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Bio Test #2 Review

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fBIOL 3350 Exam 2 Review 1. What is the function of the seminal vesicles? Adds fluid to the ejaculate to propel the sperm forward. The fructose secreted by the seminal vesicles provides the energy for sperm motility. 2. What role does nitric oxide play in erections? It involves increased inflow of blood into the corpora cavernosa due to relaxation of the trabecular smooth muscle that surrounds the sinusoidal spaces and compression of the veins controlling outflow of blood from the venous plexus. 3. What nervous system controls erection? Parasympathetic nervous system 4. What are the major sources of estrogen in premenopausal and menopausal women? Ovaries and adipose tissue 5. What hormones would be used to treat exceptionally tall children by effecting early epiphyseal closure? Estrogen and testosterone 6. What describes herniation of the bladder into the vagina? Cystocele 7. What is testicular torsion and what is it a common consequence of? A Twisting of the spermatic cord that suspends the testis. It is a consequence of cryptorchidism along with infertility and malignancy. 8. What is the most common cause of cancer in males between the ages of 15-35? Testicular cancer 9. What cancer is the most common nonskin cancer in the US affecting men 65 years of age and older? Prostate cancer 10. What condition is characterized by heavy bleeding during and between menstrual cycles? Menometrorrhagia 11. What role does oxytocin and prolactin play in a woman’s body? Secretion of milky by alveolar cells, which are under the influence of the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. Milk ejection from the ductile system occurs in response to the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary. 12. What are the local effects of progesterone on reproductive organs? The glandular development of the lobular and alveolar tissue of the breasts and the cyclic glandular development of the 13. . 14. What hormone(s) are produced after ovulation when the follicle becomes lutinized as the corpus lutium? Estrogen and progesterone 15. What is usually recognized as the leading cause of osteoporosis? Decreased estrogen levels 16. What is a term for benign neoplasms of smooth muscle in the uterus? Leiomyomas 17. What forms when excess fluid collects between the layers of the tunica vaginalis? A hydrocele 18. What is oogenisis? Generation of the primordial ova by mitotic division occurs during fetal life. 19. What is endometriosis? the condition in which functional endometrial tissue is found in ectopic sites outside of the uterus. 20. What hormone surge causes ovulation? LH 21. What are causes of male infertility? Varicocele, ejaculatory dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadotroic, hyogonadism infection, immunologic problems (i.e. antisperm antibodies), obstruction (including wearing tight jeans), and congenital anomalies. 22. What is stored in the ampulla of the vas deferens? Sperm 23. What are common causes of vaginitis in women of childbearing age? Candida albincans, trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis. 24. What structure secretes fluid and serves as a buffer and prolongs the life of spermatozoa once they reach the vagina? Prostate gland 25. What is the role of the fructose in seminal fluid? Sperm mortibility 26. What is the function of inhibin in males? Inhibits FHS production leading to a reduction in spermatogenesis. 27. What microorganism causes candidiasis? Yeast 28. What kind of cells does a Pap smear detect? Cancerous and precancerous cells 29. What hormone is responsible for fluid retention in females during PMS? Increased in aldosterone secretion 30. What is a complication associated with women having chlamydial infections? Pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility or ectopic pregnancy 31. What are the symptoms associated with trichomoniasis? Copious frothy, malodorous (odor), green or yellow discharge. 32. What is a chocolate cyst and where does it form? In the ovary, the endometrial tissue form cysts, endometriomas filled with old blood that resembles chocolate syrup. 33. Define hypospadias. hypospadias is a congenital defect in males In which there is malpositioning of the urethral opening, located on the ventral surfaced in the hyospadias. 34. Describe the functions of testosterone. Differentiation of the male genital tract in fetal development, induction of secondary male sex characteristics and promotion of musculoskeletal growth. 35. Describe the causes of scrotal cancer. Linked to occupation (chimney sweep) poor hygiene and chronic inflammation. 36. Describe testicular torsion? What structures are affected? Risk factors are trauma and strenuous physical activity, twisting of the spermatic cord that suspends the testes. 37. Describe the luteal stage of the menstrual cycle. After ovulation, the follicle collapses, and the lutheal stage of the menstrual cycle begins, the granulose cells are invaded by blood vessels, and yellow lipochromebrearing cells from the theca layer, a rapid accumulation of blood and fluid forms. 38. Factors that increase the risk of tubal pregnancy include? Pelvic inflammatory disease, therapeutic abortion, tubal ligation or reversal and fertility drugs. 39. What is the greatest danger of tubal pregnancy? Tubal rupture 40. Explain the function cremaster muscles and the pampiniform plexus of the testes. Pampiniform plexus absorbs heat from the arterial blood, cooling it as it enters the testes, the cremaster muscles which respond to decrease in testicular temperature move the testes closer to the body. 41. Why might antibiotic therapy cause vulvovaginal candiasis in females? Suppresses the normal protective flora. 42. Which structure in the female anatomy begins to dilate upon parturition (birth)? Cervix 43. When does gonadotrophin-stimulated production of testosterone normally begin? Between 10-12yrs of age 44. How many spermatozoa are produced by one spermatognium in spermatogenesis? 4 45. Untreated syphilis might cause complications in what organs? Aorta liver and central nervous system. Syphilis is caused by treponema pallidum a spiral shaped bacterium called a spirochete. 46. High levels of what hormone exert a negative feedback loop on FSH? Estrogen

47. The secretion of FSH and LH are under the control of ____________. Gonadrotophin releasing factor. 48. ________ is produced and secreted by the interstitial Leydig cells in the testes, while under the influence of luteinizing hormone (LH) Testosterone 49. The _____________ houses the testes and regulates their temperature. Scrotum 50. A hydrocele forms when excess fluid collects between the layers of the ____________. tunica vaginalis 51. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and polycystic ovary syndrome are conditions that alter estrogen metabolism and elevate estrogen levels. Increased estrogen levels are associated with ______________________. Endometrial cancer 52. Undesired or harmful effects of supraphysiologic doses of androgens including estrodial and estrone are_________, ___________ and _______________. acne, decreased testicular size, ozoospermia, and a change in libido. 53. In order for embryonic gonads to become testes, what is required? A Y chromosome 54. __________________ is an abnormal, painful, sustained erection that can lead to ischemic damage of penile structures. Priapism 55. During lactation, milk is secreted by ____________________. Alveolar tissue of the breast. 56. A preponderance of evidence suggests a causal link between both cervical cancer, penile cancer and ____________________. HPV 57. Infertility, malignancy and testicular torsion are long term consequences of ___________________________. Cryptorchidism 58. ________________ serves as a storage reservoir for sperm. Vas deference 59. The ________________is the site of the Skene glands, which have a lubricating function. urethral opening 60. The wall of the uterus is composed of three layers (__________, ____________ and __________) one (__________) of which extends to form a cul-de-sac. The perimetruin the myometrium and the endometrium. the perimetrium forms the cul-de-sac. 61. Gradual cessation of ovarian function and diminished estrogen levels during perimenopause and menopause may lead to ______________. vasomotor instability…...

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