Autism Spectrum Disorder

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By shukriabdullahi
Words 1195
Pages 5
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

Autism spectrum disorder is a really interesting disorder to learn. In 2012, approximately 1 in 88 child in the United States was diagnosed with Autism by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. This is a tremendous increase compared to the reporting’s in the 1980’s; it was reported as 1 in 10,0000. ASD’s are a “spectrum disorders”, which means it affects each person in distinctive ways, and can also range from mild to severe circumstances.
This disorder is a group of developmental disabilities that cause a great social, interaction and ways someone responses to challenges. Therefore these people with similar characteristics handle cognitive information in a different way than other people. Since the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder differ on each individual. Children with ASD fall into three categories such as; social defacement, hard time with communicating, and rhythmic behaviors.
Social difficulties are common with all ASD disorder. Social impairment has an effect on a child’s everyday life. For example, a child will not be able to respond to parent or others by 1 year of age. The child might like solitary better and not play with others, has facial expressions that are improper, does not know the difference of personal boundaries and also may have trouble understanding about their own feelings etc.
Let’s say that a typical child starts to understand and learn things as they interact with people around them, whether peers or family members. Infant’s way of interacting is by looking at people in the eye and start focusing on their facial reactions, gestures and copying words and actions. They learn to clap and interact with adults quickly. But a child with Autism syndrome disorder can’t figure out and has a hard time with interacting and figuring out gestures…...

Similar Documents

Autism Spectrum Disorder

...needed more helpers; meaning we had to participate. The children within the program vary in disorders with the majority of the kids diagnosed with either Down Syndrome or Autism Spectrum Disorder. Seven years later, I am still assistant coaching and more than ever I want to learn more about the disorder. After learning that “as many as 1 in 110 people have autism, which is more common in guys than in girls” (Teenshealth) I wanted to learn a little bit more about the disorder that is becoming so common in today’s society. Autism has many different characteristics which helps identify the disorder but unfortunately where the disorder is from is still unknown. However, with constant research and with the information that is known treatments are being introduced to those who are diagnosed with Autism. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke “Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD) is a range of complex neurodevelopment disorders, characterized by social impairments, communication difficulties, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Autistic disorder, sometimes called autism or classical ASD, is the most severe form of ASD, while other conditions along the spectrum include a milder form known as Asperger syndrome, the rare condition called Rett syndrome, and childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (usually referred to as PDD-NOS). ASD varies significantly in......

Words: 2299 - Pages: 10

Aaid Autism Multiple Disorders

...AAID Autism Multiple Disorders Rose Francis November 27, 2012 SPE 226 There are many different kinds of developmental disabilities. The American Association On Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities create an outline of what is to be considered an intellectual disability. Their intellect has to considerably limit their ability to properly express the appropriate social behavior while also limiting their adaptive skills within the community and interaction with others. The disability has to be identified before the person is of the age of 18. It also There are also different approaches which should be looked into when classifying a person with intellectual disabilities. Medical professionals have to rate the imparity on a scale indicating if it is mild, moderate, severe, or profound. Without these classifications the proper educational support plan cannot be put into place. The classification also helps with what kind of support the individual will need at home outside of the school setting. About 10% of children in the United States between the ages of 6 through 21 have some kind of intellectual disabilities label. The characteristics which are considered to be intellectually disabled would be having memory or learning deficiencies, troubles with memory recall, or apply abstract thought. These students also have trouble controlling their behavior also known as self-regulation. Their adaptive skills are also hard to apply to real life situations being able......

Words: 1185 - Pages: 5

Autism

...COMPLETING THE PUZZLE Completing the Puzzle of Autism Spectrum Disorder Abstract Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) most commonly known as Autism is a neurological disorder that affects the normal brain function. It is a disorder characterized by deficits in three major areas of behavior-social, communicative and the display of repetitive or restricted behaviors. This research paper will provide a review of people with autism spectrum disorders, including the symptoms, diagnosis criteria, and possible causes. In addition, it will describe with how it has impacted the society, families and themselves. Completing the Puzzle of Autism Spectrum Disorder Can you imagine trying to understand what your parents or peers are saying but you don’t really know what the words mean? Sometimes this can make a child very upset and frustrated just because they can’t come up with the right words to express his or her feelings or thoughts. These kids with special needs try to live their lives by learning to handle stuff that are challenging and annoying for them. People with autism can make a significant contribution to society, as well as to their families. However, having autism is generally difficult for the person themselves and their family, it also involves great financial sacrifice. What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) most commonly known as “Autism” is a neurological disorder that has an effect on normal brain......

Words: 1743 - Pages: 7

Autism Spectrum, Aspergers Focus*Presentation Notes

...What is it? The Autism Spectrum Disorder (A.S.D.). Consists of 5 main criteria. The first 2 are so rare that they are often not spoken of. These two are Rhett's Syndrome and Childhood Disintegrantive Disorders. Rhett's is only found in females, like all autism is caused by a random genetic mutation. It isn't till they reach 18 months that their development slows down. Their heads stop growing normally. They don't develop normal speech and exhibit strange breathing breathing patterns and unusual breathing problems. They suffer from seizures, rigid muscles, growth retardation and other problems life expectancy is around 40 years.  With C.D.D. this mainly effects males. The child is normally ok till around 42 months, when suddenly they experience a dramatic loss of language and social skills. Loss of bladder control and seizures may also result. Children with this disorder are very very low in intelligence and this is the easiest on the spectrum to diagnose Classic autism). Autism Disorder. This is the most severe kind of autism- remembering that Rhett's and C.D.D. are very rare. It is characterised by social impairments. Communication difficulties, restricted and particular patterns of behaviour. The most classic sign is impaired social interactions. A person with A.D. may be unresponsive to people or focus intently on a single item. They find it difficult to follow what people are saying or thinking as they can't pick up social cues, such as body language and tone of voice....

Words: 4711 - Pages: 19

Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children

...AUTISTIC SPECTRUM 1 Autistic Spectrum Disorder Clinton T. Ashe Professor: Dr. Janice Spagenburg February18, 2013 AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS 2 Autism Spectrum Disorders Autism is a disorder that use to affect an estimated 3.4 out of every 1,000 children ages 3-10. And now research suggests that autism now affects 1 out of 110 children. These types of Disorders can cause disruption in families and unfulfilled lives for many children who have this disorder. Autism Spectrum Disorders range from a severe form which is called autistic disorder to a mild form known as Asperger syndrome. The risk for this disorder is higher for males than females. In 1942 while working at John Hopkins Hospital, Dr. Leo Kanner conducted a study with a group of 11 children and at the end of the study introduced the label of “early infantile autism” into the English language. During that same time frame and half way around the world, Dr. Hans Asperger described a lesser form of the disorder that became known as “asperger syndrome”. These two disorders have been described and are currently listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as two out of five pervasive developmental disorders and are often referred to as autism......

Words: 995 - Pages: 4

Autism

...LECTURER: SUBMISSION DATE: Introduction It is right to say that autism is a disability and wrong to say that it is a mental disorder. However much people may think that autism appears to be a mental disorder, it is not. Autism occurs when there is a problem in the central nervous system. Autism is only a mental deficiency. Some autism victims clearly communicate and interact with the rest of the community while others need a lifetime of specialist support. It is a spectrum condition which means that while all people with autism share certain difficulties, their condition affect them in different ways. Autism victims experience over- or under-sensitivity to sounds, touch, tastes, smells, light or colors. People with autism are more likely than the general population to have accompanying problems such as dyslexia (difficulty with reading, spelling and/or writing), dyspraxia (severe difficulty with tasks requiring fine motor skills such as drawing or writing) and digestive problems. They are also vulnerable to developing mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Causes of Autism Autism can be caused by a variety of physical factors all of which affect brain development. The abnormal blood vessels functioning in the body causes ineffectual oxidation throughout the nervous system and this causes autism. Genetics is another cause for autism. Evidence suggests that genetic factors generate some form of autism. Combination of genetics from previous generations has......

Words: 2696 - Pages: 11

Behavior Analysis and Autism Spectrum Disorder

...Behavior Analysis and Autism Spectrum Disorder Psychology PS501-03 Dr. Valerie Balldin March 18, 2014 Behavior Analysis and Autism Spectrum Disorder Abstract Autism refers to a group of development brain syndromes, collectively known as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).The term spectrum is a wide range of symptoms, skills, and levels of disability, or impairments that children with ASD can have. Some of the ASD children are insignificantly impaired by their symptoms while others are severe. Behavior Analysis and Autism Spectrum Disorder According to American Psychiatric Association; "Autism is a neuro-development syndrome defined by deficits in social reciprocity and communication, and by unusual restricted, repetitive behaviors.” (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). It is a condition that usually begins at infancy-before or by three years old. Affected children begin by not using words to communicate though they may recite the alphabet and familiar passages. There is a wide variation of the degree in the way autism spectrum affects individuals. Each child with autism has a unique abilities, challenges and symptoms. Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorder: Even though Autism is not a single Disorder; but it is a spectrum of closely related Disorders with a shared core of......

Words: 986 - Pages: 4

Autism

...What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Michelle Murphy Adelphi University Abstract Autism spectrum disorder is the most rapidly growing developmental disorder in the United States, affecting 1 in every 88 children (Autism Speaks, 2012). The 1930s brought about the discovery of this disorder by Dr. Leo Kanner when he studied eleven children who possessed similar qualities that did not coincide with any known psychological disorders. Since Dr. Kanner’s initial research with Autism, many signs that he observed in the children he studied began to be noticed in many more children. The most common sign of Autism is an individual’s inability to communicate and express him or herself in the correct way. Furthermore, a lack of social skills, inability to speak, emotionless attitude, and obsessive behavior when performing certain tasks are common qualities seen amongst people with Autism (Wing, 2001.) These signs vary depending on the type of Autism the individual is diagnosed with. Autism is organized into five subcategories: Asperger’s Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Classic Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Rett’s Syndrome ("Autism community- Autism," 2010). Each of these subcategories help psychologists and researchers to better understand the form of Autism they are dealing with, and as a result provide more effective treatment methods in accordance with the individual’s diagnosis. Although a variety of treatment methods have been established to aid......

Words: 5586 - Pages: 23

Autism Spectrum

...The Influence of Affective Empathy and Autism Spectrum Traits on Empathic Accuracy Marije aan het Rot*, Koen Hogenelst Department of Psychology and School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands Abstract Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by interpersonal deficits and has been associated with limited cognitive empathy, which includes perspective taking, theory of mind, and empathic accuracy (EA). The capacity for affective empathy may also be impaired. In the present study we aimed to determine if EA in normally developing individuals with varying levels of autism spectrum traits is moderated by trait affective empathy. Fifty male and fifty female participants (‘perceivers’) completed the Autism-Spectrum Quotient and the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale to assess autism spectrum traits and trait affective empathy, respectively. EA was assessed using a Dutch-language version of a previously developed task and involved rating the feelings of others (‘targets’) verbally recounting autobiographical emotional events. Targets varied in trait emotional expressivity, assessed using the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire. Perceivers with more autism spectrum traits performed worse on the EA task, particularly when their trait affective empathy was relatively low. Interpersonal deficits in autism spectrum disorder may be partially explained by low cognitive empathy. Further, they might be aggravated by a limited......

Words: 7592 - Pages: 31

Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Tests, Signs, and Symptoms That Aid in Early Intervention Introduction

...Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Tests, Signs, and Symptoms That Aid in Early Intervention Abstract This paper contains information pertaining to Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Throughout this work, I discuss how ASD can cause significant social, communication, and behavior challenges. I identify many signs and symptoms to look for as children are growing. I share research on an investigation into a tilt test and also a study on siblings that are at high and low risk for ASD. My own personal experience as the mother of a child diagnosed with ASD and early childhood educator is discussed in great length. Awareness of the symptoms, special tests, and typical development are mentioned so that a child with ASD can be diagnosed early and receive services to support their learning and success throughout life. Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Tests, Signs, and Symptoms That Aid in Early Intervention Introduction Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a subject close to my heart. My oldest daughter was diagnosed several years ago at about nine years old. She was extremely high functioning with above average language skills throughout her early childhood. Her speech was quite formal for a young child, but this really made her sound intelligent. Having strong language skills made it more difficult to see the delayed social conventions. As a young child, my daughter had difficulty listening to others and allowing for the......

Words: 2408 - Pages: 10

Autism

...Autism Spectrum Disorder PSY/275 October 26, 2015 Sevet Johnson Autism Spectrum Disorder Autistic Disorder is considered a spectrum disorder since its intensity and behavioral characteristics may be manifested differently across diagnosed individuals. Children identified with this disorder often have clinically significant cognitive development delays or delays in the development of age-appropriate adaptive behavior. When a child is born, they should go through a particular process to be able to make sound decisions on their own. A disorder of a similar spectrum can occur when a person’s mind undergoes unfamiliar or irregular mind development. It might happen during early childhood ages like a year old then extend for a lifespan (Doyle & Iland, 2004). Parents to such children can, however, notice these signs as early as before the child’s first birthday. The universal aspects of life like communication, interactions and behaviors notes some changes. A person with this disorder might appear to be a bit antisocial in society as they look physically normal like any other person, except for they have a few behavioral differences (Doyle & Iland, 2004).x Autistic Spectrum as mentioned above is a disorder that comes with a difference in mind development and can affect anyone. People suffering from it tend to act differently towards other people, things and activities in their environments. Since it’s mostly acquired at a young age, a child’s behavior might......

Words: 1397 - Pages: 6

Autism: a Disorder of Conflicting Causes and Treatments

...Autism: A Disorder of Conflicting Causes and Treatments Despite its 50 year-old diagnosis, autism is still one of the mostly commonly contracted and rarely treated childhood diseases. Studies suggest that as many as 1 in 500 children may display autistic symptoms. Manifestations of this disability include the stereotypical physical contortions and hand-flapping motions commonly associated with autism, as well as inability to relate to the outside world, limited social skills, lack of concentration, and hypersensitivity to certain stimuli-particularly noise (1). Perceived causes include poor fetal development, genetics, allergies, and a lack of crucial enzymes. Because for many years the disorder was thought to be a result of poor parenting, only recent studies have begun any attempts to identify the causes of childhood autism. Many diagnosis and potential treatments have been tried only by the parents of autistics; undergoing research is still slow and often under-funded. Eric Courchesne (2), a leading scientist whose studies of the cerebellum have opened a new field of belief for the region's potential functions, suggested that autistics have a marked propensity for cerebellar lesions and Purkinje neuron loss, leading to an inability to "rapidly and accurately" change attention from one focus to another, particularly in the areas of visual and auditory stimuli. Dr. Margaret Bauman, (Dept. of Neurology, Harvard Medical School and a child neurologist at Massachusetts......

Words: 1091 - Pages: 5

Autism

...Two to six children out of every thousand will end up with Autism. Autism is one of the fastest growing disorders with a great amount of studies being put behind it. With its vast amount of different signs and symptoms, different forms, how its treated, and arguments about how exactly the disorder came to be , Austin can very well be one of the most confusing, and researched disorders, for its a disorder that stirs up tons of questions but yet gets hardly any answers. Autism is usually developed between ages of one and three, it effects communication and how the child interacts with others. It is defined by behaviors of the child and “ spectrum disorders” that re different with each person. (About Autism, 2008, para 1). Symptoms of autism can very in many different ways, and even different categories. Take the category of social interaction and relationships symptoms include : non verbal communication development problems such as , eye - to - eye gazing, body language, and facial expressions, failure to make friends with people their own age, lack of interest, and lack of empathy. The category for verbal and non verbal symptoms include : Delay or lack when learning to talk, about forty person of people with autism never speak, problems with starting, and keeping conversations, repetitive use of language, and difficulty understanding what someone is saying. Finally the category of interests and play include : unusual focus on pieces, preoccupation on certain topics, a need for...

Words: 1739 - Pages: 7

Autism

...Literature Review on Autism Literature Review on Autistic Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has become a widespread and familiar disorder in the 21st century. ASD is defined as an impairment of cognitional and emotional functioning. People with ASD will have difficulty interacting socially with their peers, and many struggle with developmental delays such as speech. Autistic children will often be less responsive to their caregivers than children without the disorder. In the research article by Tong &Brereton two important areas of difficulty for children with ASD is the ability to speak clearly, and the lack of skills needed to play and have an imagination (2010). Children with autism are very matter of fact, and rarely understand any metaphors. They may also be ritualistic and have compulsive behaviors. The cause and effect of ASD is still unknown, many researchers believe there are biological and genetic factors that play a role (Tong, Brereton, 2010). Since ASD as a behavioral disorder, can autism be cured? Will children who are diagnosed with the disorder live with the same delays and rituals as they did as a child? After reviewing many journals, I have failed to find any evidence of cures; I have however come across different therapy’s in there preliminary phases. Music and dog therapy are being used across the country. Gold, Wingram and Elefant explain in their article that music helps people who are non-verbal interact without the use of......

Words: 578 - Pages: 3

Autism Spectrum Disorder

...Professor Date Autism Spectrum Disorder All around the world, there are several children and even grow ups that have or suffer from autism. Unfortunately, it is a condition that is not easily detectable especially in children. Most people either do not understand the condition that manifests itself in children or take it for something else all together. For the families that are fortunate enough to identify the condition in children, they at most times have no idea at all on how to handle the child. Most people have misunderstood autism and taken it as insanity in children. It is therefore, necessary to demystify the misinterpretations in most people and make them aware of the condition, and how to handle it when a child is found to be autistic. Autism is a spectrum of closely related conditions or disorders which all have symptoms of a shared core. Every child said to be on the autism spectrum disorder has to some degree problems with communication, social skills, flexible behavior and empathy. However, the degree of disability and symptoms combinations varies enormously from one child to another. Surprisingly, children with the same diagnosis may be very different when it comes to abilities and behaviors. It is vital to note some few facts about autism. Autism is not contagious and is not acquired through environmental contact. It is a neurological disability presumed to be present from birth and apparent before the age of three in a child. Even though, autism is a......

Words: 1535 - Pages: 7