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B Cell Development

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Submitted By ashvyrocks
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1.0 Introduction
Type II hypersensitivity is also known as antibody dependent cytotoxicity. This type of hypersensitivity is caused by antibodies that react with antigens present on cell surfaces or in the extracellular matrix. The antigenic determinants may be intrinsic to the cell membrane or matrix, or they may take the form of an exogenous antigen, such as a drug metabolite, that is adsorbed on a cell surface or matrix. In either case the hypersensitivity reaction results from the binding of antibodies to normal or altered cell surface antigens (Fisher, 2012). The antibody-dependent mechanisms that cause tissue injury and disease are illustrated in the figure below
2.0 Antibody- Dependent Mechanism
The antibody-dependent mechanisms that cause tissue injury and disease are illustrated in the figure below;
2.1: Opsonization and Phagocyctosis
The depletion of cells coated with antibodies is due to phagocytosis. The phagocyte Fc receptor recognizes the IgG antibodies as they are specific for the Fc portions of some IgG subclasses. In the event of IgM or IgG antibodies being deposited on the surfaces of cells, they activate the complement system by the classical pathway. The by-products of the complement activation are C3b and C4b, which are deposited on the surfaces of the cells and recognized by phagocytes that express receptors for these proteins. This results in phagocytosis of the opsonized cells and their destruction .The membrane attack complex is formed by complement activation on cells , this disrupts the cell membrane forming minute holes that eventually lead to the cell being lysed due to the imbalance of osmotic pressure (Kumar, 2012) .
Antibody –dependent cellular cytotoxicity causes antibody- mediated destruction.In this process cells that are coated with low concentrations of IgG antibody are killed by a variety of effector cells, which bind to…...

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