Ap Biology

In: Science

Submitted By dixie1993
Words 1649
Pages 7
Izabella Zamiatala
Period: 5th
November 27th, 2012
AP Biology : Chapter 15
Review Questions 1. Cells are equipped with controls that govern gene expression; that is, which gene products appear, when, and what amounts. When control mechanisms come into play depends on cell type, on prevailing chemical conditions, and on signals from other cell types that can change a target cell’s activities. Cells of complex organisms inherit the same genes, yet most become specialized in composition, structure, and function. This process of cell differentiation arises when different populations of cells activate and suppress their genes in highly selective, unique ways.

2. By negative control, regulatory proteins slow down or curtail gene activity. By positive control, regulatory proteins promote or enhance gene activities. Control is exerted through chemical modifications that inactivate or activate specific gene regions or the histone proteins that organize the DNA. For instance, regions of newly replicated DNA can be shut down by methylation, the attachment of methyl group to nucleotide bases.

3. A. Repressor protein: protein that binds with an operator on bacterial DNA to block transcription. A special regulating protein formed in bacterial cells that halt transcription, which is the synthesis of messenger ribonucleic acid (m-RNA) from a specific operon (a group of genes that carry out the synthesis of functionally related enzymes). The number of different repressors corresponds to the number of operons.
Activator protein: regulatory protein that enhances a cell activity (e.g., a radiolarian or heliozoan). For instance: CAP – this activator exerts positive control over the lactose operon by making a promoter more inviting the RNA polymerase.

B. Promotor: base sequences that signal the start of a gene. Operator: a binding site for a…...

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