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»Beyond Addiction: Hierarchy and Other Ways of Getting Strategy Done«

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Seminarska naloga pri predmetu
ORGANIZACIJA IN MANAGEMENT

Analiza in vrednotenje članka »Beyond addiction: Hierarchy and other ways of getting strategy done«

Kazalo UVOD 1 1. KRATEK POVZETEK ČLANKA 2 2. ANALIZA ČLANKA 3 2.1. Predstavitev teme in glavnega raziskovalnega vprašanja 3 2.2. Namen in cilji članka 3 2.3. Opis znanstvenega in strokovnega področja 4 2.4. Opredelitev glavnih pojmov 5 2.5. Opis predvidene povezave med pojmi 5 2.6. Analiza metode/načina podajanja 6 2.7. Analiza rezultatov 6 2.8. Glavni prispevki članka 6 3. VREDNOTENJE 7 3.1. Praktična uporabnost 8 3.2. Novosti ki jih članek prinaša 8 Sklep 9 Literatura in viri 10

Kazalo tabel Tabela 1.: Razmerje med hierarhijo in odgovornostjo……………………………………………………………...4
Tabela2.: Prehod od vertikalne organizacije k horizontalni integraciji……………………………………….6

UVOD
Seminarska naloga temelji na analizi in vrednotenju članka » Beyond addiction: Hierarchy and other ways of getting strategy done«, katerega avtorji so Miguel Pina e Cunha, Armenio Rego in Stewart Clegg, ki je bil objavljen v European Management Journalu leta 2011. Temo članka lahko umestimo in povežemo z vsebino pri predavanjih predmeta Management in organizacija in sicer pod temo Vpliv ciljev in strategije na organizacijo.
Namen seminarske naloge je globje predstaviti temo s predavanj na podlagi članka.
Cilj seminarske naloge je podrobnejša analiza in vrednotenje članka ter povezava s sorodnimi članki na to temo.
Seminarska naloga je razdeljena na tri dele. V prvem delu bom na kratko povzel ključne dele članka. V drugem delu sledi analiza članka, katero bom razčlenil na nekaj podpoglavji, kot je glavno raziskovalno vprašanje, namen in cilji, raziskovalna hipoteza, poskušal ugotoviti doprinos itd. Ter v tretjem delu sledi vrednotenje članka in poglobitev, kjer bom poskušal biti čim bolj kritičen, se vanj poglobil in ga primerjal in razširil s sorodnimi članki. Ter na koncu sledi še sklep seminarske naloge.

1. KRATEK POVZETEK ČLANKA
Članek z naslovom »Beyond addiction: Hierarchy and other ways of getting strategy done« nam predstavlja oblike in načine organizacijske strukture za uspešno strateško upravljanje in uveljavitev strategije za dosego ciljev organizacije.
Po raziskavah objavljenih v Harvard Business Review (July-August 2010) je bilo ugotovljenih in navedenih nekaj dejstev o strategiji upravljanja. Ugotovili so, da številni zaposleni niso mogli oz. znali navesti organizacijske strukture svojega podjetja, da zaposleni kateri so sodelovali pri razvoju strategije imajo veliko bolj pozitiven odnos kot tisti ki niso. Ter za naš članek pomembnejši dejstvi, da strategija še vedno prihaja iz vrha in da lahko le ta duši izvedbo. Večina podjetij oz. njihovo vodstvo se še vedno drži tega hierarhičnega modela. Vrh oblikuje strategijo in delegira navzdol naloge za izvršitev in ravno tu nastaja v današnjem hitro se spreminjajočem se okolju problem v premajhni povezanosti med oblikovanjem in uresničevanjem strategije.
Hierarhija je običajno predstavljena kot prava organizacijska struktura skozi katero podjetja dosegajo strateške cilje. Skozi članek so skušali avtorji prikazati in analizirati strateški proces odločanja in delegiranja v podjetjih. Skušali so prikazati kako lahko podjetja dosežejo cilje in ustrezno strategijo skozi pravilno strukturo organizacije. Poleg hierarhičnega modela kjer je način podajanja usmeritev strogo z vrha navzdol in je značilna za stabilno okolje poznamo tudi druge alternativne oblike, kjer se moč in usmerjanje ne prenaša toliko iz vrha ampak je pomembnejše sodelovanje med ključnimi akterji. Katerih skupna moč presega vodstveno elito. Ti trije načini so 1. Porozni hierarhični način, kjer vodstvo prenese del moči za oblikovanje in informiranje na dno rganizacije; 2. Porazdeljen način, kjer vodstvo nima direktnega vpliva, ampak raje indirektno vpliva na izvedbo; 3. Strategijo preprostih pravil, značilna za en sam ponavljajoči se proces, kjer se strategija razvije na osnovo minimalne strukture, katera omogoča strateško interakcijo in preprečuje hierarhični nadzor ki duši prilagajanje.
Zato se avtorjem članka in konec koncev tudi nam poraja vprašanje ali je mogoče oblikovati uspešno in složno ne-hierarhično strategijo, ki ne potrebuje delegiranja z vrha navzdol?

2. ANALIZA ČLANKA
Članek Beyond addiction: Hierarchy and other ways of getting strategy done je izšel v European Management Journal leta 2011 v številki 29 in je delo treh avtorjev: Miguel Pina e Cunha, Armenio Rego in Stewart Clegg., ki so strokovnjaki različnih področji v povezavi z organizacijo.
Miguel Pina e Cunha: Profesor na Nova School of Business in Economics v Lizboni. Diplomiral in doktoriral je na univerzi Tilburg. Svoje raziskave objavlja v revijah kot so Academy of management Review, Human Relations, Journal of Management Studies, Journal of World Busines,… V svojih raziskavah se ukvarja z pozitivnimi in negativnimi posledicami organiziranja, pojavu procesov v organizacijah kot so improvizacija in presenečanja.
Armenio Rego: Docent na Universidade de Aveiro. Doktoriral je iz ISCTE in objavlja v revijah kot so An international Review, Creativity Research Journal, Journal of Business Ethics, itd. Svoja raziskave usmerja v raziskovanje pozitivnega organizacijskega vedenja.
Stewart Clegg: Raziskovalni profesor na University of Technology v Sydneju in direktor centra za raziskovanje študij managementa in organizacije v Nova School of Business and Economisc. Svoje raziskave vodi na področju moči in terorizacije.
2.1. Predstavitev teme in glavnega raziskovalnega vprašanja
Tema preučevanega članka je prikazati, primerjati hierarhično strukturo organizacije ter druge alternativne oblike organizacijske strukture za oblikovanje in doseganje strategije.
Glavna vprašanja na katera avtorji skušajo najti odgovor so: Ali je mogoče razviti uspešno strategijo v odsotnosti hierarhične strukture oz. čim manjšemu direktnemu delegiranju z vrha top-dawn pristopa? Ali obstajajo alternative tradicionalnemu hierarhičnemu pogledu oblikovanja strategije? Bode te alternativne strategije premostile vrzel med oblikovanjem in izvedbo strategije?
2.2. Namen in cilji članka
Avtorji članka želijo bralcu prikazati različne načine delegiranja in opolnomočenja zaposlenih. Prikazati pomen hierarhije in njenih alternativ v oblikovanju in izvedbi strategije v organizaciji. Od tradicionalnega hierarhičnega modela, kjer velja stroga hierarhija, delegiranje in kontroliranje navzdol, šibka odgovornost in je značilna za počasi spreminjajoče se gospodarstvo do strategije preprostih pravil, za katero je značilno zelo nizka hierarhična razdelitev, zelo visoka odgovornost zaposlenih akterjev, opazen je psihološki vpliv pripadnosti in svoboda s preprostimi pravili, je zelo fleksibilna, v hitro spreminjajočem nestabilnem gospodarstvu. V članku sta prikazani se dve vmesni strategiji (porozna in porazdelitvena). Vse štiri pa se oblikujejo v odvisnosti med poudarkom na hierarhiji in poudarkom na odgovornosti, kar je tudi glavno vodilo članka. Kar lepo prikazuje tudi spodnja tabela.
Tabela 1.: Razmerje med hierarhijo in odgovornostjo

Vir: Beyond addiction: Hierarchy and other ways of getting strategy done
Cilj članka je, seznaniti bralca, prikazati praktičnost teorij in opozoriti na posledice. Managerji s pomočjo navedenega v članku ustvarijo kompetence in nove poglede na strukturo organizacije s katero bodo oblikovali in izvedli strategijo v organizaciji in poskusili doseči konkurenčno prednost.
2.3. Opis znanstvenega in strokovnega področja
Članek uvrščamo v strokovno področje managemnta in organizacije natančneje v področje vpliva ciljev in strategije na organizacijo. Zaradi hitro spreminjajočega okolja so vodilni prisiljeni iskati in se prilagajati vključno s svojo organizacijsko strukturo. Odločati se morajo na podlagi širšega in ožjega okolja. Soočajo se z vprašanji koliko opolnomočiti svoje zaposlene, v koliki meri delegirati, voditi in kontrolirati. Pri tem pa je potrebno vedeti, da ni vsaka struktura dobra za vsako podjetje, saj ima vsaka svoje prednosti in slabosti. Zato je naloga managerjev najti optimalno strukturo za dosego strateških ciljev. Problem nastane ko se podjetja niso možna prilagoditi vsem spremembam, ki jih gospodarstvo prinaša. Največji razlog je večinoma v strukturi organizacije.
Organizacijska struktura mora omogočati organizaciji hitro prilagajanje spremembam v okolju. Če sprememb ni veliko, so organizacijske strukture bolj trdne in stabilne, ter nasprotno, če so spremembe velike in hitre, mora biti organizacijska struktura bolj fleksibilna in se mora prilagajati spremembam.
Avtorji v članku opisujejo, da je večina podjetij, ki jih v članku tudi omenjajo, tako uspešna ravno zaradi svoje organizacijske strukture, zato je potrebno izoblikovati najboljšo za dano organizacijo.
2.4. Opredelitev glavnih pojmov
V članku se srečamo s številnimi pojmi. Večinoma so nam vsi že dobro poznani. Zato bom posebej izpostavil le nekaj najpomembnejših.
Organizacijska struktura: Po definiciji dr. Bogdana Lipičnika je organizacijska struktura formalni sistem razčlenitve in razporeditve delnih nalog po izvrševalcih in organizacijska ureditev njihovih medsebojnih odnosov v celotni organizaciji (ibid. str.412) To pomeni da organizacijske strukture oblikujejo naloge, nosilce nalog ter njihova medsebojna razmerja.
Hierarhija: Je skupina ljudi, ki del svoje zadolžitve prenaša na svoje sodelavce. Vodja projekta prenese del zadolžitev, odgovornosti in avtoritete navzdol na svoje podrejene, ker ne zmore vsega sam.
Vodenje: Je vplivanje na posameznika ali skupino ljudi v podjetju. Skozi vodenje usmeri posameznika ali skupino, k zastavljenim ciljem podjetja, kar se lahko doseže s pravilnim komuniciranjem, motiviranjem in ne nazadnje tudi vodenjem (Dolžan, 2004).
Porozna hierarhija: Je vrsta strategija, ki je podobna klasični hierarhiji, le da je zasnovana malo drugače. Glavna ideja je ustvarjati pogoje za učenje in napredovanje zaposlenih. Vodje ustvarjajo kulturo izboljševanja v stabilnem okolju.
Porazdeljeni način: Implementacija strategije ni natančno določena, posamezniki nimajo natančno določenih nalog, vodje so karizmatični ljudje, ki so za organizacijo simbolnega pomena, strategija je zelo decentralizirana, stonja fleksibilnosti pa je zelo visoka. Primerna je za podjetja, ki zahtevajo visoko raven strokovnega znanja in ustvarjanja. Bistvo vzdrževanje omrežja in zavarovanje ter izolacija pred okoljem.
Način preprostih pravil: Obstaja celotna slika, ki je nekakšen cilj organizacije, vendar pa ni enovite strategije, saj se le ta spreminja iz dneva v dan. Meje med planiranjem in izvedbo ni mogoče zaznati, saj se združita v proces učenja, preko katerega se strategija razvija.
2.5. Opis predvidene povezave med pojmi
Morda se zdijo nekateri pojmi povsem različni od drugih, toda vsi so med seboj povezani. Vsak izmed zgoraj opisanih načinov prispeva pri pravilni izvedbi za določeno organizacijo v določenem okolju uspešnost. Niso vse strukture primerne za oblikovanje in izvedbo strategij. Organizacija mora sama ugotoviti glede na okolje katera implementacija je najboljša zanjo. Pomaga si lahko s spodnjo tabelo.
Tabela2.: Prehod od vertikalne organizacije k horizontalni integraciji

Vir: Lahovnik, zapiski 2. predavanje
2.6. Analiza metode/načina podajanja
Članek je oblikovan na teoretičnem delu, saj ne vsebuje kvantitativne analize, v njem ni bila izvedena raziskava. Teorijo, ki jo avtorja navajata je podprta s primeri iz prakse. V članku je veliko vprašanj in primerov kjer se lahko bralec poistoveti s tematiko. Takšen način podajanja pri bralcu vzpodbudi dodatno zanimanje in deluje bolj prepričljivo, zanimivo in preverjeno kot teorija ali lastna mnenja o določeni temi.
2.7. Analiza rezultatov
Članek oziroma študija prinaša doprinos k razumevanju oblikovanja strategij in izvedbe v organizacijah z različnimi organizacijskimi strukturami. Katera je najboljša? Odgovor na to vprašanje se zdi sila preprost, vendar ni. Saj je pogojen z notranjim in zunanjim okoljem v katerem se organizacija nahaja. Zato je potrebno upoštevati vse, saj le z uspešno organizacijsko strukturo je organizacija uspešna. Naj si bo klasična hierarhična, ali zaradi vedno hitrejšega spreminjanja okolja njene izpeljanke, ki se ne nanašajo toliko na top-down delegiranje ampak težijo k ne-hierarhičnim oblikam samo-učeče se organizacije.
2.8. Glavni prispevki članka
Članek temelji na teoretičnih prispevkih in napotkih, ki so podprti na primerih iz prakse. Prinaša doprinos k literaturi inovacij in učenja na več načinov. Avtorji podajajo razumljive, praktične in koristne nasvete za boljše razumevanje organizacijske strukture za uspešno oblikovanje in izvedbo strategij.
3. VREDNOTENJE
Članek »Beyond addiction: Hierarchy and other ways of getting strategy done« prikazuje kako podjetja oblikujejo strategijo in izvedbo strategije na podlagi organizacijske strukture. Na organizacijsko strukturo, katera je prava in najboljša obstaja več pogledov. Nekateri zagovarjajo hierarhijo, drugi se je na veliko otepajo in iščejo druge rešitve. Dejstvo je da je zelo pomembno v kakšnem okolju se organizacija nahaja in kakšna je njena dejavnost.
Za poglobitev teme sem pridobil tri članke iz različnih obdobji, s katerimi bom skušal še dodatno razširiti predstavljeno temo. Poglobil jo bom s člankom » A note on the hierarchy – team debate«, ki je izšel leta 1996 v Strategic Management Journalu katerega avtor je A. Georges L. Romme, s člankom iz Dela leta 2005 avtorice Nine Mazi z naslovom »Hierarhična struktura je učinkovita, če jo vsi zaposleni spoštujejo«, ter s člankom avtorjev N.Collier, F.Fishwicka in S. Floyda z naslovom »Managerial Involvement and Perceptions of Strategy Prosecc«. Namen teh člankov je prikazati, kako so v preteklosti gledali na pomembnost organizacijske strukture.
Vsi članki se ukvarjata s podobno problematiko, pri čemer avtorica v Delu podpira hierarhični način, saj meni, da je človek lahko optimalno produktiven v podjetju z ustrezno ureditvijo, strukturo in organizacijo, kjer se vsi zaposleni kar najbolje počutijo, razvijajo, znajdejo in napredujejo.
Lepo opazna problematika med strogo in manj strogo hierarhijo se je porajala že kar nekaj let. Kot je razvidno iz prvega članka »A note on the hierarchy – team debate« so bili akterji že razprti na dve strani. Nekateri so zagovarjali hierarhijo in nasprotovali drugim oblikam in obratno. V članku avtorja A. Georges L.Romme avtor raziskuje ravno to razpravo med zagovorniki organizacijskega učenja, kateri so kritizirali hierarhijo kot oviro za učenje in tiste, ki so zagovarjali hierarhijo, kot nujno potrebno za velike organizacije. Pri upoštevanju hierarhije in ekipe z idealnim informacijskim sistemom navaja da sta obe strani bistvenega pomena za organizacijsko učenje v velikih organizacijah. Poudarja da bodo v bodoče ključne učne enote - ekipe, ki so nujno potrebne za proizvodnjo in razumevanje novih informacij. Trade off med ekipami izvedbe in oblikovanja bo potrebno rešiti oz. zmanjšati s poudarjanjem ideje kroženja in tako se bo organizacija počasi začela razvijati kot učeča se organizacija. Za konec sem se poglobil in dodal še tretji članek, katerega področje in namen je prikazati odnose s strani managerjev. Kot kaže raziskava v članku je veliko bolj pozitivno, če so manegerji globlje vpeti v oblikovanje strategije, saj efektivneje sodelujejo in vidijo proces v ugodnejši luči, kar krepi vizijo in povečuje racionalnost. Po drugi strani pa prinaša tudi slabosti, saj naj bi bili pod vplivom raznih drugih akterjev v top-dawn sistemu in notranje politike ter interne kulture, kar ni nujno dobro, saj začne omejevati organizacijo. Glavna ugotovitev članka je, da se za večino organizacij večje vključevanje nižjih akterjev pozna pozitivno in le ti izboljšujejo proces strategije. Saj boljša je povezanost med vrhom in dnom, boljši so uspehi.
3.1. Praktična uporabnost
Članek je povsem praktično uporaben. Primeren je za vse poklice, tako za vodje na različnih nivojih kot za ljudi splošne izobrazbe. Za poslovni in ne poslovni svet kot tudi za učenje. Njegovo branje je zanimivo in te pritegne. Članek je strokovno napisan, vendar ne pretežko. Lepo predstavi tematiko in pove naravnost kaj je dobro in slabo, ter predstavi na primerih, ne filozofira. Podobnih člankov v poslovnem svetu primanjkuje. Vse preveč je različnih intervjujev, dejstev, teorij, ter nametanih podatkov, ki sami po sebi nimajo večje veljave. Tako da je članek zelo praktično uporaben.
3.2. Novosti ki jih članek prinaša
Članek lepo prikazuje problematiko s katero se srečujejo podjetja pa naj imajo staro hierarhično strukturo organizacije oz. alternativne organizacijske strukture, ter jih lepo vsako posebej predstavi. Pove slabosti in prednosti, ter predstavi naloge vodji za vsako posebej. Ti napotki so koristni za vsako organizacijo.. Zavedati se moramo, da dandanes veliko podjetij eksperimentira in še išče svojo idealno organizacijsko strukturo. Avtorji so lepo predstavili to problematiko in takšnih člankov ni veliko. Tisi, ki so, so zato veliko vredni in bi se po njih morali zgledovati.

Sklep
Avtorji so skozi članek predstavili problematiko oblikovanjem strategije in njenem izvajanju v povezavi z organizacijsko strukturo. Članek prinaša veliko dobrega. Omogoča poglobljen pogled na organizacijske strukture in oblikovanje ter izvedbo strategij.
Članek pokriva področje vpliv ciljev in strategije na organizacijo in skuša prikazati pomembnost imeti pravilno organizacijsko strukturo za uspešno delovanje organizacije. Pokriva teoretični del in nam s posameznimi primeri uspešnih podjetij/oganizacij prikaže in svoje teze tudi potrdi. Članek ni podprt z raziskavami in konkretnimi številkami in nam ne pove točno kaj je za posamezno organizacijo najboljše, vendar poda različne načine in vodi skozi njih. Kaj je za posamezno organizacijo dobro mora sam ugotoviti, preko članka lahko kvečjemu razširi svoj pogled na različne opcije in morebitne rešitve.
Sodobne organizacije vse bolj opuščajo hierarhični in birokratski model organizacijske strukture in prevzemajo bolj fleksibilne oblike, ki omogočajo hitrejše, kakovostnejše prilagajanje poslovnemu okolju.

Literatura in viri
Collier,N.,Fishwick,F.,Floyd,W. (2004). Managerial Involvement and Perceptions of Strategy Process , 37(1) 67-83 Najdeno 3.december 2013 na spletnem naslovu: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024630103001717
Cunha, M.P.e.,Rego, A.,& Clegg,S. (2011). Beyond Addiction: Hierarchy and other Ways of Getting Strategy Done. European Management Journal, 29 (6), 491 – 503.
Daft, R. L.,Murphy, J. &Willmott, H., (2010). Organization Theory and Design (First ed.) Cengage Learning EMEA
Lahovnik., M (2013). Management in organizacija., 2 predavanje Ljubljana: Ekonomska fakulteta
Mazi, N. Delo: Hierarhična struktura je učinkovita, če jo vsi spoštujejo. Najdeno 3.december 2013 na spletnem naslovu: http://www.uspeh.com/mediji/2005_jun_14_organizacijska_struktura.pdf
Romme, G.(1996): A note on the hierarchy – team debate. Najdeno 3.december 2013 na spletnem naslovu: http://www.academia.edu/1518480/A_note_on_the_hierarchy-team_debate…...

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