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Biology

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Twyneshia Vaughn
Bio Lab 41117
Exercise 8
November 15, 2012

1. Discuss (compare) how the bones of the axial skeleton and the anatomy of the limbs contribute to efficient locomotion in this animal.

Green- Humerus
Purple-Pelvis
Yellow- Carpals
Blue- Metacarpal
Brown- Phalanges
Dark Pink-Tarsals
Light Green- Metatarsals
Light Pink- Ulna
Green/Yellow- Radius
Red- Calcaneus
Black Fibula
Grey- Tibia
Reddish Brown- Patella
Orange- Femur

* (Human) There are a variety of ways in which the axial skeleton and anatomy of the limbs contribute to efficient locomotion human. In human and any other mammal, it is important that we all have a skeleton. The skeleton is important because attached to it are many bones needed for body movement. The carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges (finger) are attached to one another. These bones are used to help human grip, lift, write, etc. The humerus, ulna, radius are arm bones that allows us lift things and make other movements. Because there are lots of muscles in the arm and the arm is part of the upper limb and should, we use a lot of strength when lifting heavy things. The femur, patella, tibia and fibula are all bones that are located in the legs. Of course, without these bones we would not be able to drive, walk, and exercise. Last but not least, the tarsals, metatarsals, calcaneus and phalanges (toes) are bones located in the feet. Because we are bipedal, these bones allow us to be able to stand up right and walk in different directions.

* (Chimpanzee) - There are a variety of ways in which the axial skeleton and anatomy of the limbs contribute to efficient locomotion chimpanzees. Because chimpanzees are so similar to human, some of these bones have the same functions and movements. The carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges (finger) are attached to one another. However in chimpanzees, walk on their knuckles, this is called knuckle walking. They use their hands for terrestrial locomotion while retaining long fingers to help climb. The humerus, ulna, radius are arm bones that chimps use to walk along with their back legs. The femur, patella, tibia and fibula are all bones that are located in the legs. Chimpanzees are 98 percent like human; they are also bipedal as well, so it is important that they have these bones. Last but not least, the tarsals, metatarsals, calcaneus and phalanges (toes) are bones located in the feet that allow them to be bipedal as well.

* (Cat)- Carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges as well as limbs are used for walking and climbing, this is the same locomotion found in the human and chimpanzee as well. The legs are under the body and rotated so that the elbow and knee on the same side point at each other. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg. The radius and ulna compose the lower part of the forelimb. The articulation of the radius and ulna provide for rotation of the paw. The tibia and fibula makes up the lower leg of human and animal but the functions vary.

* (Pigeon)- The wings develop from the humerus, radius and ulna. The wings of the pigeon are hollow, and have hollow but strong very strong muscle for walking; this is one of the main forms of locomotion in this animal. The main bones of each arm in the pigeon are also hollow. The legs and feet, or tarsals, metarsals and phalanges are adapted for bipedal locomotion and are specialized for running, swimming, wading, perching, capturing prey, etc. The tibia and fibula functions as support to the leg and muscles of the pigeon.

* (BAT)- In bats, the flight muscles are associated with movement of the humerus and scapula. The radius and ulna in the cat are extremely tiny and is attached to the carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges are fused together. These bones are very light and allows bats to catch their pray and hang on to different branches etc.

* (PERCH)- From viewing the picture, it’s kind of challenging to figure out what is the importance of each bone in the perch. Instead of phalanges, fish have fins and these fins help them to get around. Fins are used to stabilize and steer the fish as they are swimming. Unfortunately, the perch does not have a tibia, fibula, tarsals and metatarsals, calcaneus and many other bones that other animals and human do have.

* (BULLFROG)- The radius, ulna, and humerus bone in the front legs of a bullfrog and are used for hopping. In the photo, it is clear that the radius and ulna are fused into one bone. The same is true for a frog's legs, the femur supports its upper leg, and the bones of the lower leg, the tibia and fibula, are fused. The phalanges, carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, and metarsals may be used for balance and a firm grip to the ground or whatever object they may land on. This frog has five toes on its back legs and four toes on its front legs. The length and shape of the toes has a big impact on how the frog moves. It is clear that frog's skeleton isn't so similar to a human’s skeleton at all, but some of the bones functions just like many other animals and human beings.…...

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