Due | 30*Unit IV Exam*Timed Writing | | | | | | | | | | | September AP U.S. Govt-Blue Days 2015 Sun | Mon | Tue | Wed | Thu | Fri | Sat | | | | | 1 | 2*Chp 16 Due/Quiz*Review Pol Toon CE | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6*Pol Toon CE Due*Review Court Cases | 7*Quiz Drop & Corrections Due | 8*Unit V Exam-grade goes on next 9 Weeks*Unit IV Make-up & Corrections Due | 9*End of Grading Period | 10 | 11**both chp 11 and 12 quizzes must be taken prior to your leaving for Fall Break | 12*Chp 11 Due/Quiz | 13 | 14PSAT Day-Schedule TBD | 15*Chp 12 Due/Quiz*Unit V Make-up & Corrections Due | 16*Fall Break | 17 | 18 | 19*Fall Break | 20 | 21*CE Due*Unit VI Exam*Timed Writing | 22 | 23*Chp 15 Due/Quiz | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27*Unit VII Exam*Timed Writing | 28 | 29*Chp 17 Due/Quiz | 30*Unit VI Make-up & Corrections Due | 31 | | | | | | | | October AP U.S.......

Words: 625 - Pages: 3

Bios

...BIOS 255 Lymphatic System Assignment Student: ________________________________ Date:____________________________________ 1.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  thoracic duct B.  right lymphatic duct C.  cysterna chyli D.  lumbar trunk E.  bronchomediastinal trunk   2.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  stomach B.  spleen C.  pancreas D.  liver E.  thymus   3.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  uvula B.  palatine tonsil C.  pharyngeal tonsil D.  lingual tonsil E.  thymus   4.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  thoracic nodes B.  iliac nodes C.  cervical nodes D.  axillary nodes E.  mediastinal nodes   5.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  thoracic nodes B.  inguinal nodes C.  cervical nodes D.  cysterna chyli E.  mediastinal nodes   6. Which cell type transforms into plasma cells under the influence of cytokines?  A. T-Helper cells B. Antigen presenting cells C. Cytotoxic T-cells D. B-cells   7. What cell type is stimulated by Helper T-cells?  A. B-cell B. Antigen presenting cell C. Cytotoxic T-cell D. Macrophage   8.  Lymph is similar to blood plasma, but very low in   A.  protein. B.  carbon dioxide. C.  metabolic waste. D.  electrolytes. E.  sodium and potassium.   9.  _____________ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the _______________.   A.  Lymphatic trunks; collecting ducts B. ......

Words: 917 - Pages: 4

Ap Bio Chapter 48 Answers

...AP Biology Reading Guide Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw Chapter 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Name _______________________ Period ___________ Chapter 48: Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Concept 48.1 Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer 1. What is a neuron? 2. Neurons can be placed into three groups, based on their location and function. Type of Neuron Function Transmit information from a sense receptor to the brain or spinal cord sensory neurons Integrate information within brain or spinal cord; connect sensory and motor neurons; located entirely within the CNS interneurons Transmit information from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland; Cause muscle contraction or gland secretion motor neurons 3. Neurons are the nerve cells that transfer information within the body. Which division of the nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord? The central nervous system 4. This sketch shows two neurons. Label the following elements of this figure: cell body, dendrites, axon, synapse, presynaptic cell, postsynaptic cell, synaptic vesicles, synaptic terminal, and neurotransmitter. axin synapse presynapse cell dendrites vesticles synapse postsynapse 5. What is shown in the box above? What do the red spheres represent? Chemical signal Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. -1- AP Biology Reading Guide Fred and Theresa......

Words: 1995 - Pages: 8

Bios

...Introduction To sum of the differences between ROM RAM BIOS and Post I will simply define the basis of each component while defining what they do. ROM is short for (Read-only Memory) Memory which data is prerecorded on a computer. ROM is simply data that cannot be eliminated even when the computer is off. When working in ROM it is difficult or nearly impossible to change. BIOS is short for the acronym (Basic Input Output System) it is a program which stores detailed information and enable the computer to boot. In addition a ROM chip located on the motherboard, it lets you access the basic setup and ensures that the BIOS will readily be available and will not de damaged by disk failures. RAM is (Random Access Memory) Memory that can be access randomly memory that can be access without touching preceding bytes. RAM is the typical memory found in most computers or printers. In addition, RAM is a volatile memory that requires power to keep information accessible. If power is lost, then memory can be lost. Lastly Post is the self-test which is activated by Bios. The post is designed to run checks on the motherboard. It necessary to use ROM for the BIOS because the ROM retains information on the computer even while shut down whereas RAM does not. Whenever a computer is being use the information is being stored on the RAM if the is ever a power shortage or the computer lose power the information is lost. RAM does not store memory when there is no power. POST beep codes make...

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Cps & Aps

...CPS & APS Laura Davis Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Patricia Kneabe 06-06-2012 CPS & APS Is CPS & APS too involved in minor situations of abuse? How do we know when abuse is minor? Is there any abuse that is considered minor? These questions and more have come to my attention recently and I have been doing my research to gain a better understanding of what these organizations are all about and how they are run. I believe that there are certain times when these organizations did not do what they should have done to prevent or protect those being abused. I also feel that there are too many restrictions on parents today and these organizations are being too harsh in certain situations and not harsh enough in others. Both of these organizations run along the same lines when it comes to abuse of individuals. They are just broken down into child and adult departments. The Child Protective Services department handles any case of abuse with an individual under the age of 18. After reading several CPS websites from different states, the general guideline is that anyone who notices abuse of a child has the obligation to report it to the authorities so they can investigate. The same goes for the APS, the general guideline is about the same when it comes to abuse of adults. With the adults, the criteria is that the individual must be at least 18 years of age and mentally or physically incapable of defending themselves against the abuser. These are just the......

Words: 1670 - Pages: 7