In: Science

Submitted By nounehsa
Words 800
Pages 4
Cardiac Catheterization Paper 11/17/2011

1) Describe the procedure of cardiac catheterization:
Cardiac Catheterization (Cath) is a specialized study of the heart during which a catheter, or thin hollow flexible tube, is inserted into the artery of the groin or arm. Under x-ray visualization, the tip of the catheter is guided to the heart. Pressures are measured and an x-ray Angiogram (Angio) movie of the heart and blood vessels are obtained while injecting an iodinated colorless "dye" or contrast material through the catheter. Coronary angios are obtained by injecting the contrast material into the opening or mouth of a coronary artery. The iodinated solution blocks the passage of x-rays. X-ray movie pictures taken during the injection of the contrast material allow the coronary arteries to be visualized. In other words, coronary arteries are not visible on x-ray film. However, they can be made temporarily visible by filling the coronary artery with a contrast solution that blocks x-ray. (Heartsite)
2) Discuss the rationale for catheterization.
Cardiac catheterization allows the doctor to see the heart as it pumps blood. He is able to view the expansion and contraction of the chambers of the heart; the opening and closing of the heart valves; and the flow of blood through the coronary arteries. As compared to other diagnostic tests, cardiac catheterization provides more accurate and detailed information. This is especially important when visualization of the coronary arteries is required. This test provides the doctor with a picture of the arteries of the heart and allows him the assess the presence, location, and degree of severity of blockages in the coronary arteries. (Webmed)
3) Describe the risks of catheterization. Cardiac cath is generally safe. However, as with any invasive procedure, there…...

Similar Documents

Cardiac Rehabilitation

... WHAT IS CARDIAC REHABILATION? Cardiac rehabilitation (cardiac rehab) is a professionally supervised program to help people recover from heart attacks, heart surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures such as stenting and angioplasty. Cardiac rehab programs usually provide education and counseling services to help heart patients increase physical fitness, reduce cardiac symptoms, improve health and reduce the risk of future heart problems, including heart attack. WHO NEEDS CARDIAC REHABILATION? * Heart attack * Heart condition, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), angina or heart failure * Heart procedure or surgery, including coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), including coronary angioplasty (balloon angioplasty) and stenting, valve replacement, or a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) WHAT KIND OF SERVICES DO PROGRAMMES OFFER? * A medical evaluation to figure out your needs and limitations. The medical staff uses this information to tailor a rehabilitation program for you and help you set goals. * A physical activity program tailored to your needs. Training often starts in a group setting where your heart rate and blood pressure are monitored during physical activity. You may work with a physical therapist, exercise physiologist or......

Words: 615 - Pages: 3

Cardiac Rehabilitation

...Efficacy of Cardiac Rehabilitation A study conducted in Britain shows that the 40% mortality rate among men and 10% mortality rate among women between the ages of 45 and 65 years are due to coronary heart disease (Brennan, 1997). In Europe 22% of deaths are related to coronary heart disease. Most heart attack survivors are not receiving enough systematic help with rehabilitation, which results in anxiety, stress, depression and finally poor outcomes (Brennan, 1997). Living with these symptoms causes increased rate of morbidity and mortality after the infarction. One of the goals of cardiac rehabilitation is the reduction of morbidity and mortality through exercise training, dietary changes, smoking cessation and type A behavior modification. The second goal is amelioration of distress associated with cardiac pathology through the use of new coping strategies such as behavioral and cognitive techniques and stress management programs and anger control (Brennan, 1997). Exercise program is the most important intervention by researchers and clinicians. But the other form of intervention, like the effectiveness of smoking cessation programs, has received little attention. This article reviews the evidence for the efficiency of different forms of intervention that are focused on reducing distress and limiting risks during the post-infarction period. Exercise programs in cardiac rehabilitation studies prove their impact on the recurrence of myocardial infarction (Brennan, 1997)...

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Brain Death vs. Cardiac Death

...Brain death vs. Cardiac death Hannah Hastings March 11, 2014 ME1415X Medical Law & Ethics and Records Management Stacy Smith Ultimate Medical Academy Online Brain death is not as final as cardiac death; what “brain dead” means is a person whose brain no longer works is brain dead. The term is used so frequently and in so many different contexts that we should not be surprised that two thirds of people incorrectly believe that someone who is brain dead is not legally dead, and more than half believe that a comatose patient is brain dead Brain death is the irreversible end of brain activity (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life) due to total necrosis of the cerebral neurons following loss of brain oxygenation. It should not be confused with a persistent vegetative state. Brain death is used as an indicator of legal death in many jurisdictions, but it is defined inconsistently. Various parts of the brain may keep living when others die, and the term "brain death" has been used to refer to various combinations. For example, although a major medical dictionary says that "brain death" is synonymous with "cerebral death" (death of the cerebrum), the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) system defines brain death as including the brainstem. The distinctions can be important because, for example, in someone with a dead cerebrum but a living brainstem, the heartbeat and ventilation can continue unaided, whereas in......

Words: 453 - Pages: 2


...damage, thickening of the vessel wall, increased inflammation, increased thrombosis, glycation of vascular proteins, and decreased production of endothelial derived vasodilators such as nitric oxide (Huether and McCance, 2012). CARDIOVASCULAR PAPER 3 Smoker Although R.G. no longer smokes, she did so for 30 years prior, at a 2 ½ pack a day history. Three compounds in cigarette smoke have been implicated in the development of CAD: tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (Ignatavicius and Workman, 2013). According to Huether and McCance, nicotine stimulates the release of catecholamines such as epinephrine and norepinephrine, which increase heart rate and peripheral vascular constriction. As a result, blood pressure increases, as do cardiac workload, HDL’s, and generation of toxic oxygen radicals will contribute to vessel inflammation and thrombosis. Three to four years after a patient has stopped smoking, his or her CVD risk appears to be similar to that of a person who has never smoked. Obesity Obesity is defined as a BMI greater than 30 (ignatavicius and Workman, 2013), and R.G. has a BMI of 56.51. Obesity is also associated with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes; all known factors to CVD and better known as metabolic syndrome. Abdominal obesity has the strongest link with increased CAD and is related to inflammation, insulin resistance, decreased HDL level, increased blood pressure, and fewer changes I hormones. R.G. carries most of her extra weight......

Words: 1067 - Pages: 5

Cardiac Output

...Unit 2. Assignment 1. Cardiac Conduction, Cycle, and Output Trace the flow of the blood through the heart: -Blood enters the Right Atrium -Travels through the Tricuspid Valve to the Right Ventricle -Pulmonary trunk and pulmonary arteries -Pulmonary capillaries aka the lungs is where blood loses CO2 and gains O2 -Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood -Blood enters Left Atrium -Enters the Left Ventricle via the Mitral Valve -Through the Aortic Valve into the Aorta and systemic arteries -Systemic capillaries, where blood loses O2 and gains CO2 -Superior/Inferior Vena Cava Physiology of Cardiac “Contraction” The action potential initiated by the SA Node travels along the cardiac conduction system and spreads out to excite the contractile fibers of the atria and ventricles. 1. Depolarization: When a contractile fiber is brought about by an action potential from the surrounding fibers, its Na+ channels open. Because the Na+ concentration is higher in the interstitial fluid this inflow produces a depolarization. 2. Plateau: A period of maintained depolarization. It is due to opening of Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemma. The increased Ca2+ concentration in the cytosol triggers contraction. The plateau phase lasts about 0.25 seconds. 3. Repolarization: The recovery of the resting membrane potential The electrocardiogram is used as a diagnostic tool by recording electrical charges that accompany the heartbeat. Like Billy the heartbeat kid =) As action......

Words: 645 - Pages: 3

Cardiac Muscle

...Cardiac Muscle Tissue and It’s Function There are different types of muscle tissue in the body. I will be focusing on cardiac muscle tissue and its functions. Cardiac muscle is located in the heart wall and its major function is to pump blood throughout the body. If you were to put cardiac muscle and skeletal side by side you would see that cardiac muscle fibers are shorter in length and less circular. They are described as: “Branched striated fibers with usually only one centrally located nucleus (occasionally two). (Jenkins&Tortora,(2012) p. 132) Cardiac muscle fibers connect to each other by intercalated discs. Intercalated disc are “Transverse thickenings of plasma membrane called intercalated disc which contain desmosomes and gap junctions.” (Jenkins&Tortora,(2012) p. 132) Desmosomes are the glue of the cardiac muscle they hold it together even through constant athletic movement. For example exercise, if there were no desmosomes in the cardiac muscle it would simple fall apart then minute you jumped on a treadmill or began and exercise routine. “Desmsomes strengthen tissues and hold fibers together during vigorous contractions.” (Jenkins&Tortora,(2012) p. 132) Gap junctions make it possible for action potentials to move through one muscle fiber to the next. “Gap junctions provide route for quick conduction of electrical signals throughout heart.” (Jenkins&Tortora,(2012) p. 132) We don’t have to tell our cardiac muscle to contract it does this all...

Words: 496 - Pages: 2

Cardiac Rehab the process will be behaviour modification through increased physical activity Exercise is a major component for patients with CAD. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) usually beginning during hospitalization (phase I, inpatient), followed by a supervised outpatient program lasting 3-6 months (phase II), and continuing in a lifetime maintenance stage in minimally supervised or unsupervised setting (phase III) (Ching. L. 2012). According to the recommendations of American College of Sports Medicine, patients with CABG should perform aerobic exercise 3-5 times per week and 20-60 minutes for each session, at the intensity of 40-80% of VO2peak. Strength training is suggested to perform 2-3 times per week at the intensity of 40-50 % of maximal voluntary contraction with 10-15 repetitions (ACSM, 2010). Based on the above recommendations exercise promotion will be facilitated in the following settings. Exercises for CABG patients – Cardiac walking programme. This programme is initiated in the hospital and administered by hospital staff with the intention of increasing circulation. The patients will be encouraged to adhere to this programme once discharged. Patients to increase intensity as prescribed by health care professional. Cardiac rehabilitation programme Participation in an ongoing cardiac rehabilitation programme or community cardiac exercise rehabilitation programme will be encouraged. Patients will be trained to take their own pulse rates as they will be......

Words: 1279 - Pages: 6

Factors Effecting Cardiac Output

...The Factors that effect cardiac output The Cardiovascular system is responsible for the transport of blood, oxygen and nutrients, to the tissues in the body. There are two components that are important to the system the heart, which pumps the blood, and arteries and veins that transport the blood to and from the tissues. The function of the system is crucial during exercise. Studies involving cardiovascular system focuses on the responses and adaptions of the cardiovascular system to exercise, such as the effects of the structure and function of the blood vessels and the relationship between exercise and neurological control of the heart i.e. cardiac output. Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart in a minute. Cardiac output is determined by the equation Q = HR x SV, the amount of blood expelled with each beat (stroke volume) in combination with the number of beats per minute (heart rate), the amount of blood return, and the resistance to blood flow through vessels. During exercise the heart rate usually increases causing an increase of cardiac output and bringing more blood to the muscles. However, heart rate alone doesn’t improve cardiac output, but along with muscle demand of oxygen. The demand for more oxygen causes vasodilation, allowing an increase in blood flow and the return of blood back to the heart. Some factors that facilitate improvement in cardiac output for performance are intensity, duration, and aerobic/anaerobic exercises. ...

Words: 1690 - Pages: 7

Effects of Cardiac Output

...Exercise on Cardiac Output May 3, 2015 Predictions 1. During exercise HR will increase. 2. During exercise SV will increase. 3. During exercise CO will increase. Materials and Methods 1. Dependent Variable EDV, ESV, and cardiac cycle length 2. Independent Variable level of physical activity(resting or exercise) 3. Controlled Variables age, weight, height 4. What instrument was used to measure cardiac volumes? Cardiac Volumes were measured by a MRI 5. Does the instrument used to measure cardiac volume use X-Rays? Explain. The instrument uses magnet that generates sectional images of the body being scanned. Results Table 2: Resting and Exercising Cardiac Cycle Length, EDV, and ESV Subject 1 Subject 2 Subject 3 Averages Resting Values Exercising Values Cardiac EDV (mL) ESV (mL) Cardiac EDV (mL) ESV (mL) cycle length cycle length (msec) (msec) 832 142 67 371 144 34 814 136 65 436 145 40 814 135 68 414 140 35 138 67 143 36 Resting and Exercising HR, EDV andESV 1. Resting and exercising cardiac cycle length -a. What was the average resting cardiac cycle length? The average resting cardiac cycle length was 820 msec b. What was the average exercising cardiac cycle length? The average exercising cardiac cycle lenght was 407 msec. c. The range of normal resting cardiac cycle length is between 818 and 858 ms. Did average cardiac cycle length increase, decrease, or not change with exercise? The average......

Words: 1278 - Pages: 6

Case Studies on Cardiac Function

...Case Studies on Cardiac Function Case 1 A.O. is an 89-year-old woman with a long history of systolic heart failure secondary to a large left ventricular infarct when she was in her 70s. She had poor activity tolerance and required assistance with activities of daily living. Even minimal activity was associated with moderately severe dyspnea and exertional chest pain, which was relieved by rest. A.O. also exhibited marked pedal edema bilaterally. She is being treated with digitalis, furosemide (Lasix), KCl, and sublingual nitroglycerin. Discussion Questions 1. Which type of heart failure (left or right sided) is usually associated with dyspnea? Left-sided What other clinical findings are likely to be present with left-sided heart failure? Signs of pulmonary congestion are orthopnea or basilar crackles. Possible cough. Increased heart rate and S3 heart sound with auscultation. 2. What compensatory mechanisms are likely to be operative in A.O. to enhance cardiac output? Baroreceptors will detect a low blood pressure and carbon monoxide levels, which would excite the sympathetic system resulting in an increased heart rate. During this mechanism the beta receptors will down regulate leaving this mechanism less effective. Prolonged stretch on the myocardium will result in myocardial hypertrophy. 3. What is the most likely cause of A.O.’s pedal edema? Right sided failure causes pedal edema. 4. What is the cause of A.O.’s......

Words: 825 - Pages: 4

Cardiac Death vs Brain Death

...Cardiac Death VS Brain Death Brain death indicates that a person is dead, not because unconsciousness is attributable to the brain, but because the brain function is a necessary prerequisite to maintaining the vital function of the organism. The perception of the onset of death in the case of brain death is different to that in the case of cardiac death, when the body changes almost instantly to the state associated with dead people: breathing stops, the body cools off and the color of the skin pales. If, on the other hand, the deceased person has been declared brain-dead, the body will still feel warm, and the skin will be its normal colour. Although the relatives have reliable medical information that death has set in, they have to overcome the mental barrier that is deep-rooted in human nature: that as long as the heart is beating and there is breathing, there is life, and thus hope. Furthermore, although specific bodily states can be cited that involve the onset of death in specialist medical terms, people have different views of what it means to be dead, and how body and soul belong together. Being dead is not just a concept in medical science, but also an existential concept, and recognition of the brain death criterion is largely dependent on emotional and experiential aspects. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden, unexpected death caused by loss of heart function (sudden cardiac arrest). Sudden cardiac death is the largest cause of natural death in the United......

Words: 498 - Pages: 2

Cardiac Conduction

... Cardiac Conduction To complete this worksheet, select:         Module:  Distribution         Activity:  Animations         Title:  Cardiac Conduction 1. What is the function of the Conduction System? All cells must contract in a specific sequence. This sequence is determined by the pathway known as the conduction system. 2. Cardiac cells are connective and autorhythmic. What does this mean? Connective cells, action potentials, (excitatory signals) can propagate from one cell to another via gap junctions. Autorhythmic cells can excite themselves spontaneously without stimulation of the nervous system and contract at a regular rhythm. 3. Cells from different parts of the heart’s conduction system have different natural rhythms. What are the average beats per minute at each of the following parts of the heart? a. Sinoatrial Node (SA) 100 bpm b. Atrioventricular Node (AV) 40-50 bpm c. Ventricles 20-40 bpm 4. What is the function of the SA Node? Describe how this happens. The healthy heart’s pacemaker, SA node triggers contraction because it depolarizes at a faster rate than other parts of the conduction system. 5. The AV node starts a series of events that leads to ventricular contraction. Describe this series of events. The AV node is the only connection between the atria and ventricles, once the signal passes the AV node, it propagates through the......

Words: 747 - Pages: 3

Cardiac Notes

...unsuccessful. INCOMPATIBLE WITH LIFE. ASSESSMENT OF THE CARDIAC SYSTEM * Angina is located in the substernal or retrosternal region. It radiates to the neck, jaw, epigastrium, shoulders & arms (particularly the LEFT arm) * Characteristics: pressure, burning, squeezing, tightness, heaviness, and indigestion * Onset/Duration is < 10 min (gradual & ↑ intensity with activity) * Aggravated by exercise, cold, stress, or after meals * Relieved by rest or nitroglycerine (or other vasodilators) and O2 * MI: precordial, substernal, and may radiate like angina * Characteristics: heaviness, crushing pressure, burning, and constriction. * Onset/Duration: sudden onset and lasts longer than 15 min * Unrelieved by nitroglycerine * Associated Manifestations: dyspnea, sweating, weakness, N/V, severe anxiety, and lightheadedness ANGINA | MI | Neck, Left Arm | Radiates | Rarely lasts > 15 minutes | Lasts longer than > 15 minutes | Pressure, burning, squeezing, tightness | Heaviness, crushing pressure | Relieved by nitroglycerine | Unrelieved by nitroglycerine | * Atypical MI: affects 30% of people (Diabetes, elderly); presents with different symptoms * Nitroglycerine dilates coronary arteries * Unstable angina will progress to MI * ST elevation is consistent with ischemic heart muscle * Central (circumoral) cyanosis is associated with severe cardiac disease * Palpitations: fast,......

Words: 2474 - Pages: 10

Cardiac Function

...Case Studies on Cardiac Function This is the first case study that is required for the class. Please submit a paper (doesn’t have to be long; you could even give me bullet-point answers to the questions listed below) that answers all of the questions posed after Case Study 1. I have included an easy second case study, which if you complete it, will be worth extra credit. Answers to the first Case Study are worth 25 points and responding to Case Study 1 is required work for the course. The extra credit, which is not required, will be worth a total of 10 points. Please check the syllabus for the due date. Case 1 A.O. is an 89-year-old woman with a long history of systolic heart failure secondary to a large left ventricular infarct when she was in her 70s. She had poor activity tolerance and required assistance with activities of daily living. Even minimal activity was associated with moderately severe dyspnea and exertional chest pain, which was relieved by rest. A.O. also exhibited marked pedal edema bilaterally. She is being treated with digitalis, furosemide (Lasix), KCl, and sublingual nitroglycerin. Discussion Questions 1. Which type of heart failure (left or right sided) is usually associated with dyspnea? What other clinical findings are likely to be present with left-sided heart failure? • A.O. has left-side heart failure, since she suffered a ventricular infract on that side when she was 70 years-old. Other clinical findings that are likely to be......

Words: 769 - Pages: 4

Financial Accounting from a Cardiac Hospital

...Financial Accounting from a Cardiac Hospital If I were in a management position and had to create a working strategy in order for my company to gain strength, I would create a plan involving three phases: capital shortage, evaluation of the funding options for medical equipment, and the evaluation for capitol expansion. I would then run the necessary financial reports, analyze all the collected data, and then decide the best strategy for our improvement. Financial gain is important to the company, however budgeting is a must. Capital shortage, also known as cost cutting, is the first phase of rebuilding when it comes to a facility on the brink of foreclosure. I was asked to choose two areas that in my opinion, would offer the best financial gain for the hospital. The options on the table where downsizing my staff, reducing their allowed benefits, reducing the agency staff, changing the skill mix, or reducing the length of stay that a patient is offered. After careful consideration, the two choices were the reduction of staff benefits and the reduction of agency staff that is brought into the facility. Along with the forced cuts, I was also asked to choose a loan option that would keep the doors open. Comparing the two loan options side by side, I felt that the second option would have been the best for my hospital. It was at a lower percentage rate of 9%, the monthly installment was not as high as it would have been if I had gone with loan option number one, and the......

Words: 1108 - Pages: 5