Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Risk for Adult Psychosis: Longitudinal Prospective Study

In: Science

Submitted By blackhat1123
Words 2296
Pages 10
Papers

Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study
Louise Arseneault, Mary Cannon, Richie Poulton, Robin Murray, Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt

Editorial by Rey and
Tennant
Papers pp 1195,
1199

SGDP Research
Centre, King’s
College, London
SE5 8AF
Louise Arseneault lecturer Avshalom Caspi professor Terrie E Moffitt professor Division of
Psychological
Medicine, King’s
College
Mary Cannon
Wellcome Trust advanced fellow
Robin Murray professor Dunedin
Multidisciplinary
Health and
Development
Research Unit,
University of Otago,
Dunedin,
New Zealand
Richie Poulton director, Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study

The strongest evidence that cannabis use may be a risk factor for later psychosis comes from a Swedish cohort study which found that heavy cannabis use at age 18 increased the risk of later schizophrenia sixfold.1 2 This study could not establish whether adolescent cannabis use was a consequence of pre-existing psychotic symptoms rather than a cause. We present the first prospective longitudinal study of adolescent cannabis use as a risk factor for adult schizophreniform disorder, taking into account childhood psychotic symptoms3 antedating cannabis use.

Methods and results
The Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study (a study of a general population birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972-3)4 has a 96% follow up rate at age 26. It obtained information on psychotic symptoms at age
11 and drug use at ages 15 and 18 from self reports and assessed psychiatric symptoms at age 26 with a standardised interview schedule to obtain DSM-IV
(diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders,
4th edition) diagnoses. We analysed data from a representative group of 759 (74%) living study members who had…...

Similar Documents

Substance Abuse and Psychosis in Adolescents

...Substance Abuse and Psychosis in Adolescents Over the past several decades, the U.S. population has grown significantly and continues to do so at a rapid pace. The most recent U.S. Census Bureau figures estimate that the population in the United States is currently nearing 304,800,000. Of this tremendous number, approximately one quarter are children under that age of eighteen years and over 40 million are adolescents (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001a). For the purpose of this examination, we will define adolescents as individuals between the ages of ten and eighteen years, although it is important to keep in mind that there are many different definitions and understandings of adolescents, most of which are not as directly related to chronological age (Santrock, 2001). Adolescents are a very special population because these are often the years in which childhood and adulthood become blurred, roles, expectations and needs change, as well as significant physical and psychological growth. As we also know, experimentation is often characteristic of adolescence and this experimentation can be physical, sexual or philosophical; all of which may possibly lead to drug use. This paper seeks to examine the question of whether or not drug abuse is related to psychosis in adolescents. Literature Review Adolescent Drug Use According to a national study in 2006, over 60 percent of reported that drugs were used, kept and sold on their school campuses on a regular basis. ...

Words: 2009 - Pages: 9

What Is the Evidence That Smoking Cannabis Can Contribute to Developing Schizophrenia? Critically Discuss with Reference to Recent Scientific Studies.

...Introduction Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide despite evidence suggesting a number of harmful effects (Caspi, 2005). It has attracted copious amounts of media attention regarding the possible long-term effects of smoking cannabis, as it has been suggested it can mediate a number of mental health issues, ranging from psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations (visual and auditory) and to the chronic clinical disorder, Schizophrenia. There has been great discrepancy about the harmful effects of cannabis use, reflected in the constant debate about whether it should be classified as a class B or class C in the 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act (Mcleod, 2010) whereas some even believe it should be legalized. Legalizing cannabis has caused uproar within in social and even scientific settings because some believe its use provokes Schizophrenia, however, there a large number of users who never develop this psychotic illness. Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness characterised by delusions (loss of contact with reality) and hallucinations (visual and auditory) i.e. perceiving stimuli which aren’t present. Schizophrenia has a global prevalence of 1.5%, although, it is unclear what percentage of this is caused by cannabis use. It is huge financial public health issue in both human and material aspects (Murray, 2003) and although it has been reported for many years, ts aetiology is still poorly understood This article aims to evaluate recent evidence concerning......

Words: 3590 - Pages: 15

How Effective Is the Use of Medical Marijuana? Can the Treatments Benefits Outweigh the Risks?

...How effective is the use of medical marijuana? Can the treatments benefits outweigh the risks? In recent years the debate over the use of medical marihuana increased rapidly. Whereas a patient suffering from chronic pain in California can easily get a doctor’s prescription for medical cannabis, the German patient suffering from the very same symptoms would not be allowed to treat his ache with marijuana, which is the most common name for the hemp plant, or Cannabis sativa. Cannabis can be classified as one of the oldest drugs known to humanity. Its history dates back until the Neolithic times in China about 6,000 years ago. From there, the plant spread to India and the Middle East where it widely served as an analgesic, anticonvulsant, antispasmodic, antiemetic and hypnotic (Hall &Degenhardt, 2003). Moreover the hemp was reported to be a successful appetite stimulant as well as effective in treating a number of disorders, including tetanus, neuralgia, asthma and migraine as well as in alcohol and opium addiction and in the treatment of mental illnesses (McKim& Hancock, 2013). Not recognized at first as a substance producing intoxicating effects, marijuana’s use spread soon all over Europe and the U.S. in the 19th century, where it was used for medical purposes. The plants medical benefits were substituted in the early 20th century by pharmaceutical opiates, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and sedatives like chloral hydrates and the barbiturates, which could be......

Words: 2631 - Pages: 11

Drug Use in the Philippines

...Philippines Background study drug addiction and drug abuse, chronic or habitual use of any chemical substance to alter states of body or mind for other than medically warranted purposes. Traditional definitions of addiction, with their criteria of physical dependence and withdrawal (and often an underlying tenor of depravity and sin) have been modified with increased understanding; with the introduction of new drugs, such as cocaine, that are psychologically or neuropsychologically addicting; and with the realization that its stereotypical application to opiate-drug users was invalid because many of them remain occasional users with no physical dependence. Addiction is more often now defined by the continuing, compulsive nature of the drug use despite physical and/or psychological harm to the user and society and includes both licit and illicit drugs, and the term "substance abuse" is now frequently used because of the broad range of substances (including alcohol and inhalants) that can fit the addictive profile. Psychological dependence is the subjective feeling that the user needs the drug to maintain a feeling of well-being; physical dependence is characterized by tolerance (the need for increasingly larger doses in order to achieve the initial effect) and withdrawal symptoms when the user is abstinent. INTRODUCTION    Illegal drug use is “almost automatically”([1]) associated with criminal behaviour.  The statistical relationship between illegal drug use and......

Words: 8936 - Pages: 36

Why Cannabis Should Be Legalised

...10. Prohibition has failed to control the use and domestic production of marijuana. The government has tried to use criminal penalties to prevent marijuana use for over 75 years and yet: marijuana is now used by over 25 million people annually, cannabis is currently the largest cash crop in the United States, and marijuana is grown all over the planet. Claims that marijuana prohibition is a successful policy are ludicrous and unsupported by the facts, and the idea that marijuana will soon be eliminated from America and the rest of the world is a ridiculous fantasy. 9. Arrests for marijuana possession disproportionately affect blacks and Hispanics and reinforce the perception that law enforcement is biased and prejudiced against minorities. African-Americans account for approximately 13% of the population of the United States and about 13.5% of annual marijuana users, however, blacks also account for 26% of all marijuana arrests. Recent studies have demonstrated that blacks and Hispanics account for the majority of marijuana possession arrests in New York City, primarily for smoking marijuana in public view. Law enforcement has failed to demonstrate that marijuana laws can be enforced fairly without regard to race; far too often minorities are arrested for marijuana use while white/non-Hispanic Americans face a much lower risk of arrest. 8. A regulated, legal market in marijuana would reduce marijuana sales and use among teenagers, as well as reduce their exposure to......

Words: 1167 - Pages: 5

The Global Integration of Diversity Management: a Longitudinal Case Study

...Int. J. of Human Resource Management 18:11 November 2007 1895– 1916 The global integration of diversity management: a longitudinal case study Aulikki Sippola and Adam Smale Abstract Whilst the extant diversity management literature has provided a comprehensive array of theoretical frameworks and empirical studies on how organizations can and have approached the management of a diverse workforce, the same cannot be said about the literature on diversity in an international setting. Indeed, from a diversity management perspective we know surprisingly little about how multinational firms are responding to the increasing globalization of their workforce. This study seeks to contribute to this underresearched area through an in-depth longitudinal case study of TRANSCO, a well-known European MNC, which has been attempting to integrate diversity management globally throughout its worldwide operations. Adopting a Finnish host-country perspective, the study investigates what TRANSCO has been integrating, how it has tried to facilitate this and the challenges that have arisen throughout the process. The results indicate that TRANSCO has committed a considerable amount of resources to the global diversity management integration process, reflected in the myriad of integration mechanisms utilized. In terms of their integration strategy, it was evident that TRANSCO was able to achieve global consistency at the level of diversity philosophy, but was forced to rely on a more......

Words: 11681 - Pages: 47

Marijuana vs Alcohol

...The two most commonly used and abused drugs in the United States, are alcohol and marijuana. Is either drug good or bad for you, there are so many different studies that tell you the good and bad of use of alcohol and marijuana. According to Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations (SAMHSA) alcohol is the number one legal drug used in the United States, which marijuana being the most-illegal drug used. Even though alcohol is legal and marijuana illegal, does not mean that either is good for you. Marijuana is a very controversial topic in the media right now, alongside with alcohol. The effects are very different; marijuana has immediate effect and can last for up to two hours after smoking. With alcohol, users feel slight effects after one drink. They can recover faster-depending how much they drank, how much they weigh, and if they ate before they drunk any alcohol. The immediate effects of alcohol use are slurred speech, poor judgment, and lack of motor skills. While the effects of marijuana are red eyes, dry mouth, increased appetite, paranoia, hallucinations, slowed reaction and memory loss. Drinking large amounts of alcohol can lead to coma, and even death, for a person to overdose on marijuana they would have to inhale about 40,000 times the amount of THC that took them to get high. To obtain the amount of THC to overdose a smoker would theoretically have to consume nearly 1,500 pounds of marijuana within about fifteen minutes to induce a lethal......

Words: 1547 - Pages: 7

Legalization of Cannabis

...Legalization of Cannabis Introduction Capitalism: an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a few markets. This unique system allows for a merchant to market just about any product to the masses dependent on a public opinion of the commodity, legality, availability, and profitability. Some commodities, although carrying high demand are regulated heavily and sometimes even ban from the market place for reasons pertaining to public safety. Others, however, showing to be a health hazard are still allowed to remain on the market. This definition is according to Merriam-Webster.com. This paper will focus on the economics of cannabis and how by its decriminalization, or legalization, it can be a profitable commodity in the marketplace by the following. Providing an overview of cannabis and how political games have caused an unearned negative public opinion on the commodity. Listing arguments that support the claim that by legalizing this commodity not only crime rates in general, but violent crime rates, will drop noticeably if not substantially providing a savings in the cost of enforcing and prosecuting such crimes. And, that by decriminalization, the federal government can regulate this commodity much like alcohol and tobacco providing new sources of tax revenue. A History of......

Words: 5829 - Pages: 24

Early Onset Schizophrenia

...(Nillinghouse and Trotman, 2009). There has been an increased understanding of the onset appearance of schizophrenia in recent years. Frequently, the age of onset schizophrenia is between 16 and 35 years. EOS is usually identified during school age years and the rate of the disorder usually escalates during adolescence (Li, Pearrow, & Jimerson, 2010). There are two forms of onset schizophrenia: childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a very rare form of schizophrenia with less than 1% of individuals identified before the age of 13, while adolescence-onset schizophrenia (AOS) is somewhat more common with 18% having been identified before the age of 18 (Frangou, 2014). EOS describes the combined population of individuals diagnosed with this disorder. Characteristics         Schizophrenia is a relatively rare condition with statistics showing an estimated 1 in 10,000 children who will develop some form of schizophrenic disorder in their lifetime and about 40,000 being diagnosed with Early Onset Schizophrenia. An estimated 2.5 million people in the United States were reported with living with schizophrenia in 2010. Research shows that early onset schizophrenia may be more severe than adult schizophrenia. Children identified before age 13 usually have greater deficits in social, motor, and academic skills and an overall poor neuropsychological functioning (Li, Pearrow, & Jimerson, 2010). EOS correlates to behaviors that interfere with academic and social success.......

Words: 3208 - Pages: 13

Adolsescent Alcohol Use

...ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL USE AND DATING VIOLENCE PERPETRATION: THREE STUDIES EXAMINING CONCURRENT AND LONGITUDINAL RELATIONS ACROSS GRADES 8 THROUGH 12 Heathe Luz McNaughton Reyes A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Health Behavior and Health Education Chapel Hill 2009 Approved by Vangie A. Foshee, PhD Susan T. Ennett, PhD Daniel J. Bauer, PhD Carolyn T. Halpern, PhD J. Michael Bowling, PhD UMI Number: 3387971 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. UMI 3387971 Copyright 2010 by ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This edition of the work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code. ProQuest LLC 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346 © 2009 Heathe Luz McNaughton Reyes ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ii ABSTRACT Heathe Luz McNaughton Reyes—Adolescent alcohol use and dating violence perpetration: Three studies examining concurrent and longitudinal relations across grades 8 through 12 (Under the direction of Vangie A. Foshee, Susan T. Ennett,...

Words: 5782 - Pages: 24

Impact of Cannabis Law

...1668–1673. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4005. Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Analgesic Overdose Mortality in the United States, 1999–2010 Author Manuscript Marcus A. Bachhuber, MD, Brendan Saloner, PhD, Chinazo O. Cunningham, MD, MS, and Colleen L. Barry, PhD, MPP Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Bachhuber); Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (Bachhuber); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (Bachhuber, Saloner, Barry); Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholars Program, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (Saloner); Division of General Internal Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (Cunningham); Department of Health Policy and Management, the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland (Barry) Abstract Author Manuscript IMPORTANCE—Opioid analgesic overdose mortality continues to rise in the United States, driven by increases in prescribing for chronic pain. Because chronic pain is a major indication for medical cannabis, laws that establish access to medical cannabis may change overdose mortality related to opioid analgesics in states that have enacted them. OBJECTIVE—To determine the association between the presence of state medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose......

Words: 5146 - Pages: 21

Cannabis

...Zadler 12/27/16 Assignment 3 Word Count: 916 New Green to be Made Legalization of the recreational use of marijuana products is becoming an increasingly popular topic for debate. In November of this year, the Control, Regulate, and Tax Adult Use of Marijuana Initiative will be proposed for the California ballot. According to a poll conducted in June of 2015 from the Public Policy Institute of California, around 54% of California’s voter population in favor of legalization of marijuana, so theoretically it should pass. The complete legalization of a decriminalized industry is going to have a major impact on the state of California. Other states that have legalized marijuana for recreational use have vastly benefitted from this change economically as well as socially. The State of California, a progressive state comprised of a diverse population with an array political standpoints, should benefit from this change immensely. Colorado made a bold move to become the first jurisdiction to legalize marijuana for recreational use. In February of 2014, about a month after legal recreational sale commenced, the Colorado Legislative Council (CLC) projected that marijuana taxes would generate $55 million. At the end of the fiscal year which concluded in June, the actual figure was $66 million in tax revenue, which represented .3% of the state’s $23.1 billion budget. Revenue is only to grow with $75 million last fiscal year and almost $90 million in 2016-2017. These......

Words: 1773 - Pages: 8

Use of Derivatives in Risk Management

...Use of Derivatives in Risk Management Teresa Fritz Ashford University Managerial Financial BUS 650 Dr. Wendy Achilles April 2, 2012 Use of Derivatives in Risk Management Risk management is in a company’s wonders all the time, the managers need to watch closely at all times to stay on top to make sure they have time to react to a risk that may arise. By using derivatives management may be putting their company at risk and need to know the common risks that are involved and know how to avoid them. Ten of the failures are poor governance and tone at the top, reckless risk taking, inability to implement enterprise risk management, nonexistence, ineffective or inefficient risk assessment, falling prey to Herd Mentality, misunderstanding the mindset of “if you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it”, accepting a lack of transparency in high-risk areas, nit integrating risk management with strategy-setting and performance management, ignoring the dysfunctionalities and blind spots of the organizations culture, and not involving the board in a timely manner (Beaumier, DeLoach). The derivatives that are used for risk management are interest rate derivatives such as interest rate swaps, interest rate caps, basic swaps, and rate lock (Kelly). All companies should have a policy that states derivatives can only be used for risk management purposes and not for speculating interest rate movements (Kelly). Derivatives used for risk management can be a good thing and can also be a......

Words: 1733 - Pages: 7

Aria a Prospective Study

...having excellent street level maps and over 210,000 Points of Interest. The interesting bit about this infotainment system which packs in a 6.5” high-contrast screen is that there are two disc drives. The first (top-most) is dedicated to the Sat-Nav system where you can put in a CD that has the maps on it. The second drive below that is for regular audio playback – Audio CD & MP3 formats only. It’s a fairly straightforward and easy to use system and it is easy to work it even with the steering mounted controls. There’s a DSP for optimum ‘spatial sound’ in this large interior and audio quality from the 6-speaker setup is fairly good, although it can tend to distort when pushed to higher volumes. Some of us who were confined to the rear seat did tend to miss a remote control, which we felt would have been a nice thing to have, especially since the Aria will most probably end up being chauffeur driven on weekdays. And talking of seats, the Aria can seat seven people! Well, let’s be honest here. Five adults and two children (or two very short adults) is more like it. Two supremely comfortable front bucket seats, a very comfortable middle row for three and a squeeze-in-the-kids third row seats. Just like almost every other passenger vehicle wearing the Tata badge, the Aria has excellent seats which even after spending a few hundred kilometres in provided a fatigue free drive. The driver’s seat has adjustment for height as well as lumbar, in addition to which the steering......

Words: 5634 - Pages: 23

A Longitudinal Study of the Cause and Consequences of

...A Longitudinal Study of the Cause and Consequences of Changes in Diversification in the U.S. Pharmaceutical Industry 1977-1986 Author(s): Charles W. L. Hill and Gary S. Hansen Reviewed work(s): Source: Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Mar., 1991), pp. 187-199 Published by: Wiley-Blackwell Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2486592 . Accessed: 16/09/2012 06:40 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. . Wiley-Blackwell and John Wiley & Sons are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Strategic Management Journal. http://www.jstor.org Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 12, 187-199 (1991) S A LONGITUDINALTUDY OF THE CAUSE AND CONSEQUENCESOF CHANGESIN IN DIVERSIFICATION THE U.S. PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY1977-1986 W a CHARLES . L. HILL nd GARYS. HANSEN Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. The paper hypothesizes that diversification by firms based in the pharmaceutical......

Words: 5237 - Pages: 21