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Broccoli

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By levy
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INTRODUCTION
Importance of the Study Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) is a plant in the cabbage family, whose large flower head is used as vegetable. The word broccoli, from Italian plural of broccoli, refers to the “the flowering top of the cabbage”. Broccoli is classified in the Italian cultivar group of species Brassica oleracea. It has large flower heads, usually green in color, arranged in tree-like fashion on branches sprouting from a thick, edible stalk. The mass of the flower head is surrounded by leaves. Broccoli mostly closely resembles cauliflower, which is a different cultivar group of species.
Broccoli is high in Vitamin C, as well as dietary fiber; it also contains multiple nutrients with potent anti-cancer properties, diindolylmethane and small amounts of selenium. Broccoli also contains the compound glucoraphanim, which can be processed into an anti-cancer compound sulforaphane, through the benefits of broccoli are greatly reduced if the vegetable is boiled. Broccoli is also an excellent source of indole – 3- carbinol, a chemical which boost DNA repair in cells and appears to block the growth of cancer cells. It has the higher level of carotenoids in the brassica family. It is particularly rich in lutein and also provides a modest amount of beta-carotene. A high intake of broccoli has been found to reduce risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Broccoli consumption has also been shown to be beneficial in prevention of heart disease. Broccoli consumption is also associated with malodorous flatulence, from metabolisim of the sulphur-containing compounds in contains. (Stephen, James, 2009)
Fertilizer is any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is added to a soil to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants. A recent assessment found that about 40 to 60% of crop yields are attributable to commercial fertilizer use.
Mined inorganic fertilizers have been used for many centuries, whereas chemically synthesized inorganic fertilizers were only widely developed during the industrial revolution. Increased understanding and use of fertilizers were important parts of pre-industrial British Agricultural Revolution and industrial Green Revolution of the 20th century.
Inorganic fertilizer use has also significantly supported global population growth, it has been estimated that almost half the people on Earth are currently fed as reslt of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use. (Stewart, W.; Dibb, D. W.; Johnston, A.E; Smyth, T. J. 2005)
Organic fertilizers are fertilizers compounds that contain one or more kinds of organic matter. The ingredients may be animal or vegetable matter or a combination of two. It is possible to purchase commercial brands of organic rich fertilizer as well as prepare organic fertilizer at home by building a compost heap. When describing a fertilizer, it is important to remember that the working definition of organic is the same as that applied to organic foods. That is, the fertilizer is composed of elements that are produced in a completely natural manner, without the aid of any synthetically manufactured components or additives. Many different natural elements can go into the creation of organic fertilizers. Animal manure is a common ingredient in both commercial and home-prepared blends. Rotten produce, and the decomposing plants removed at the end of the season can also be chopped or ground into small particles for inclusion in the fertilizer. Essentially, any matter that is of natural origin and subject to decomposition is a good candidate for inclusion in the project. (Tatum, M. And Harris, B. 2003)
Foliar fertilizers are fertilizers that are applied to foliage the boost nutrient density in crops and to correct nutrient deficiencies. The main benefits of foliar spraying are that it can have up to 90% efficiency rate of uptake to 100% efficiency from soil water soluble. This makes perfect for correcting nutrient deficiencies. Soil amendments may take several days to take effect and the nutrients may be tied up with other elements and made unavailable to the plant.
The other great thing is that foliar spraying stimulates the plants to create exudates in the roots which excite microbes to work harder and thus increases nutrient uptake from the soil. Foliar sprays are a great supplement to boost flavours, sweetness, mineral density and yield from your crops. (Capewell, Martin 2009)
One of the selected areas in production of broccoli is BPSU Abucay Campus because of its good soil characteristics. Broccoli grows well in relatively fertile, well-drained, moist soils with high organic matter, pH between 6 and 7 as well as other vegetables. The researcher used different foliar fertilizer for the growth and yield of broccoli. Since broccoli is a high value crop, undertaking a research for its potential using different foliar fertilizers, is essential.
Objectives of the Study The objectives of the study was evaluated the effects of different foliar fertilizers on the growth and yield of broccoli.
Specifically, it aimed to 1. Determines what foliar fertilizer will promote the highest average height; 2. Evaluate what foliar fertilizer will produce the most number of leaves; 3. Find what foliar fertilizer will give the average longest roots; and 4. Determine what foliar fertilizer will give the best yield in terms of weight and size of the curd.
Time and Place of the Study The study was conducted at the Bataan Peninsula State University, Central Experimental Research Station for Agricultural Crops, Abucay Campus from October 2011 to February 2012.
Definition of Tems
Borax. A white crystalline salt which is used as foliar supply to prevent boron deficiency.
Brassica. A large genus of perennial, biennial, or annual herbs (family Cruciferae) that are native to temperate parts of the old world by now cosmopolitan in cultivation, including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and are distinguished by the cylindrical pod tipped with a conical beak and containing a single row of seeds.
Bud. An immature shoot protected by tough scale leaves from which the stem and leaves or flower may develop.
Compost. Mixture of decaying, or decomposing, vegetation and manure, which is then used as fertilizer. The compost heap in your garden, made from grass clippings, leaves, egg shells, potato peels and other common vegetation, is an intensified version of nature’s rebuilding process.
Compost Tea. An aerobically brewed liquid extract made from compost. It contains beneficial microorganisms and nutrients for plants and soil health.
Curd. It is the underdeveloped or partially flower head or aggregation of flower head that form the edible part of certain Brassicas (as cauliflower and Broccoli).
Edible. It is suitable by nature for use as food especially for human being.
Fertilizer. Any organic or inorganic materials of natural or synthetic origin added to soil to supply certain elements essential to plant growth.
Flower Bud. A plant bud produces only a flower or flowers.
Flower Head. A compact shortened inflorescence; the capitula of a composite or other plant in which the individual are sessile and so arranged that the whole inflorescence gives the effect of a single flower.
Flower Stalk. It refers to the Peduncle; A stalk that bears a flower or flower cluster.
Foliar Fertilizer. A liquid, water soluble, fertilizer applied to all plant’s foliage in a fine spray so that the plant can absorb the nutrients through its leaves.
Inorganic Fertilizer it release great quantities of nutrient elements that can easily absorbed by the roots of the plants.
Maturity. Stage of the plant or plant parts at which the product is ready to harvest.
Organic Fertilizer. A product of the processing of materials from animal and/or plant that can supply one or more of the essential nutrient elements to plants.
Peduncle. It refers to the flower stalk; the inflorescence stalk of plants supporting either a cluster or a solitary flower. pH. (potential Hydrogen). It is the negative logarithm of the effective hydrogen-ion concentration or hydrogen-ion activity.
Reap. A given part of the work collecting ripened crops by cutting.
Recycling. Separation and collection of wastes, their subsequent transformation or remanufacture into usable or marketable product on materials and the purchase of product from recyclable materials.
Sprouting. It is the germination of seeds on mature spikes, usually before harvest in wet years.
Vermitea. It is the liquid extract from fermented vermicompost. It is composed of non-chlorine water packed full of beneficial bacteria. It is an excellent fertilizer and pesticide. This is due to the presence of beneficial microorganism in the tea.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Related Literature and Studies on Foliar Fertilizer Foliar fertilizer is a fertilizer product which is designed to b applied directly to the leaves of the plant. A number of companies manufacture range foliar fertilizers, from organic products safe for use on food crops to more aggressive chemical fertilizers for ornamentals. There are number of advantages in using a foliar fertilizer, which make such fertilizers popular for some gardening applications. With foliar feeding, as it is known, the nutrients are absorbed directly through the leaves of the plant. They work their way down the roots, but they also stimulate activity in the leaves, which in turn stimulates roots development, because the plant starts to demand more water. Applying foliar fertilizer can increase uptake of nutrients from the soil by encouraging plants to take up more water, in addition to providing immediate benefits for a plant, which may be suffering from deficiency. (Smith, S.E and Wallace, O. 2003) A truly sustainable farming system is one in which the beneficial effects of various conservation practices are equal to or exceed the adverse effects of degradative processes. Organic wastes and residues offer the best possible means of restoring the productivity of severely eroded agricultural soils or of reclaiming marginal soils. (Hornick and Parr 1987; Parr and Hornick. 1992) A foliar fertilizer is not designed as an alternative to soil fertilizer and soil conditioning, but rather as a supplement, which will increase efficiency and improve plant health. Uptake of nutrients from the soil can be very inefficient, and it can take several days for noticeable effects to occur. Foliar fertilizers act more quickly, and far more efficiently, as most of the fertilizer ends up in the plant, rather than the soil. There are some precautions, which need to be observed when applying foliar fertilizer. It must be diluted before application to prevent fertilizer burn, and it also needs to be applied when the plants are most likely to benefit. The best time to do this is when temperatures are cool and some dew is present on the leaves, as in the evening and early morning, as the stoma on the leaves will be open and able to absorb the nutrients. Applying during the heat of the day is inefficient, and can in fact damage the plant. (Smith, S.E. and Wallace, O. 2003) Alternative agriculture practices are vitally dependent upon the proper and regular additions of organic wastes and residues to soil. Some framing system does not produce adequate amounts of on-farm organic wastes to enhance the essential attributes of soil quality, or to attain the goal of long-term agricultural sustainability. The rapid increase of municipal wastes can provide an alternative, off-farm source of organic amendments that can be used safely and beneficially to increase the productivity, tilth, fertility, and sustainability of our agricultural soils (Nichols 1980) When selecting foliar fertilizers, it is important to think about the nutritional needs of the plant. Not all plants are alike, and a fertilizer formulated for one species may not be appropriate for another. Some fertilizers specifically list some examples of plants they are suitable for, and all should disclose their ingredients, allowing gardeners to determine how they should best be used. If a gardener is not sure about which product would be best, the staff at a nursery should be able to make some product recommendations. (Smith, S.E. and Wallace,O. 2003) Vermitea is an excellent organic fertilizer and pesticide. This is due to the presence of beneficial microorganism in the tea. “The vermi teas had about one-third of the microbial activity and diversity of the solid vermicompost, volume to volume.” Since it is in liquid form, vermitea can be used as an organic foliar fertilizer. Spraying also allows plants to benefit from the pesticidal properties of vermitea. Apart from inhibiting arthropod pest like aphids and spider mites, vermicompost tea suppresses plant diseases (ex. Pythium) and plant parasitic nematodes (ex. Root knot nematodes). Vermitea is also an excellent plant growth promoter and soil amendment. According to soil scientist, using vermitea produces major growth differences between plants grown on soil and water and those grown on soil and vermitea. “The presence pf plant growth regulators in the teas can influence plant growth significantly independent of nutrient availability.” (Arancon, et al, 2007)
Compost tea is a liquid extract or a dissolved solution but not simply a suspension of compost. It is made by steeping compost in water for 3-7 days. It was discovered in Germany and became a practice to suppress foliar fungal disease by nature of the bacterial competition, suppression, antibiosis of the leaf surface (phyllosphere). It has also been used as a fertilizer although lab test show it is very weak in nutrients with less than 100ppm of available nitrogen and potassium. Other salts present in the tea solution are sodium, chlorides, and sulphates. The extract is applied as a spray to non-edible plant parts such as seedlings, or as a soil-drench (root dip), or as a surface spray to reduce incidence of harmful phytopathogenic fungi in the phyllosphere. (Heckman, J. 2006)

Related Literature and Studies on Broccoli Broccoli evolved from a wild cabbage plant on the continent of Europe. Indications point to the vegetable’s being known 2,000 years age. Since the Roman Empire, broccoli has been considered a uniquely food among Italians. Broccoli was grown at Antwerp whence it was taken to England by the sculptor Peter Scheemakers, according to a biographical note by J. T. Smith. Broccoli was first introduced to the United States by Italian immigrants but did not become widely known until the 1920’s. (Sptephens, James. 2009) The single headed type or calabrese (Broccoli) leaves are more divided and petiolate; the main head consists of clusters of fully differentiated flower buds, green to purple, less densely arranged and with longer peduncles’; axillary’ shoots with smaller flower heads usually develop after removal of the dominant terminal shoots. The flower head is fully exposed from an early stage of development. Broccoli plants carry inflorescences from lateral branches too. Sprouting broccoli bears many, less uniform, relatively small flower head instead of one large head as in the calabrese type. (PROSEA, 1994) Broccoli is a cool-weather crop that does poorly in hot summer weather. Broccoli grows best when exposed to an average daily temperature between 18 and 23°C (64 and 73°F). When the cluster of flowers, also referred to as a “head” of broccoli, appear in the center of the plant, the cluster is green. Garden pruners of shears are used to cut the head about an inch from the tip. Broccoli should be harvested before the flowers on the head bloom bright yellow. (Stephens, James. 2009) Broccoli is also known as a temperature vegetable. The compact flower of broccoli makes delicious dishes. Broccoli is a temperature vegetable, which can be grown in Baguio and other surrounding region. (D.S. Estrella) Broccoli possesses abundant fleshy green flower heads. It produces a greed curd, which rapidly develops into a mass of fertile flower buds. The curd (head) comprises a large number of compact of flower and flower stalk. Broccoli is one vegetable that is increasingly becoming popular. It is good source of Vitamin C, Protein and Calcium. It could be a money-maker for growers because of the increasing demand by hotels and restaurants the serve dishes with broccoli as ingredients. In addition, consumers are increasingly becoming health-conscious, and broccoli is one of the vegetables whose chemical contents are being evaluated for their effectiveness against certain cancers. (PROSEA, 1994)

MATERIALS AND METHOD

Site Selection The area was located at BPSU Central Experimental Research Station for Agricultural Crops during the month of October 2011 to February 2012.

Experimental Design An area of approximately 171 sq. Meters was used for an experimental study. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications was used in this study. The area was thoroughly prepared and divided into three blocks to accommodate the five treatments. Each plot has a dimension of 2m x 3m. Draw lots was used in designing the plots.

Experimental Treatments The experiment was conducted using the single experiment factor with the following treatments: Treatment 1 – control Treatment 2 – Crop Giant Treatment 3 – Growmax Treatment 4 – Compost Tea Treatment 5 – Vermitea

Preparation of Vermitea Brewing procedure using Rex Compost Tea Brewer. Several other methods of making compost tea that involve the production of liquid extract and aeration to ensure the high rate of reproduction of aerobic flora. Alligator barrels were filled with two kilogram (2 kg) vermicast (1 kg per barrel). Untreated water was poured up to the level marked on the bucket. This was brewed for 72 hours (3 days) by plugging-in the air pumps (aerators), one kilogram (1 kg) brown sugar or mascubado, or one liter (1 L) molasses to the water in the bucket (not into the alligator after 24 hours of brewing time) was added. Brewing was completed after 72 hours ( 3 days). The air pump (aerators) was unplugged. The resulting solution (concentrated compost tea) was collected using the faucet dispenser.
Preparation of Compost Tea Ripe compost was placed in cloth bag. Compost tea bag was placed in a glass jar. The water was poured inside the jar and stood overnight. The tea is ready for use.

Cultural Management Purposes Land Preparation. The area was ploughed and harrowed twice alternately with the use of tractor and/or animal drawn implements, respectively. Harrowing was done at a weekly interval to allow weed seeds to germinate and facilitate weeds decomposition. Preparing of Seedlings. The Carbonized Rice Hull (CRH) was mixed to the soil and used as a medium to the experimental plants. The seed was sown in the seedling tray individually then covered with thin soil mixture to prevent seed exposure and scattering during the rainy season. Transplanting. Seedlings were transplanted three to four weeks after sowing. Planting distance is 60 cm between furrows and 50 cm between hills. Transplanting was done early in the morning or late in the afternoon to avoid wilting and the field will be irrigated immediately after transplanting. Welding and Cultivation. Weeding was undertaken three weeks after planting or earlier upon the occurrence of weeds. The base of the plants was hilled – up. Hilling-up was done on the third or fourth week after planting. Care in cultivation was employed to avoid injury to the experimental plants. It was done when the soil moisture is right of cultivation. Irrigation. Irrigation was done as the need arises. Using of water sprinkler or hose was used to water the experimental plants. Control of Pests and Disease. Control of pest and disease was employed when the signs and symptoms are observed. Likewise, pesticides were sprayed as the need arises. Harvesting. The fruit was reaped at 60-80 days from transplanting as broccoli heads are ready to harvest, or when the curd are firm when pressed. The stem was cut 6-8 inches below the curd.

Data to be Gathered The following data was gathered and analyzed in the study: Growth. The growth of the broccoli was determined with the use of indicators such as maturity, root system, height and number of leaves. Plant height. The measurement was taken from the base to the tip of the longest leaf. It was measured in centimetres. Number of leaves. The number of leaves was counted during harvesting. Root system. The length of the longest lateral root was measured in centimetre and the number of lateral roots was counted after harvesting/.. Days of maturity. The number of days was taken for transplanting to harvesting. Yield. Yield was represented by the weight and size of the curd.
Weight of curd with stem. The curd was weighed in grams; the stem was cut 6-8 inches below the head including the immature leaves.
Size of the curd. The size of the curd was taken from its widest portion. It was measured in centimetres.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION
General Observation Seed germination appeared in three days after sowing. One hundred percent of germinated seeds were observed. The seedlings are ready for transplanting ten days after sowing. During the early stage of the plants, different types of weeds were present. These include Cyperusrotundus, Cleome gynandraexalta and Amarantusspinosus. Broccoli can and often does get attacked by Cabbage worms and loppers (white and yellow butterflies) which can be controlled using BTK, Rotenone or Pyrethrum (however, inspecting your broccoli plants daily and simply picking off these worms and loppers is very affective and natural). Use row covers to block out all insects including root maggots, aphids and Diamondback moths. Maintaining a soil pH of 6.8 and higher will discourage club root. Fungal and bacteria diseases such as head rot and downy mildew can be prevented by allowing good air circulation and avoiding a mid August maturity when the air humidity is higher. Strong healthy broccoli plants growing in an originally rich soil will be better able to fight disease. To control the insect pests application of Carbaryl (Sevin 85 WP) was done. Water application was done everyday to avoid the incidence of soil-borne disease.

Growth The growth parameters includes the following: (a) average height (cm) of plants 30 days after transplanting, (b) average height (cm) of plants during harvest, (c) average number of leaves during harvest, (d) average number of lateral roots after harvesting, (e) average length (cm) of lateral roots after harvesting, and (f) average days of maturity of plants.

Average height of plants 30 days after transplanting. The average height of plants measured in centimetres in represented in Table 1.

Table 1. Average height (cm) of plants 30 days after transplanting TREATMENT | BLOCKS | TOTAL | MEAN | | I | II | III | | | T1 – Control | 24.75 | 17.00 | 17.75 | 59.25 | 19.75a | T2 – Crop Giant | 22.86 | 23.75 | 25.38 | 71.99 | 24.00a | T3 – Growmax | 20.86 | 23.00 | 22.50 | 66.36 | 22.12a | T4 – Compost Tea | 31.00 | 20.00 | 22.25 | 73.25 | 24.42a | T5 – Vermitea | 25.50 | 20.00 | 26.00 | 68.50 | 22.83a | Grand Total | | | | 339.35 | | Grand Mean | | | | | 22.62 |
Means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT Table 1 presents the average height of plants 30 days after transplanting. The highest average height was obtained from Treatment 4 (Compost Tea), with a mean of 24.42 cm, followed by Treatment 2 (Crop Giant), Treatment 5 (Vermitea), Treatment 3 (Growmax) and Treatment 1(Control) with means of 24.00, 22.83, 22.12, and 19.83 cm, respectively. This shows that organic wastes and residues offer the best possible means of restoring productivity of severely eroded soils or of reclaiming marginal soils and produced the highest average height 30 days after transplanting. Analysis of variance (Table 1.a, Appendix) on average height of plants 30 days after transplanting showed no significant differences among treatment means. The different foliar fertilizer applied did not affect the height of the plants although compost tea (treatment 4) gave the highest mean. Average height of plants during harvest. The average height of plants during harvest measured in centimetres is represented in Table 2.

Table2. average height (cm) of plants during harvest. TREATMENT | BLOCKS | TOTAL | MEAN | | I | II | III | | | T1 – Control | 59.25 | 58.25 | 57.13 | 174.63 | 58.21c | T2 – Crop Giant | 65.25 | 66.13 | 63.38 | 194.76 | 64.92a | T3 – Growmax | 62.50 | 60.50 | 63.75 | 186.75 | 62.25ab | T4 – Compost Tea | 61.25 | 61.50 | 60.50 | 183.33 | 61.08bc | T5 – Vermitea | 67.00 | 62.25 | 60.63 | 189.88 | 63.29ab | Grand Total | | | | 929.35 | | Grand Mean | | | | | 91.95 |
Means followed by common letter are significantly different at 5% level by DMRT The average height of plants during the harvest was presented in Table 2. The highest average height from the Table was shown from Treatment 2, with a mean of 64.92 cm, followed by Treatment 5, Treatment 3, Treatment 4 and Treatment 1 with means of 63.29, 62.25, 61.08 and 58.21 cm, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated significant differences in the average of plants during harvest among treatment means. The plants grown and applied with Treatment 2 (Crop Giant) were significantly taller than the other treatments. Because crop giant is a chemical foliar fertilizer that contains different advance nutrients needed by plant. So therefore, the plants grown in Treatment 2 (Crop Giant) gave the highest average height during harvesting. Comparison among means (Table 2b, Appendix) proved that Treatment 1 and 4 were significant over treatment 2 which is comparable to treatment 3 and 5. Treatment 3, 4 and 5 were comparable to each other but significant to treatment 1.this shows that by using different foliar fertilizer, it does not significantly affect the height of the plants during harvest because when selecting foliar fertilizer, it is important to think about the nutritional needs of the plant. Because not all plants are alike, and a fertilizer formulated for one species may not be appropriate for another. Average number of leaves. In the Table 3, the average number of leaves of the plants is shown.
Table3. Average number of leaves. TREATMENT | BLOCKS | TOTAL | MEAN | | I | II | III | | | T1 – Control | 32.00 | 36.13 | 35.75 | 103.88 | 34.63a | T2 – Crop Giant | 48.25 | 38.25 | 40.75 | 127.25 | 42.42a | T3 – Growmax | 39.25 | 43.25 | 40.75 | 123.25 | 41.08a | T4 – Compost Tea | 36.13 | 39.75 | 37.88 | 113.76 | 37.92a | T5 – Vermitea | 38.38 | 42.38 | 53.00 | 133.76 | 44.59a | Grand Total | | | | 601.9 | | Grand Mean | | | | | 40.13 |
Means followed by common letter are significantly different at 5% level by DMRT Table 3 shows the average number of leaves during harvest. Treatment 5 produced the highest number of leaves with a mean of 44.59, followed by Treatment 2, Treatment 3, Treatment 4 and Treatment 1 with means of 42.42, 41.08, 37.92 and 34.63 numbers of leaves, respectively. The other great thing is Vermitea is an excellent plant growth promoter and soil amendment. It produces major growth differences between plants. The presence of plant growth regulators in the teas influences plant growth significantly independent of nutrient availability. Analysis of Variance (Table 3a, Appendix) on the average number of lateral roots indicated no significant difference among treatment means. Application of different foliar fertilizer did not affect the number of leaves although the plants grown in Treatment 5 (Vermitea) have the highest means among the others. Average length of lateral roots. In the table 4, the average length of lateral roots is shown.

Table 4. Average length (cm) of lateral roots. TREATMENT | BLOCKS | TOTAL | MEAN | | I | II | III | | | T1 – Control | 48.86 | 49.50 | 49.13 | 147.49 | 49.16c | T2 – Crop Giant | 50.00 | 50.50 | 50.36 | 150.86 | 50.29b | T3 – Growmax | 50.75 | 53.00 | 52.00 | 155.75 | 51.92a | T4 – Compost Tea | 49.63 | 51.36 | 51.5 | 152.74 | 50.92ab | T5 – Vermitea | 51.13 | 51.25 | 51.86 | 154.24 | 51.41a | Grand Total | | | | 761.08 | | Grand Mean | | | | | 50.74 |
Means followed by common letter are significantly different at 5% level by DMRT As shown on the Table above, the highest average length of lateral roots was obtained in Treatment 3 with a mean of 51.92 cm followed by Treatment 5, Treatment 4, Treatment 2 and Treatment 1 with means of 51.41, 50.92, 50.29 and 49.16 cm, respectively. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the average length of lateral roots showed significant differences among treatment means. This finding indicated that the different application of foliar fertilizer affected that lateral roots of the plants. This showed that some inorganic foliar fertilizers were easily absorbed by plants, which in turn stimulates root development and increase uptake of nutrients from the soil. Comparison among means (Table 4b, Appendix) proved that Treatment 1 was significantly different with the other treatments. Treatment 3,4 and 5 was comparable with each other and significantly different on Treatment 2. Average number of lateral roots. The number of lateral roots is presented in Table 5.

Table 5. Average number of lateral roots. TREATMENT | BLOCKS | TOTAL | MEAN | | I | II | III | | | T1 – Control | 39.00 | 39.25 | 39.88 | 118.13 | 39.38a | T2 – Crop Giant | 39.63 | 40.38 | 40.00 | 120.01 | 40.00a | T3 – Growmax | 39.50 | 40.63 | 40.25 | 120.38 | 40.13a | T4 – Compost Tea | 38.75 | 40.50 | 41.00 | 120.25 | 40.08a | T5 – Vermitea | 39.38 | 39.75 | 40.75 | 119.88 | 39.96a | Grand Total | | | | 598.65 | | Grand Mean | | | | | 39.91 |
Means followed by common letter are significantly different at 5% level by DMRT In this table, the highest number of lateral roots was produced in Treatment 3 (Growmax) with a mean of 40.13 number of lateral roots, followed by Treatment 4 (Compost Tea), Treatment 2 (Crop Giant), Treatment 5 (Vermitea) and Treatment 1 (Control) with means of 40.08, 40.00, 39.96 and 39.38 numbers of lateral roots, respectively. This shows that Treatment 3 (Growmax) create a number of lateral roots. Analysis of Variance ( Table 5a, Appendix) on the average number of lateral roots showed that there are no significant differences among treatment means. The different foliar fertilizer applied does not affect the number of lateral roots although plants grown in Treatment 3 (Growmax) gave the highest means. Average days of maturity. As shown in Table 6, the average days of maturity is presented.

Table 6. Average days of maturity. TREATMENT | BLOCKS | TOTAL | MEAN | | I | II | III | | | T1 – Control | 78 | 80 | 80 | 238 | 79.3a | T2 – Crop Giant | 66 | 73 | 68 | 207 | 69.00a | T3 – Growmax | 68 | 73 | 70 | 211 | 70.33a | T4 – Compost Tea | 60 | 75 | 78 | 213 | 71.00a | T5 – Vermitea | 75 | 70 | 66 | 211 | 70.33a | Grand Total | | | | 1080 | | Grand Mean | | | | | 72.00 |
Means followed by common letter are significantly different at 5% level by DMRT The average days of maturity was showed in Table 6. The shortest period of maturity was obtained in Treatment 2 (Crop Giant) with a mean of 69.00 days. This is followed by Treatment 3 (Growmax) and 5 (Vermitea) with the same mean, Treatment 4 (Compost Tea) and Treatment 1 (Control) with means of 70.33, 71.00 and 79.33 days, respectively. Analysis of Variance (Table 6a, Appendix) indicated no significant differences on the average days of maturity. It was observed that the application of different foliar fertilizer did not affect the days of maturity of the plants although Treatment 2 (Crop Giant) gave the highest mean. It is important to think about the nutritional needs of the plant. Not all plants are alike, and a fertilizer formulated for one species may not be appropriate for another. Some framing system does not produce adequate amounts of farm organic wastes to enhance the essential attributes of soil quality, or to attain the goal of long-term agricultural sustainability.
Yield
The yield parameters included the average weight and diameter of curd. Average diameter of curd. In Table 7, the average diameter of curd is shown.

Table 7. Average diameter (cm) of curd. TREATMENT | BLOCKS | TOTAL | MEAN | | I | II | III | | | T1 – Control | 17.75 | 17.63 | 18.13 | 53.51 | 17.84a | T2 – Crop Giant | 18.25 | 21.00 | 18.13 | 57.38 | 19.13a | T3 – Growmax | 19.13 | 18.38 | 20.50 | 58.01 | 19.34a | T4 – Compost Tea | 19.00 | 19.36 | 19.50 | 57.86 | 19.29a | T5 – Vermitea | 19.63 | 19.86 | 19.63 | 59.12 | 19.17a | Grand Total | | | | 285.88 | | Grand Mean | | | | | 19.06 |
Means followed by common letter are significantly different at 5% level by DMRT Table 7 showed the average diameter of curd during harvest. The biggest diameter was obtained from Treatment 3 (Growmax) with a mean of 19.34 cm, followed by Treatment 4 (Compost Tea), Treatment 5 (Vermitea), Treatment 2 (Crop Giant) and Treatment 1 (Control) with means of 19.29, 19.17, 19.13 and 17.84 cm, respectively. In using different foliar fertilizer, Treatment 3 (Growmax) gave the highest average diameter of curd because this foliar fertilizer was a chemical foliar fertilizer that contains high ingredients and advance nutrients needed by plants. But it does not shows significantly difference among the other treatments because like the other treatments, they have the nutrients needed by broccoli. Analysis of Variance (Table 7a, Appendix) on the average diameter of curd indicated the there are no significant differences among treatment means. As indicated in the table the different foliar fertilizer did not significantly affect the diameter of curd though plants grown of Treatment 3(Growmax) gave the highest mean. Average weight of curd. the weight of curd is presented in Table 8. This was determined by weighing the individual curd with certain stalk to prevent infection of the curd by microorgasim.

Table 8. Average weight (g) of curd. TREATMENT | BLOCKS | TOTAL | MEAN | | I | II | III | | | T1 – Control | 421.63 | 516.94 | 526.91 | 1465.48 | 488.49a | T2 – Crop Giant | 455.00 | 679.91 | 558.56 | 1693.47 | 564.49a | T3 – Growmax | 504.95 | 589.71 | 652.70 | 1747.36 | 582.45a | T4 – Compost Tea | 581.58 | 604.19 | 593.19 | 1778.96 | 592.99a | T5 – Vermitea | 665.40 | 685.94 | 529.91 | 1881.26 | 627.09a | Grand Total | | | | 8566.53 | | Grand Mean | | | | | 571.1 |
Means followed by common letter are significantly different at 5% level by DMRT The average weight of curd during harvest as influence by the different foliar fertilizers was presented in Table 7. The table showed that Treatment 5 (Vermitea) obtained the highest mean of 62 7.09 grams, followed by Treatment 4 (Compost Tea), Treatment 3 (Growmax), Treatment 2 (Crop Giant) and Treatment 1 (control) with means of 592.99, 582.45, 564.49 and 488.49 grams, respectively. The presence of plant growth regulators in the tea influence plant growth, significantly independent of nutrient availability. Sp therefore, it produced major growth difference between plants grown on the other treatments. But not significantly different to the other because the other foliar fertilizer used in the study also contains nutrients needed by the plants. Analysis of Variance ( Table 8a, Appendix) on the average weight of curd showed that there is no significant difference among treatment means. The different foliar fertilizer did not affect the weight of the curd still plants grown un Treatment 5 (Vermitea) are heavier compared to other treatments.

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary The study was conducted (October 2011 to February 2012) to determine the effects of different foliar fertilizer on the growth and yield of broccoli. An area of 171 sq. m. was laid-out in three main blocks presenting the replication that was further which were divided into five-main sub plots (2m x 3m) representing the treatments which were arranged following the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The following are the findings of the study: 1. Application of foliar fertilizer (control) showed the least average plant height, number of leaves, length of lateral roots, number of lateral roots, days of maturity, diameter and weight of curd. 2. Treatment 3 (Growmax) has the highest average in length and number of lateral roots and the diameter of the curd. Treatment 2 (Crop Giant) indicated the tallest height of plants and diameter of the curd while Treatment 5 (Vermitea) inhibited the heaviest weight of curd and the most number of leaves. 3. The presence of defoliators and occurrence of insect pest was monitored throughout the duration of the study and was controlled by spraying the plants using the recommended pesticide. 4. The appearance of hollow heart disease was observed in the Treatment 1.
Conclusion
The study found out that the number of leaves of the plants, number of lateral roots, days of maturity, weight and diameter of curd were not significantly influenced by the different application of foliar fertilizers, although, highly significant differences were observed on height of plants during harvest, and significant differences on length of lateral roots among treatment means.
Recommendation
On the basis of the findings and conclusions presented, the following recommendations were drawn: 1. For higher yield of broccoli, Treatment 5 (Vermitea) must be used in broccoli production, it will increase efficiency and improve plant health because it is an organic fertilizer derived from vermicast or vermiculture. It also recommended to used for all leafy type vegetable because it exhibited the most number of leaves. 2. Application of boron (in the form of borax) is recommended to prevent hollow heart disease. It is more effective if it is used as foliar spray (5-10 kgha) than added in the soil. Spray once in every ten days if the symptoms appear. 3. Further study regarding effects of different fertilizer on the growth and yield of broccoli using other treatment combination to come up with more findings that are conclusive.

LITERATURE CITED

Van der Maesen L.G.J. and S. Somaabnadja.1992. Pulse Plant Resources and South-East Asia, PROSEA. Bogor, Indonesia
Esrella, D. S. Legumes, 1991. Agriculture and Industry
Stephens, James.2009. Broccoli – Brassica oleracea L. (Italica group). University of Florida.p. 1
Stewart, W.; Dibb, D.W.; Johnston, A.E.; Smyth, T.J. 2005, “The Contribution of Commercial Fertilizer Nutrients to Food Production”, Agronomy Journal 97:1-6
Tatum, M. and Harris, B. 2003. Article Details Conjecture Corporation
Capewell, M. 2000. Organic Farming. Learn How to Farm Organically.
Parr, J.F. and S.B. Hornick. 1992. Agricultural use of organic amendments: a historical perspective. American Journal of Alternative 7: 181-189
Smith, S.E. and Wallace, O. 2003. Article Details Conjecture Corporation
Nicholas, M. 1980. Cauliflower and Broccoli. Department of Horticultural Science. Massey University, New Zealand
Hornick, S.B. and J.F. Parr.1987. Restoring the productivity of marginal soils with organic amendments. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 2: 64-68
Liptay, Albert 1988. Broccoli. World Book, Inc..
San Juan Michelle L. 2008. Efficacy testing of BPSU organic fertilizer with broccoli (brassica oleracea L.) as test crop. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. BPSU, Abucay Bataan

APPENDICES

Experimental Layout of the Study The experimental layout of the study is shown below.

T1

T5

T4

T2

T3

T1

T4

T5 BLOCK I BLOCK II BLOCK III

T3

T2

T4

T5

T1 – Control T2 – Crop Giant T3 – Growmax T4 – Compost Tea T5 – Virmetea

Figure 1. Experimental layout of the area

Figure 2. The experimental area

Figure 3. The researcher and the adviser

Figure 4. Front view of the experiment area

Figure 5. Full view of experimental area

Figure 6. Curd sample of Treatment 1

Figure 7. Curd sample of Treatment 2

Figure 8. Curd Sample of Treatment 3.

Figure 9. Curd sample of Treatment 4.

Figure 10. Curd sample of Treatment 5.

Figure 11. Insect pest

Figure 12. Insect pest (Aphids)

Figure 13. Insect Pest (Aphids)

Figure 14. Insect pest (Caterpillar)

Figure 15. Insect pest (Diamondback moth)

Figure 16. Plant disease (Hallow heart)

Figure 17. Plant disease (Hallow heart due to boron deficiency)

Figure 18. The researcher measuring plant height ( 30 days after transplanting)

Figure 19. The researcher measuring plant height during harvesting

Figure 20. The researcher measuring diameter of the curd

Figure 21. The researcher measuring length of lateral roots.

Figure 22. The researcher counting the number of lateral roots.

Figure 23. The researcher weighing the samples of each treatment.

Table 1a. Analysis of variance on the average height (cm) of plants 30 days after transplanting.

Sources of Variance | Degree of Freedom | Sum of Variance | Mean of Square | F Compound | Tabular F | | | | | | 5% | 1% | Block | 2 | 3.34 | 16.67 | 1.41ns | 4.46 | 8.64 | Treatment | 4 | 39.55 | 9.89 | 0.84ns | 3.84 | 7.01 | Ex. Error | 8 | 94.69 | 11.84 | | | | Total | 14 | 167.57 | | | | |
CV = 15.20%
Ns – not significant

Table 2a. Analysis of variance on the average height (cm) of plants during harvesting.

Sources of Variance | Degree of Freedom | Sum of Variance | Mean of Square | F Compound | Tabular F | | | | | | 5% | 1% | Block | 2 | 10.10 | 5.05 | 1.69ns | 4.46 | 8.64 | Treatment | 4 | 76.36 | 19.09 | 6.38* | 3.84 | 7.01 | Ex. Error | 8 | 23.93 | 2.99 | | | | Total | 14 | 110.39 | | | | |
CV = 2.79%
* - significant at 5% level

Table 2b. Comparison among means on the average height (cm) of plants during harvesting.

T1 – Control | 5 | 58.21c | T2 – Crop Giant | 1 | 64.92a | T3 – Growmax | 3 | 62.25ab | T4 – Compost Tea | 4 | 61.08bc | T5 – Vermitea | 2 | 63.29ab | MEAN | | |
Means followed by a common letter are significant at 5% level of DMRT

Table 3a. Analysis of variance on the average no. of leaves during harvesting

Sources of Variance | Degree of Freedom | Sum of Variance | Mean of Square | F Compound | Tabular F | | | | | | 5% | 1% | Block | 2 | 20.17 | 10.08 | 0.47ns | 4.46 | 8.64 | Treatment | 4 | 183.51 | 45.88 | 2.12ns | 3.84 | 7.01 | Ex. Error | 8 | 173.22 | 21.66 | | | | Total | 14 | 377.00 | | | | |
CV = 11.60%
Ns = not significant

Table 4a. Analysis of variance on the average length of roots during harvesting

Sources of Variance | Degree of Freedom | Sum of Variance | Mean of Square | F Compound | Tabular F | | | | | | 5% | 1% | Block | 2 | 3.34 | 1.67 | 5.58** | 4.46 | 8.64 | Treatment | 4 | 13.68 | 3.42 | 11.42** | 3.84 | 7.01 | Ex. Error | 8 | 2.39 | 0.30 | | | | Total | 14 | 19.41 | | | | |
CV = 1.08%
** = highly significant at 1% level

Table 4b. Comparison among means on the average length of roots during harvesting.

TREATMENT | RANK | MEANS | T1 – Control | 5 | 49.16c | T2 – Crop Giant | 4 | 50.29b | T3 – Growmax | 1 | 51.92a | T4 – Compost Tea | 3 | 50.91ab | T5 – Vermitea | 2 | 51.41a | MEAN | | |
Means followed by common letter are highly significant at 1% level

Table 5a. Analysis of variance on the average number of roots during harvesting.

Sources of Variance | Degree of Freedom | Sum of Variance | Mean of Square | F Compound | Tabular F | | | | | | 5% | 1% | Block | 2 | 3.43 | 1.72 | 8.01* | 4.46 | 8.64 | Treatment | 4 | 1.12 | 0.28 | 1.30ns | 3.84 | 7.01 | Ex. Error | 8 | 1.72 | 0.21 | | | | Total | 14 | 6.27 | | | | |
CV = 1.16%
Ns = not significant

Table 6a. Analysis of variance on the days of maturity.

Sources of Variance | Degree of Freedom | Sum of Variance | Mean of Square | F Compound | Tabular F | | | | | | 5% | 1% | Block | 2 | 58.80 | 29.40 | 1.12ns | 4.46 | 8.64 | Treatment | 4 | 208.00 | 52.00 | 1.99ns | 3.84 | 7.01 | Ex. Error | 8 | 209.20 | 26.15 | | | | Total | 14 | 476.00 | | | | |
CV = 7.10%
Ns = not significant

Table 7a. Analysis of variance on the average diameter during harvesting.

Sources of Variance | Degree of Freedom | Sum of Variance | Mean of Square | F Compound | Tabular F | | | | | | 5% | 1% | Block | 2 | 0.72 | 0.36 | 0.04ns | 4.46 | 8.86 | Treatment | 4 | 6.14 | 1.54 | 1.71ns | 3.84 | 7.01 | Ex. Error | 8 | 7.17 | 0.90 | | | | Total | 14 | 14.03 | | | | |
CV = 4.97%
Ns = not significant

Table 8a. Analysis of variance on the average weight of the curd with stem during harvesting.

Sources of Variance | Degree of Freedom | Sum of Variance | Mean of Square | F Compound | Tabular F | | | | | | 5% | 1% | Block | 2 | 20092.01 | 10046.00 | 2.14 ns | 4.46 | 8.64 | Treatment | 4 | 31828.84 | 7957.21 | 1.69ns | 3.84 | 7.01 | Ex. Error | 8 | 37633.37 | 4704.17 | | | | Total | 14 | 89554.23 | | | | |
CV = 12.01%
Ns = not significant…...

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...percent of my daily needs than others. The diet in which I recorded is very accurate as to my typical diet at this point in my life. Sometimes I may have a bowl of oatmeal in the morning or have a glass of water at dinner, which would obviously raise some of these values like the water nutrient and with oatmeal, my B vitamin values would increase. Some of these lacking percentages may be a real deficiency and will call for my need of increasing them substantially. Vitamins A (RAE); E; and D, where A and E are nine percent and then D, which is slightly higher with thirteen percent need some major work and I will have to find ways to get these values at least higher than seventy percent. I will have to begin eating more carrots, egg yolk, broccoli, cantaloupe and drinking milk while doing so, to increase my vitamin A (RAE) percentage. For my vitamin E percentage, milk and egg yolk will help but I can also increase my whole-grain foods and eat some sunflower seeds and nuts to get it up where it needs to be. For my lacking vitamin D percentage I need to seriously increase my fatty fish intake—which is not difficult, due to my love of fish. Whole egg and beef liver will also both help in getting more vitamin D in my diet. My calorie intake overall was quite low equaling one thousand. My recommended intake was two thousand. This wouldn’t be as much of an issue if I was getting adequate exercise to burn the excess calories and the calories I was consuming were equal to the calories......

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Broccoli Cheesecake in a Jar (Research Paper)

...see vegetables. Surprisingly, the result of the study proved that children will most likely eat vegetables if they are very much hidden in their favorite food. These kids go crazy on cakes, cupcakes and brownies not realizing that the healthiest vegetable is in what they’re eating. So, this paper will be proving that even broccoli can be a recipe for cake. But, for an innovation we decided to put the cake inside a jar so it would be more appealing. And not only that, cake in a jar has been a rampant tactics for those who are selling cakes. It is their approach to getting customers attached to what they sell. In the article The George Mateljan Foundation: The world’s healthiest foods - Broccoli, the combination of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other similar benefits makes broccoli a unique food in terms of cancer prevention because oxidative stress, inflammation, and inadequate detoxification are closely connected to Cancer. Some researchers also showed some cases or situations wherein the regular consumption of Broccoli lead to decreased risk of different kinds of cancer such as prostate, colon, breast, bladder and ovarian cancer. A Jar of broccoli Cheesecake bakes fresh to order and the freshest and highest quality natural ingredients are used. This product is specially made for people who love sweets but are also health conscious and also for those children who doesn’t eat vegetables. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS Socio – Cultural In this generation,......

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Emsr

...GRILLED CHICKEN BREAST | SIDE DISH SELECTIONS: PENNE WITH MEAT, TOMATO OR ALFREDO SAUCE | PENNE SICILIANO | BROCCOLI & CHEESE QUINOA | FRESH STEAMED BROCCOLI | GARLIC MASHED POTATOES | PENNE PORTABELLA | BOWTIE POMODORO | ROASTED CAULIFLOWER | FRESH VEGETABLE MEDLEY | OVEN ROASTED NEW POTATOES | RIGATONI ROMA | PASTA CON BROCCOLI | GREEN BEANS ALMONDINE | VEGETABLE QUINOA | ROASTED BRUSSELS SPROUTS | CALL FOR CUSTOM MENU OPTIONS TO ACCOMMODATE SPECIAL DIETARY NEEDS OR PREFERENCES TRADITIONAL BUFFET PERFECT FOR EVENTS BIG & SMALL THE TRADITIONAL BUFFET INCLUDES YOUR CHOICE OF SALAD, TWO TRADITIONAL ENTREES, CHOICE OF TWO ($10.99/PERSON) OR THREE ($12.99/PERSON) SIDE ITEMS AND OUR BABY LOAVES OF BREAD & BUTTER. SALAD SELECTIONS (CHOICE OF ONE): THE PASTA HOUSE CO. SPECIAL SALAD | CAESAR SALAD | PREMIUM SALAD*(+$1/PERSON) | TRADITIONAL ENTRÉE SELECTIONS (CHOICE OF TWO): BREAST OF TURKEY WITH GRAVY | ROAST TOP ROUND WITH HORSERADISH MOUSSE | HONEY GLAZED HAM | MANZO’S ITALIAN SAUSAGE WITH PEPPERS & ONIONS | SIDE DISH SELECTIONS: PENNE WITH MEAT, TOMATO OR ALFREDO SAUCE | PENNE SICILIANO | BROCCOLI & CHEESE QUINOA | FRESH STEAMED BROCCOLI | GARLIC MASHED POTATOES | PENNE PORTABELLA | BOWTIE POMODORO | ROASTED CAULIFLOWER | FRESH VEGETABLE MEDLEY | OVEN ROASTED NEW POTATOES | RIGATONI ROMA | PASTA CON BROCCOLI | GREEN BEANS ALMONDINE | VEGETABLE QUINOA | ROASTED BRUSSELS SPROUTS | CALL FOR CUSTOM MENU......

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