Free Essay

Battle of Little Big Horn

In: Historical Events

Submitted By rcwright13a
Words 3128
Pages 13

On June 25, 1876, the 7th Cavalry Regiment led by LTC George Armstrong Custer, went into the valley of the Little Bighorn. Unknowingly they were walking into the largest number of Indian warriors the world has ever seen. By the end of the day
210 soldiers would lay dead including Custer himself. The Battle of the Little
Bighorn has become the most discussed and most popular battle of the Indian wars.
It marked the greatest, and last, battle the American Indians would have over the
Untied States Army. It was also the most devastating loss the U.S. Army would have in the Westward expansion of the Untied States. The news stunned the nation and led to an endless debate about the facts, strategy and tactics of the battle that continues to the his day.


The Battle of Little Bighorn also known as Custer’s Last Stand. Took place in June 1876, in the little Bighorn Valley of Southeast Montana. The number of Sioux and Cheyenne warriors that the 7th Cavalry Regiment faced was approximately 4,500. The battle showed how the failure to use the Principals of War, Mass and Synchronization, helped cause the most devasting defeat that the U.S. Army ever received during the Indian Wars. And how the use of Mass and Concentration could affect a conflict. The primary resources used Custer’s Last Stand by Peter Panzeri and Custer’s Last Campaign by John S. Gray.

The road to war. In the 1860’s Sioux tribes roamed the great plains of the Dakota

and Wyoming territories. But they were constantly pushed farther to the West, as

expansion of the Untied States continued to grow westward. In 1863, a gold rush in

Montana cut through the heart of the Buffalo grazing lands, lands that the Sioux used to

hunt. Between 1863 and 1866 the United States Army built three forts, Fort Reno, Fort

Kearny and Fort Smith in order to protect the white settlers. At the time the only Native

American Chief ever to defeat the U.S. Army in combat was Chief Red Cloud. He was

able to unite other great Native American leaders, such as Crazy Horse and Rain in the

Face, between 1866 and 1868 the Sioux threatened the three isolated forts. And on 21

December 1866, a contingent of more than 80 soldiers led by CPT William J. Fetterman.

were ambushed and over come by the overwhelming force of Warriors, led by Red

Cloud. By the time the fight was over, CPT Fetterman and 80 of his men were dead.

Around 1870 Chief Red Cloud had retired and chose to live the rest of his life on the great Sioux reservation. The ‘non-treaty’ Indians were in desperate need of

leadership. They found that leadership not in a Chief but in a Medicine man named

Sitting Bull. He preached in total isolation from the Whites, and in a return to cultural

and spiritual practices. As his popularity grew many Indians began leaving the

reservation and joining him in the ‘unceded territory’. The discovery of Gold in the

Black Hills was a point of major concern for the United States government and the

Native Americans because the Black Hills, was located in the center of the Sioux

reservation. The government offered to buy the land from the Sioux, but Sitting Bull and

the rest of the ‘non-treaty’ Indians blocked any deal. The Grant administration decided

to force Sitting Bull and his followers back to the reservation and bring them under

federal control. The U.S. Army was ordered to force the Sioux back to reservation

lands. General Sheridan gave this task to Gen. Terry, commander of the Department of

the Dakota. Gen. Terry divided his department into two columns, Gen. Terry himself

would command the Dakota column and Col. Gibbons would command the Montana

column. LTC Custer was the commander of the 7th Cavalry Regiment as part of the

Dakota column under Terry’s command although the 7th Cavalry was primary an

independent column of their own. The columns were well supported and equipped with

mule trains and steam ships that carried supplies. Indian scouts also traveled with the

units to assist with navigation and intelligence.

While the Gen. Terry was making his plan and preparations for combat, Sitting Bull’s camp was growing larger and larger by the day with tribes of Indians from all over the plains came together. With there many horses and a large village, they had an excellent logistical system in place. They were fighting for the survival of their culture and were extremely motivated.

MISSION: LTC Custer and the 7th Cavalry was to move as a mobile strike force, approaching the Little Bighorn from the South. While the remainder of infantry and the 2nd Cavalry Gibbon would cross the Yellowstone and approach the Little Bighorn from the north blocking any hostile escape in that direction. The 7th Cavalry was to move up the Rosebud, following the trail discovered early. To prevent any possible escape by the Indians. “the department commander places too much confidence in your zeal, energy, and ability to wish to impose upon you precise orders which might hamper your action when nearly in contact with the enemy" this clause virtually gave Custer the free hand to do as he wished. If the 7th Cavalry were to make contact with the enemy Custer was to use his discretion to attack the enemy, are wait until reinforcements arrived.
Equipment: Custer’s 7th CAV was armed with the .45/55 Cal. Springfield Carbine and the .45 revolver, but had no repeating rifles. Each soldier carried a very limited supply of ammunition. Custer also ordered that the Gatling guns be left behind in fear that it would hamper his mobility. Further more he ordered that the Saber be left behind giving his soldiers not last defense weapons. The Sioux and Cheyenne brought over 30 different types of rifles and pistols to the battle. Including repeating rifles, they had large supplies of ammunition and other provisions. To compliment their firearms the Indians carried a variety of bows, arrows, and spears. Custer was clearly out gunned and the advantage was to the Indians.
Terrain: The terrain that the 7th CAV encountered in the Little Bighorn Valley was a large open area that had lines of trees along the river banks. Tall steep bluffs and ravines that stretched east of the river. The Sioux and Cheyenne were camped in the low lying area while Custer and the 7th CAV approached from the bluffs to the east. The Indian warriors were forced to attack uphill but used ravines to effectively infiltrate the 7th Cavalry’s perimeter. Since the 7th CAV held the high ground they had a slight advantage.
Time: Once the Cuter and the 7th CAV engaged the Indian village they new they were in trouble because they underestimated the size of the force they encountered. Since the main elements of the Dakota and Montana columns were at least a hard days ride away there was no way reinforcements could arrive in time. By the time the two columns received word of the size of the force, and that reinforcements were in urgent need it was all over.
Civil Considerations: There was a large population of non-combatant families in Sitting Bull’s camp. The thought was by attacking the families they could destroy the Indians logistical system.

The Battle
On June 22, 1876 Custer and the 7th CAV separated from the Dakota column and proceeded to go down the Rosebud. Custer’s scouts soon picked up an Indians trail, marked by the discovery of large camp sites and sign of many people and horses. The original plan of Gen. Terry was to have Custer and the 7th CAV to go south and then turn towards the Little Bighorn so that Terry and the rest of his column would be able to link up with them in time. Custer decided to deviate from the original plan and proceed directly toward the Little Bighorn. This was a big mistake made buy Custer, as the 7th CAV would know be isolated to fight the Indian force by them selves. Terry’s column had no Indian scouts and had to divert from their intended route due to very rough terrain. Now they would not be in position in time to support Custer’s attack. In the early morning of the 25 June Custer’s scouts spotted smoke in the distance that indicated a large camp about 15 miles away. A messenger was sent to inform Custer with the information of the camp. Custer knew that the Indian warriors would be traveling with non-combatant families and that would slow them down. Custer thought he could use this to his advantage. Custer was also warned by his scouts that they would be extremely out numbered. Custer was not worried about this information he wanted to prevent any Indian escape. When Custer divided his regiment he put CPT Benteen in charge of the lead battalion with companies D, H and K. Major Reno commanded a second battalion of A, G, and M companies. And Custer himself would command the 3rd battalion with E, F, on the left side and CPT Keogh would lead the right side with companies C, I and L. The fourth element consisted of the pack trains with B Company to provide security. Custer’s plan called for a movement to contact with his battalion on the right, Reno would be in the center and Benteen would take the left side. Custer ordered Benteen to scout ahead on the left side. Benteen objected and suggested to Custer that the regiment should remain together, but Custer ignored his suggestion. As Benteen proceeded to the left, Reno’s battalion took the lead. The main force of Custer and Reno continued up the trail and linked up at about 13:20. At 13:40, Benteen’s search of the terrain to the left discovered nothing and he turned back to rejoin the rest of the regiment. At 14:15, Custer and Reno went down the Indian’s trail. At this time the Regiment began to have contact with small bands of fleeing Cheyenne. Custer thought the Indian’s were on the run. At this point Custer ordered Reno to charge forward and fight the Indians whenever he would encounter them, and Custer would follow in support. At 14:45, Reno’s elements reached the Little Bighorn River which they quickly forged and reconsolidated on the other side. It was at this time that Reno first spotted the village. By this time Sitting Bull knew of the soldier’s and began to evacuate the families and other non-combatants. Custer observed this from his position on the bluffs across the river. Reno ordered a charge into the south end of the village. As the Indian warriors rode out, Reno stopped and dismounted his soldiers and formed a skirmish line of less than 100 men. The warriors attacked Reno’s flanks and threatened to envelope them. By 15:30 Reno’s element was in serious trouble. With the Indians encircling him, Reno gave the order to withdraw to the river bank and to take cover in the trees. Custer continued to move up the steep bluffs along the river and for the first time saw that the Indians were in fact not retreating, but were riding out in hundreds to fight. He immediately dispatched a messenger to Benteen with the message which read: “Benteen come on. Big village. Be quick, bring packs. Bring packs”. Custer then continued north trying to find a route down the bluffs to engage the village and draw attention away from Reno. Reno’s battalion reached the riverbank and went into a hasty defense taking cover in the tree line. After holding his position for roughly 20 minutes Reno was again becoming enveloped. Then in a desperation move Reno began to organize his men so they could begin to withdraw. After much confusion Reno told his men to follow him as the began to withdraw. As the warriors continued to attack and purse Reno’s men as they tried to cross the Little Bighorn River and withdraw up the steep bluffs on the east side of the river. Reno began to organize the survivors of his command on a hilltop at about 1610. By now Custer’s battalion had reached the Medicine Tail Coulee, his route down the bluffs, and was beginning to engage the warriors on the bottom of the hill. Most of the Indian warriors halted there pursuit of Reno’s battalion and diverted most of there attention on Custer’s Battalion. After Reno and his men finally made it up the hillside they were able to reconsolidate with Benteen’s Battalion here they waited until the pack trains arrived. At 17:12 Benteen and the remaining soldiers of Reno’s Battalion began to move towards Weir Point in an attempt to link back up with Custer’s battalion. By the time they started to advance Custer and his men was near the end. Custer went into Medicine Tail Coulee towards the village after seeing Reno’s defeat. After reaching the river, E and F companies, the left wing, started to engage in light fighting at this time most of the warriors assisting with the evacuation of the families to the north. Cuter began to move the rest of his Battalion north toward Calhoun Hill. His intention was to capture the non-combatant women and children and destroy their homes and property. Custer thought this was his best chance for victory and to return the Indians back to the reservation lands, by destroy their infustructure. After Custer’s Battalion began to close on Calhoun Hill at 16:30. The warriors had now diverted from Reno and began advancing towards Custer and his men in rapidly growing numbers. Cuter again divided his forces with the left wing going to the north in search of the non-combatants. And the right wing staying at Calhoun Hill to fight the Indians. Custer accompanied the left wing to search for the non-combatants. After a short ride the spotted thousands of non-combatants that had congregated near Squaw Creek. Custer determined he would need additional forces before he would be able to attack. He would have to reorganize so he turned back and took up positions on Custer Hill. The right wing led by CPT Keogh formed a skirmish line at Calhoun Hill. At first they were able to hold their ground against the attacking warriors, but soon more and more began to arrive. The warriors attacked from several directions using ravines as avenues of approach. It was not long before Keogh’s defensive position began to collapse. Warrior charged and engaged Keogh’s men in hand to hand combat. Keogh’s men were cut to pieces with only a few soldiers escaping to Custer’s position. Custer’s left wing also became under pressure from the Indians attack. He watched in disbelief as his entire right wing was destroyed only a mile away from his position. The fight was moving quickly from Calhoun Hill to Custer Hill. Half of Custer’s men were gone with the remainder outnumbered by at least a 20 to 1 advantage by the warriors. Custer ordered his remaining soldiers of his command to shot there horses and use their bodies for cover. His men fought desperately, but Custer’s numbers quickly began to dwindle by Indian firepower. Eventually the victorious warriors overran the hill and finished off Custer’s Battalion. Custer was found dead on top of a horse with bullets in his chest and left temple. From the top of Weir Point, about two miles away, Reno and Benteen had witnessed Custer’s defeat and saw the hostiles begin to turn towards them. They quickly withdrew back towards Reno Hill. The soldiers dug hasty fighting positions and all through the night and the next day the Indians lightly attacked the soldiers on Reno Hill. For unknown reasons the Sitting Bull decided not to destroy the entire 7th Cavalry. That afternoon Sitting Bull broke camp and led his people out of the Little Bighorn Valley. On 27 June, Gen Terry and the Montana Column finally reached the battlefield and according to him, ‘rescued the 7th Cavalry’. Gen Terry order the burial of the dead and all the wounded be evacuated to the steam ship Far West.

Short Term: Sitting Bull’s victory at the Little Bighorn was greatly celebrated by the Indians. Some Indians assumed that they would now be left alone, as some feared that another attack would return to the reservations. The large concentrations of Indians began to dwindle as they went there separate ways. The Army would have to answer the question how could this happen and the large public outrage who wanted revenge. Generals Terry and Crook would continue the campaign to destroy the hostile Indians.
Long Term: The Army launched several well executed winter campaigns and relentlessly pursued Sitting Bull. The U.S. government imposed military rule over the reservations and disarmed all Indian residents. Sitting Bull could no longer count on the agency Indians for support and by 1877 his remaining followers fled north across the border into Canada but were forced to surrender due to starvation.
LTC Custer’s defeat at the Little Bighorn was in large part due to his misuse of the Principle of Mass and his failure to effectively synchronize his unit’s movements and actions. And how Custer’s failure to use the Battlefield Operating System of Intelligence. Custer chose to ignore intelligence reports of a large camp of Indians and neglected to mass his forces and to synchronize their efforts. Even after seeing the large force he was up against he continued to divide his forces. If he had waited for Terry to arrive before attacking his chances for success would have been greatly increased. Custer continually chose to ignore intelligence reports and advice from his scouts and other leaders from his command. Custer led his men into battle with insufficient amounts of ammunition, again ignoring the advice of his subordinate leaders. Custer also ordered his men to leave the Gatling guns behind and his men to leave their Sabers behind, depriving them of a last resort weapon. Sitting Bull showed how the Battlefield Operating System Mobility and the Principal of Mass could be used to overwhelm a superior opponent. His forces used terrain to maneuver around Custer’s flanks and Envelope him. Sitting Bull’ forces also effectively used the Tenants of Versatility and Synchronization to launch attacks. He simply outgunned and outnumbered, and outmatched Custer.
Gray, John S. Custer’s last Campaign. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1991.
Panzeri, Peter. Little Bighorn 1876 Custer’s Last Stand. Great Britain: Osprey Publishing Ltd, 1995.
National Park Service. Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument,…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Battle in Seattle

...such as the protest in Seattle against the WTO and turn it into a completely different story to make it sell. The movie Battle in Seattle is meant to be a story about the protests against the WTO but it doesn’t exactly tell the truth of how the protest actually happened, yes it does follow the story correctly but it is enhanced to make it more seem more appealing to the general population. On November 30, 1999 protesters lined up all over the main streets of Seattle to block the World Trade Organization from having a meeting at the Washington State Convention. They had planned a nonviolent protest against the WTO. They sought nonviolent training “which was a three hour course that combined the history and philosophy of non violence with real life practice through role plays in staying calm in tense situations, using nonviolent tactics, responding to brutality, and making decisions together” (How We Really Shut Down the WTO, Starhawk.). According to the article the police weren’t prepared for nonviolence. They were completely foreign to the thought of a nonviolent protest. I understand as to why they were not prepared for a nonviolent protest. There have been a lot of protests that have turned into riots or have turned violent in the past. It is human nature to prepare for the worst, or even expect the worst. It is natural to prepare for the unexpected in any big event, and I believe that is what the police were doing, however, by preparing so much for the worst they didn’t......

Words: 1054 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Battle of Hastings

...The Battle of Hastings Angelina Minton Professor Chris Sisson – World Culture I June 2, 2013 Abstract The purpose of this paper is to imagine myself as a figure in the Bayeux Tapestry and to write a first- person account in a letter home describing this historical event. In this paper I have described the event in detail and have explained why it was justified for us to raise arms in battle. To My Loving Mother Herleva, Let me start by saying I miss and love you and the family. Things have been very complicated since King Edward died without naming an heir to his throne. Edward's immediate predecessor was to be Harold of Wessex, a wealthy and influential English noble, who was chosen to be king by the Witenagemot of England. However, Harold was challenged by William who demanded that he had been promised the throne by King Edward and that Harold had confirmed this agreement. Harald III of Norway also disputed the succession. His right to the throne was founded on an arrangement between his predecessor Magnus I of Norway, and the earlier King of England Harthacanute, whereby if either died without heirs, the other would inherit both England and Norway. (Wilson, 1985) To add to this confusion Williams and Harald III both began assembling troops and ships for battle. Williams and I spent months preparing our army for battle and we waited for the right time to attack so that William could claim what was rightfully his. Mother you should have seen......

Words: 1053 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...Controls Moving the camera Moving/Panning Mouse Shift + Right click + Drag mouse Keyboard The Arrow Keys (Shift + Arrow Keys will pan slowly) Note: Scroll Speed may be adjusted in the Edit menu under Program Options. Zooming In and Out Mouse Ctrl + Right click + Drag mouse up or down Keyboard Ctrl + Up/Down Arrow Keys Tilt Camera Mouse Alt + Right click + Drag mouse up or down Keyboard Alt + Up/Down Arrow Keys Rotate Camera Mouse Alt + Right click + Drag mouse left or right Keyboard Alt + Right/Left Arrow Keys Keyboard Shortcuts Ctrl + Z Undo last action H Bring up the History dialog Getting Started The Tools General Tools History The Battle Realms™ WorldMaster features a Photoshop-like History feature, brought up with the H key or the Edit menu. This feature tracks every map change as a separate entry, allowing the user to undo and redo every action done during that program session. Note that non-volatile tools, such as Select Vertices, do not store undo/redo information in the History. The History list has a maximum number of entries coupled with a maximum size of memory that it may take up. Once either of these limits is reached, the oldest history is lost. Brush Settings Many of the WorldMaster tools involve using a brush to “paint” a specific attribute onto the terrain. The brushes used for these tools can be customized to suit your needs. To change the......

Words: 3408 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Battle of the Somme

...Keegan- History Short term Significance of the Battle of the Somme The Battle of the Somme was a war planned late in 1915 as a joint French-British attack. The French Commander in Chief, Joffre, conceived the idea as a battle of attrition, the aim being to drain the German forces of reserves, although territorial gain was a secondary aim. However, the German attack Verdun made the Somme offensive even more pressing because the French army was under severe pressure there. The battle of the Somme was fought from the 1st July 1916 until later in same year where on November the 16th it was brought to an end. The massive amount of casualties in this time, as well how the war was fought Is what has made the battle so historic. For example, It’s best known for the mass amounts of soldiers who died and more specifically how they died In such a short space of time and why. The style of warfare was different and more brutal than ever before, for example better technology and large scale operations which seen over 1.7 million shells were fired at the German’s alone and made the war a huge test for the countries involved who relied heavily on individual decisions, as well as man power. The first day of the Somme (1s July 1916) proved to be massively significant due to the sheer numbers of soldiers lost. Up to 60 000 British soldiers became casualties thanks to enemy fire (one third of the British military) British hopes were high going in to battle for the first time. Indeed, the......

Words: 1703 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...should therefore be higher than the current fifteen percent. The recent changes in policies regarding women inclusion in the military still leaves the issue mixed. There still needs more assertion that women should not be seen according to their gender roles. Women are able to and should be allowed to do everything just as men do. However, the big challenge that still exists in feminism is not about equality, it is about the ideals and values. The security of any nation needs the quality that can be given by military forces who are committed and citizens who support them. A significant part of this composition should be women because of the importance they attach to such matters Women have always been at the center of process of liberating Iraq amongst other missions. As of 2004, 16 of them died while undertaking operations in that country. Many others have suffered injuries. This is to show that the love for their country can be as equal as that of men and so should be their involvement. Moral support for all should be encouraged especially during the current economically competitive economy where recruitment and retention levels are a big challenge. Research Design The study will be descriptive in nature and qualitative data will be collected to add to the current knowledge and perception about women in combat. The descriptive design will be concrete in nature and will examine the greater spread of gender in the military over the past years hence pausing questions as to......

Words: 2733 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Little Big Horn

...Christopher Williams History 102: American History Since 1877 April 27, 2014 The battle of Little Big Horn was a very significant battle in American history. Many of the battles in American history show the strength of the American military and the smarts of the leaders at that time. On the contrary, when it comes to the battle of Little Big horn it was one of the few low points in American military history. Even though history will prove that General Custer was one of the best General and leaders to ever lead but this battle is one of the low points of his career. This battle goes to show just how important it is to plan properly and ensure that you follow instruction that are given to you from your superiors. To begin the Battle of Little Bighorn took place at the river in Montana Territory on June 25, 1876. This was the first problem for the American Fighters because they had a very little knowledge of the terrain and the actual skill level of the Indians. Whenever you are a part of anytime of battle it is very important to ensure that you have as much intelligence as possible but that was not the case with General Custer. General Custer felt as though because of his war knowledge and his reputation that this would be another show of force in which him and his men would just run over the Indian and take exactly what they came from. As history shows whenever a military unit is overconfident they tend to become complacent which ultimately lead to failure of the mission...

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

War of Little Big Horn

...courage to even face him on the battle field. With President Davis’ approval, Lee set the army in motion which would ultimately end with an epic 3 day conflict, changing the fabric of the war and the course of American History. On the 3rd of June 1863 the Army of Northern Virginia left there positions near Fredericksburg to begin their long march north. Right from the start the topography of the area played a huge roll in the campaign. In order to screen his movements Lee moved his army west, over the Blue Ridge Mountains and into the Shenandoah Valley. After entering the valley, Lee ordered J.E.B Stuart and his Cavalry to ride along the eastern edge of the army to further help screen his movements. The tactics and lay of the land that Lee utilized was very successful in keeping the Union Army in the dark. While Lee was moving, the Union commander, Joseph Hooker, was waiting. Unsure of Lee’s intentions, Hooker waited to see what would come of the Confederate movements. With his astonishing defeat at the battle of Chancellorsville, Hooker was timid when it came to taking the field against Lee. After a number of proposals to Lincoln, none of which involved attacking Lee head on, the Union war command became so frustrated with Hooker that he was replaced by George Meade as the commander of the Army of the Potomac. With a late start to the game, the Union army began a brutal, fast paced march northward to catch Lee. As important as the impending battle would prove to......

Words: 1581 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

The Battle of Little Big Horn

...Aubrey Waddle 1/27/15 United States History Since 1877 HIST-1302 4020 1 The Battle of Little Big Horn The eye witness accounts in America Firsthand show that the battle was indeed a massacre. Not one in the sense that there was an excess of mutilations and carnage, but that the U.S. Army participating in the battle were destroyed with little effort from the Indian forces. One Bull makes this clear in his account when he says, “I went with Sitting Bull and volunteered to go help kill these soldiers but Sitting Bull said no. So we watched the fight from a hill.” Sitting Bull did not feel the need to help the other Indian warriors in killing the remaining soldiers. Also, in Charles DeRudio’s account, DeRudio’s continual narrow escapes from the Indian warriors and the defeat that led to his adventure with the Pvt. O’Neill show that the American Army never had a chance. The U.S. Army was attempting to push the Indians that had fled their reserve back onto the reserve. The Indians had left because the whites refused to respect and stay away from their tribal lands in the Black Hills. The reason that the word ‘’massacre” fits what happened at Little Big Horn is mainly because the U.S. army was overall greatly outnumbered. In fact, General Custer’s scouts had estimated there were roughly 2500 to 5000 Indians in the village Custer had chosen to attack. Custer ignored these high estimates and figured there were only about 1000 Indians which could have easily been overcome by...

Words: 608 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Trial by Battle

...Christian Hampton Julie Mell Medieval History Section 5 19 March 2015 Trial by Battle In the early 12th century the practice of settling disputes, arguments, and legal trials through means of battle is not only customary but considered divine in its own right. The Christian’s support of this form of justice is not only used to settle the trial of Ganelon, but also fuels the passion of Christian’s against the Muslim army. The belief that God will lead the righteous to victory mirrors the “superstitious” mentality of feudal judicial practices, in “Song of Roland” this is shown on a much larger scale. Trial by battle began as a practice that settled feuds or disagreements between individuals, the crusades incorporated this feudal practice into the frame of international conquest. Emphasis on more admirable values also meshed into the “crusading mentality”, one value in particular, the importance of personal loyalty to one’s lord, is what causes kings and peasants alike to have an undying loyalty to their God. Loyalty to God is demonstrated by Charlemagne, characterized through the epic as a divine king who receives visions, in the form of dreams, from God and is guarded by the angel St. Gabriel. What’s interesting is the symbolism of Charlemagne’s and his most faithful knight Roland’s, swords. The swords draw a connection between feudal duty and service and religion. Roland’s Durendal has relics from various saints and the Virgin Mary, Charlemagne’s Joyeuse holds the...

Words: 812 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...unfairly based on your gender, race or background at the end of the day.  Is that fair?  Well my fellow people that is the society in which we live in. DO you want to change it cause I do, but I feel in order to change it we should start off with where we come from. I am a Malaysian and I would like to fight for the equality of opportunities and income in South East Asia. I would first like to bring attention to equal opportunities, I fight for equal opportunities because it means that everyone has a fair chance to succeed in society in material of their status , gender or race .The key in creating equal opportunities is EDUCATION.  Education is key because in South East Asia there are only THREE economically develop country.. why so little to the lack in emphasise of education. In order to tackle this problem we need to inform,invest,implement. Due to majority of the South East Asian country being Less economic develop we should inform the citizens the importance of education and how education is vital to achieving a better future, the government and the society should invest in building infrastructures for education and invest in scholarship Programs such as Kasana which we have here in school and the governments should implement compulsory education. The government should also push for higher education, as the enrolment rate of secondary education in Malaysia is 50% and only 38% in Myanmar. A higher level of education will allow high quality jobs, which will......

Words: 550 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Little Big Horn

...THE BATTLE OF THE LITTLE BIGHORN (causes and effects) Susan Adams Morgan History 4414-XTIA October 3, 2015 Dr. Mickey Crews Troy University The Battle of the Little Bighorn On a hot dusty June 25th day in 1876, one of the most famous battles in American history would take place along a four-mile stretch of the Little Bighorn River in the Black Hills in southeastern Montana. This battle was also known as Custer’s Last Stand by the American people and the Native Americans knew the battle as the Battle of Greasy Grass. There are many different reasons that this one battle was so famous. It is because it would be the last great battle that the Native Americans would win and it would be the last great battle that George Armstrong Custer would lose. Why did this battle even have to take place? The area where this battle took place was in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Exactly why were the Black Hills of South Dakota so important to the United States that they would violate the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 and sacrifice so many lives for? The principal antagonists were the Seventh Regiment of Cavalry of the United States Army which was under the command of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer, and a number of nomadic Indian tribes—Cheyenne, Sans Arcs, Miniconjoux Sioux, Oglala Sioux, Blackfeet, and Hunkpapa Sioux—under the general direction of Sioux Chief Sitting Bull, at least for the duration of the battle[i]. The United......

Words: 4891 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

A Little Princess

...A Little Princess (1995) I chose the movie ‘A Little Princess’ because it showed the perseverance of a little girl during her darkest times. She was faced with a disastrous situation, yet it did not change who she was, a kind and gentle person. Synopsis The movie takes place during World War 1. The main protagonist, Sara Crewe, is a fun-loving and kind hearted little girl who loved to hear stories. She grew up in India but was later enrolled in a seminary for girls in New York when her father, Captain Crew, decided to fight for British in WW1. He was quite wealthy and made sure that Sara would not have any sort of discomfort. Many other students liked Sara and her exciting stories, while others grew jealous over her popularity. The seminary’s headmistress, Miss Minchin, is very intolerant and narrow-minded. One day Sara gets the news that her father died in the battle and all his wealth and estate is seized by the government. Miss Minchin forces Sara to be a servant along with the other servant girl, Becky. Sara still continues being who she was. When taunted by her headmistress, she firmly said she believed that ‘every girl is a princess’. In the end, we find out that Sara’s father didn’t die but had severe amnesia and temporary blindness. When he regained his memory, he came for Sara. Miss Minchin got kicked out off the seminary and became a chimney sweep, working under a boy whom she mistreated in the past. Topic I am interested in learning about social inequality......

Words: 481 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Battle of the Bulge

...Battle of the Bulge There have been so many different battles that have been fought in our history. One battle that really stands out to me is Battle of the Bulge. This battle began December of 1944. It took place in different regions throughout Belgium, France, and Luxembourg on the Western Front. During these attacks it formed a bulge, which gave them the name Battle of the Bulge. This battle attacked all different allies. The Americans however took the biggest blow during this battle. I selected this battle because I found it to be very interesting. The Germans had a lot of planning that went into this battle. More importantly I chose this because it was the largest battle the United States Army fought in during this time and has gone down in history. A little bit of background to this battle is that again it was fought in December of 1944. As stated by Citin0 “ Saturday morning it was Americans turn to be living a nightmare as 8,000 artillery rounds, from nimble 81mm mortars to 16 inch railway guns brought the Ghost Front to horrifying life with the first shots of what would be called the Battle of the Bulge.” (Cintrino, 2014) Adolf Hitler was trying to split allied forces in the Northwest. As you may know the Americans were caught off guard with this push so they fought desperately not to lose any ground. As the Germans pushed forward this caused a large bulge, which gives you the name of this battle. This battle at first caught everyone for surprise. However Hitler......

Words: 2047 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay


...The iDeal Reader Henry David Thoreau, ‘‘The Battle of the Ants’’ © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2000 Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862), transcendentalist essayist, naturalist, editor, and social critic, was born David Henry Thoreau in Concord, Massachusetts. Thoreau graduated from Harvard University and taught briefly at a school in Concord but resigned rather than be expected to strike his students. He ran his own school from 1838 to 1841, teaching Latin, Greek, and science. In 1938 Thoreau also began lecturing, which he continued intermittently, often emphasizing his strong opposition to slavery, but his message was not always well received. Thoreau began his lifelong friendship with Ralph Waldo Emerson when he tutored Emerson’s brother William in 1843 on Staten Island, boarding with Emerson and his wife. He helped Emerson edit the Transcendentalist magazine The Dial. Thoreau kept a journal at Emerson’s urging, which aided him in his writing. He took a canoe trip with his brother John during the first two weeks of September 1839, which experience he transformed into a volume of poems and essays entitled A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers (1849). While he published 1000 copies himself, only about 300 sold. On July 4, 1845 Thoreau moved into a cabin on the shores of Walden Pond, on land belonging to Emerson, about two miles from Concord, and lived there alone for over two years. Thoreau condensed this outdoor life as if it were a single year in......

Words: 1884 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Battle of Gettysburg

... Day 1: July 1, 1863 On the morning of July 1, Maj General Heth, of Lt General A.P. Hill’s Third Corps, sent his 7,500-man division down the Chambersburg Pike toward Gettysburg. Encountering resistance, they initially assumed it was more of the Pennsylvania Emergency Militia that they’d been skirmishing with during the campaign. In reality, Colonel John Buford had deployed part of two brigades of Union cavalry as skirmishers in the brush along Willoughby’s Run three miles west of town. Two weeks prior, they were issued breech-loading carbines, and they used the guns’ fast-loading capability to create the impression of a much larger force and were able to slow the advance of Hill’s brigades for a time before they fell back. The Confederates followed them across the stream, only to meet a line of Union infantry on McPherson’s Ridge. The Army of the Potomac was slowly arriving unit by unit, and among the first to arrive was Union Maj Gen Reynolds, commander of the left wing of the Army of the Potomac (I, III and XI corps), assessing the engagement and took charge of the defense. His men fought tenaciously, and Reynolds was shot dead during the fighting. When Maj Gen Meade arrived, he set up his headquarters at Taneytown, and dispatched Maj Gen W. S. Hancock to take command at Gettysburg and assess whether or not the battle should be......

Words: 1840 - Pages: 8