Biopolitics

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By chuckmichael
Words 1224
Pages 5
Christopher Epps
Professor Mauldin
Bio-politics, Medicine, and Bodies
January 26 2013
Bio-politics, Bio-citizenship, Bio-citizenship: A Big Mixture
As a society, we throw around the word “Politics” freely and often. Its a polarizing concept and evokes both excitement and disdain in American citizens. However, to many the idea of politics seems very abstract. Sure, there are visible institutions of government and tangible evidence of certain political machines at work. But people struggle with seeing deeper into how government affects not only their day to day lives, but their very bodies. I'm talking about the intersection of private science and government-”bio politics”. To engage in a such discussion of Bio-politics and how political power is exerted over life, one needs a firm knowledge of medicalization. In a broad sense, medicalization is simply the expansion of medicine in our society. However, the term is interpreted differently depending on who you ask. Sociologist Peter Conrad describes medicalization as a “process by which medical problems become more defined and treated as medical problems, usually in terms of illness and disorders.” He sees the power in language and how the ever expanding categories that come from medicalization are actually a form of social control. Disability activist Irving Zola validates this idea but adds that “everyday life has come under Medical dominion, influence, and supervision.” Having been stricken by polio, Zola spoke from a specific group that has come under the affects of medicalization. His primary focus and fear were the moral consequences that these categories and labels had on both individuality and morality. In addition, he advocated for people to own their disability and not succumb to the power of medical institutions to decide what is “normal”. Adele Clarke takes a slightly different approach in…...

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Outline

...Record Office Bulletin. No. 10: 1-64. Lombardo, P.A. (1982). "Eugenic Sterilization in Virginia: Aubrey Strode and the Case of Buck v. Bell." Doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia. Mehler, B. (1988). "A History of the American Eugenics Society." Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana. Levitt, Steven D., & Dubner, Stephen J. (2005). Freakonomics. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers. Kuhl, S. (1994). The Nazi Connection. New York, NY: Oxford. Rowe, David C. & Osgood, D. Wayne (1984). Heredity and Sociological Theories of Delinquency: A Reconsideration. American Sociological Review Vol. 49, No. 4 (Aug., 1984), pp. 526-540 Miller, Edward M. (1997). Eugenics: Economics for the Long Run. Research in Biopolitics, Vol. 5, (1997), pp. 391-416....

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Euthanasia

...end-of-life cases. Our obligations will indicate our behavior towards practices of euthanasia. However, all situations are highly different in stakeholders, individuals, and overall values so we must assess each case appropriately. References American Nurses Association (1985). Code for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. Kansas City, MO: The Author. American Nurses Association; code of ethics retrieved from http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/EthicsStandard/CodeofEthics.aspx Bioethics, euthanasia, and physician-assisted suicide. (2010). Chapter 5. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Retrieved from http://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763743267/43267_CH05_Pass1.pdf Bishop, J. (2008). Biopolitics, terri schiavo, and the sovereign subject of death. Journal of Medicine & Philosophy, 33(6), 538-557. Casarett, D., Kapo, J., & Kaplan, A. (2005, December 15). Appropriate use of artificial nutrition and hydration - fundamental principles and recommendations. The New England Journal of Medicine, 353, 2607 - 2612. Retrieved from http://www.hadassah-med.com/media/1884450/sounding_board-1.pdf Racine, E., Amaram, R., Seidler, M., Karczewska, M., & Illes, J. (2008, September 23). Media coverage of the persistent vegetative state and end-of-life decision making. Neurology, 71, 1027 - 1032. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000320507.64683.ee van Bogart, D. K., Biko, S., & Ogunbanjo, G. A. (2010). Assistance in dying:......

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Tangier

...being dominate. In the movies they have a lot of trick in order to express the dominant charters versus the submissive ones. A lot of that has to do with camera angles and where the characters are placed in the shot. For example a lower camera expressed dominance and if the character was higher up in the shot too. And the opposite is used to express some one is less dominate. These of course are artificial ways to express dominance to the audience. And sometimes we have to express artificially our dominance to get some things in life and these articles are very good at telling you subtle cues to help you appear more dominate. Mazur, Allan & Mueller, Ulrich (1996).  Facial Dominance.  A. Somit and S. Peterson (Eds.), Research in Biopolitics, Vol 4  (London: JAI Press)  pp 99-111  A great quote that sums up what the article is all about is early on in the journal. “Our focus here is on facial dominance, the degree to which a person is judged from his or her facial appearance to be dominant, assertive and a leader, as opposed to someone who is subordinate, submissive, a follower. The face is one among several status signs which each individual displays, suggesting this his status is, or ought to be, high or low.” It goes on the relate that a more dominate face is described as are more likely to be handsome, muscular, with striking features like a chiseled chin, heavy brow ridges and deep set eyes. So like pretty much any handsome Hollywood actor or successful......

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Contemporary Political Theory

...Communism’, The Idea of Communism, Ed. Costas Douzinas & Slavoj Zizek, 2010 (Verso: London) Week 7 – Using Contemporary Theory in South Africa Does the end of apartheid mean the end of politics? • Grant Farred ‘The Not Yet Counterpartisan: A new politics of oppositionality’ South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2004 • Michael Neocosmos ‘May 2008 and the Politics of Fear’ in ‘Foreign Natives’ to ‘Native Foreigners’: Explaining Xenophobia in Post-apartheid South Africa, 2010 (CODESRIA: Dakar) • Nigel Gibson ‘‘Amandla is Still Awethu: Fanonian Practices in Post-Apartheid South Africa’, Fanonian Practices in South Africa, 2011 (UKZN Press: Pietermaritzburg) • Anna Selemeczi “… we are being left to burn because we do not count”: Biopolitics, Abandonment, and Resistance', Global Society, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2009...

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Living It on the Skin: Italian States, Working Illness

...examine the codification of an Italian work-related illness caused by mobbing, a type of psychological harassment that emerged at the moment neoliberal policies transformed Italy’s historically protectionist labor market. I trace how the medicalization of mobbing has expanded workers’ access to compensation, resources, and discursive tools for criticizing neoliberal labor conditions, even as it has produced new structures of surveillance. I unravel the neoliberal politics of a state that protects workers’ health yet governs worker–citizens through an apparatus of medical experts. I find that workers’ labor problems are experienced and managed as bodily problems in ways important to remaking Italian citizenship. [neoliberalism, state, labor, biopolitics, citizenship, bodies, Italy] An institution, even an economy, is complete and fully viable only if it is durably objectified . . . in bodies. —Pierre Bourdieu1 It was the spirit of capitalism made flesh. —Upton Sinclair2 n 2003, a new psychophysical disturbance, organizational coercion pathology (disturbi psichici e fisici da costrittivit` organizzativa sul a lavoro), or OCP, became a work-related illness that was insurable by an Italian state public-health institution (Istituto Nazionale per l’Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro [INAIL] 2003).3 Telltale symptoms, often likened to those of posttraumatic stress disorder (disturbo post traumatico del stress), include anxiety and depression. According to medical experts,......

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History of Sexuality

...extract information about the homosexual repressed and coerce soldiers into confession. The use of homosexual status was no longer possible to determine misconduct of a military or sexual nature. According to Davis, this led to the reversal of the signifying operation, and allowed for the use of investigations into misconduct as a means to determine homosexual status (95). Thus gender and sexuality were re-examined and re-repressed. Foucault developed the notion of biopolitics in the 1970s, in which he addresses a discontinuity in political practice (Lemke 2010). Biopolitics refers to a modern way of exercising power (Foucault 1980).This concept explains how normality informs political action and determines the goals of politics. Many clear examples of biopolitics occurred in the decades building up to the exclusion of gays in the military. In Washington D.C. in the late 1980s, several occurrences put into question the sex and power relationships among various bodies of government. For Foucault, biopolitics represented a transformation in political order, "[W]hat might be called a society’s ‘threshold of modernity’ has been reached when the life of the species is wagered on its own political strategies" ( pp. 142-143). Thus a homosexual "force" emerged into the American consciousness. According to Davis, this force entered public representation and eventually Washington D.C. (83). Several cases in particular demonstrate this cultural force and the political......

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Who Knows

...living in a time where the sketched epistemes of political rationality for which ‘life’ is the organizing object of politics (i.e., biopolitics) is being challenged. During the 1970s and beginning of 1980s theorists such as Foucault argued that the sovereign right to kill was increasingly displaced by the administrative compulsion to make live. That is, instead of ending violence or killing especially in the context of Europe and North America lethal conflict was redistributed through out the population turning politics into war by other means such as the withdrawal of the state from the household (i.e., oikos) and national life and hence with a more focus on biopolitics. In the Global South though theorists like Mbembe challenge Foucauldian biopolitics to argue that outside Europe and North America this governing of life (zoe) took a different form: necropolitics resulting from the histories of power relations such as slavery and colonization. Yet, theorists in the Global North such as Foucault insisted that the 1970s the life of power mutated increasing the neoliberal turn in government leaving our times and more concretely “the future as yet unthought.” This class begins with Foucault’s concept of biopolitics and Mbembe’s idea of necropolitics and asks: what are the stakes in thinking and practicing power today through the locus of biopolitics and/or necropolitics? What are the stakes in reading these tensions with respect to yesterday—and to tomorrow for the art of......

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Humanitarian Intervention

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Cthulu 1ac

...problem of rule, political scientists have traditionally focused on either individual agents or institutional structures, in both cases treating government as a given object. In contrast, Foucault's concept of governmentality is focused on the "art of governing," understood as the biopolitical "conduct of conduct" for a population of subjects." Thus, governmentality concerns the specific regime of practices through which the population is constituted and self-regularized. "Modern" governmentality marks a shift in discourses of rule away from the state's sovereign power- its ability to take life and/or render it bare-and toward its fostering and regularizing of life in biopolitics. The object of government is no longer simply obedience to the king, but regulating the conditions of life for subjects. To this end biopolitics requires that the conditions of life of the population be made visible and assayed, and practical knowledge be made available to improve them. As a result, with modern governmentality we see the emergence of both panoptic surveillance and numerous specialized discourses-of education, political economy, demography, health, morality, and others- the effect of which is to make populations knowable and subject to the regularization that will make for the "happy life." A constitutive feature of modern governmentality is that its discourses are scientific, which means that science and the state are today deeply intermeshed. Through science the state makes its......

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