Cellular Disease: Parkinson's

In: Science

Submitted By fettibueller
Words 1147
Pages 5
-------------------------------------------------
Cellular Disease: Parkinson’s Disease

One characteristic that all living beings share is the fact that they are considered to be highly organized, complex creatures. One of the most complex creatures are human beings. The human body contains thousands of genes, proteins and other cellular membranes. Each cell responds to chemical signals from the body or the environment and modifies its behavior in response to signals (Tremblay, 2010). When these cells behave differently from their intended design, the dysfunction is called cellular disease. Cellular disease can include a mutation of the DNA cells, an increase of the amount of cells, insufficiencies in existing cells, or loss of vital cells.
Parkinson disease is considered to be one of the most common cellular diseases. It affects the nervous system and causes its victims to experience loss of muscle control. The disease takes place when there is a problem with certain nerve cells in the brain. These nerve cells produce a chemical called dopamine that sends signals to the part of the brain that controls movement. It allows muscles to move smoothly and operate as intended (WebMd, 2005). When the cellular disease known as Parkinson’s is present, these nerve cells break down causing a scarcity in the dopamine that is being produced. When there is a deficiency in dopamine, the body tends to move uncontrollably.
Parkinson disease is considered a chronic illness. As time progresses the symptoms become gradually worse. Studies have shown that by the time primary symptoms appear, individuals with Parkinson's disease will have lost 60% to 80% or more of the dopamine-producing cells in the brain (Sietske N. Heyn, 2012). The main symptoms of Parkinson’s are tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Tremors are the most common sign of the…...

Similar Documents

Quality of Life of a Person with Parkinson's Disease

...Quality of life of a person with Parkinson’s disease and the relationship between the time of evolution and the severity of the disease Fabiana Magalhães Navarro-Peternella1 Sonia Silva Marcon2 Parkinson’s disease can cause disability and decrease the quality of life in its sufferers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life of a group of people with Parkinson’s disease and whether a relationship exists between time of evolution and severity of the disease. Secondary analysis was carried out on transversal data collected from 40 individuals with Parkinson’s disease registered in the Parkinson’s Association of Maringá, in MaringáPR-Brazil. Measures: three instruments were applied: a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Hoenh and Yahr Scale and the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). According to PDQ-39, men referred to a lower quality of life, although, statistically, there was no significant difference between the two genders. Differences were only observed in the dimensions of “activities of daily living” and “social support”, in which men presented higher impairment, and “emotions” and “bodily discomfort”, where women showed higher impairment. Furthermore, severity of disease tended to lead to a perception of lower quality of life regarding the dimensions of “activities of daily living” and “cognition”, which is relevant to improve clinical guidance and intervention. Descriptors: Parkinson’s Disease; Chronic Disease; Quality of Life. 1......

Words: 1824 - Pages: 8

Parkinson's Disease

...Diseases are sometimes extremely devastating and cruel. Some diseases move very rapidly while others are slow and painful. Treatments are sometimes useful yet other times nothing can stop the silent beasts that lurk in the body. Parkinson’s disease is a slow moving disease that slowly corrupts the brain. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic motor disorder that causes tremors, rigidity, slowed body movements, unstable posture and abnormal gait. This happens when neurons, nerve cells, in a part or the brain called the substantial nigra gradually die. These cells normally produce dopamine, a chemical that helps relay messages between areas of the brain that control body movement. The death of the cells leads to abnormal low levels of dopamine, and causes difficulty in controlling muscle tension and muscle movement both at rest and during periods of activity. PD as of now affects about 500,000 Americans, with about 50,000 new cases diagnosed each year. It is generally a disease that affects people of late or middle age at about age 60 however about 5 percent of patients have early-onset PD and are younger than 40 years old when symptoms begin. PD is slightly more common in men then women. So far scientists have not determined the reason why some people develop PD and others do not. Some experts blame a process called oxidation. During oxidation unstable molecules that areproduced in the brain as a result of its normal chemical reactions which ultimately damage the brain.......

Words: 3594 - Pages: 15

Parkinson's Disease

...Parkinson’s disease Parkinson's disease (PD) is a disorder that affects the central nervous system.  It affects the body’s movement abilities and creates symptoms such as involuntary shaking of the body. Researchers believe that at least 500,000 people in the United States currently have PD, although some estimates are much higher. Society pays an enormous price for PD. The total cost to the nation is estimated to exceed $6 billion annually.  The risk of PD increases with age, so analysts expect the financial and public health impact of this disease to increase as the population gets older. To date, there are no specific diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease. Diagnosis can only be made by an expert examination after the person has already developed symptoms. Biochemical measures can be used such as a screening strategy monitoring the dopamine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Otherwise, specifically 6(18F)dopa positron emission tomography can be used for a direct measurement of dopamine activity. Using a computer to assess movement time is another test for Parkinson's disease. To examine the electrophysiological characteristics of tremor and preclinical nigral dysfunction characteristic of Parkinson's EMG (electromyography recordings) can be used. Finally, a symptomatic screening is often utilized and consists of nine symptom related questions, as well as disease specific and drug specific questions. This provides an indirect functional measure of the......

Words: 1572 - Pages: 7

Neurodegenerative Disorders: Alzheimer’s Disease

...Neurodegenerative Disorders: Alzheimer’s Disease 1. Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains a major cause of senile dementia, which is characterised by an impairment of neuronal and synaptic function in addition to the accumulation of β-amyloid plaque and formation of neurofibrillary tangles within distinct portions of the brain (De Strooper and Annaert, 2000). Progression of this distinct pathology of neurodegeneration does not typically vary from patient to patient, beginning in cerebral cortex before targeting the hippocampus, neocortex as well as the sub-cortical nuclei (Braak and Braak, 1995). The role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease is pivotal. The cleavage of APP by the proteases β and γ- secretase releases β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides which results in aggregation of the peptides due to misfolding to form fibrils of Aβ which comprise the key components of amyloid plaque deposits in the brains of AD patients (Glenner and Wong, 1984). Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a trans-membrane glycoprotein which normally functions in synapse formation as well as axonal elongation. The protein possesses a small cytoplasmic domain but is composed primarily of a large extracellular domain. Processing of APP in the extracellular domain by α or β- secretase results in the complete removal of the protein’s ectodomain which gives rise to an accumulation of sizeable and soluble derivatives of APP referred to......

Words: 2251 - Pages: 10

Dance Therapy for Parkinson's Patients

...Introduction “Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease that belongs to the group of conditions called motor system disorders”. PD cannot yet be cured and patients get worse over time as the normal bodily functions, including breathing, balance, movement, and heart function worsen. The most common type of Parkinson disease is idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD), first described by James Parkinson, an English physician, in 1817 as paralysis agitans (the shaking palsy). Parkinson’s disease most often occurs after the age of 50 and is one of the most common nervous system disorders of the elderly. PD is caused by the progressive loss of dopamine brain cells (neurons) in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra. It is characterized by tremor, slowness of movements (bradykinesia), stiffness (rigidity). Postural imbalance and gait disturbances. Other symptoms can include depression and anxiety etc. (causes, diagnosis, treatment and symptoms refer appendix I). One approach to reducing the symptoms of PD is through the use of exercise. Traditional exercise approaches to deal with gait and balance difficulties may include dynamic balance training, treadmill training, or strength training. Recommendations have been made regarding key components of an exercise program designed for those with PD. Keus et al. recommend four key areas: i) cueing strategies to improve gait, ii) cognitive movement strategies to improve transfers, iii) exercises......

Words: 2811 - Pages: 12

Parkinson’s Disease

...first sign of Parkinson’s disease and the most common, stiffness or slowing of body movement also can be signs of the onset of the disease. Even though many people have never seen nor have knowledge of Parkinson’s disease it is real, and it is a disorder that is progressive and involves the nervous system affecting your everyday movement. Your face shows little or no expression any more, if you have not learned to hide your expressions it maybe an early sign of Parkinson’s disease. The signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease will vary with each individual, and since early signs can be mild it is possible they are also unnoticed. This disease starts on one side of the body first, before the second side is affected, but the first side will always remain the worst. Some of the signs and symptoms may include: tremor or shaking which usually begins in your hands or fingers, slowed movement (bradykinesia) over time can occur, rigid or stiff muscles can occur in many parts of the body, impaired posture and balance, loss of automatic movements (blinking, smiling, swing of arms when walking), speech changes, and changes in how a person writes. The cause of Parkinson’s disease still remains unknown, but there are several factors that seem to play a part in it. There are certain genetic mutations that have been identified that can cause Parkinson’s disease, but they are rare. There are certain gene variations that appear to increase the risk of this disease. If......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Parkinson's Disease

...Parkinson’s Disease Carley Drye Bio 330-002 Dr. Blais Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that falls under the category of motor disorders. It is caused by the loss of dopamine-producing neurons, which allow for the ability to move with ease. The four signature symptoms of PD are a resting tremor, stiffness, slowness of movement, and postural instability. The disease is most common in people over the age of fifty and also affects more men than women. 6,000 people in the United States are diagnosed each year with the disease. There are currently no consistent blood or imaging tests that indicate a person has Parkinson’s. Instead, a complete family history is taken, and a neurological examination is performed by the physician to test for the most common symptoms. There is presently no cure for this progressive disease, but several treatments have been developed that effectively treat many of the symptoms. The discovery of Parkinson’s disease began in 1817 when James Parkinson wrote a book after observing several patients in his hospital with what he called a “shaking palsy” (1). Fifty years later, in 1867, the scientist Jean-Martin Charcot broadened the description of the disease. He and his students were able to distinguish PD from multiple sclerosis and other diseases characterized by tremoring. Additionally, they developed a clinical spectrum for the disease based on different typed of symptoms (1). They had observed......

Words: 2971 - Pages: 12

Cellular Effects

...Cellular Technology and Society Today , Political & Economic ., Health, Psychological & Sociological , Cellular Technology & History , Moral & Sociological DeVry University LAS432 Society, Ethics, and Technology   Abstract The following paper will discuss the psychological and sociological impact of cellular technology. Cellular technology has seen rapid growth in technology and in personal use. Texting has now become the dominant means of communication and actual conversation skills are diminishing. Exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted from cellular devices has become a concern and is being studied from many various angles to determine actual health risks from cell phone use. Whether it is for personal or business use, the cell phone has become a permanent fixture in our lives, could have potential health risks, and can become an addiction if necessary steps are not taken to control use and dependency.   Cellular Technology and Society Today At any store they are visible. They have their hand plastered to their ear or they are seemingly talking to no one. These are the cellphone users. Hayley Tsukayama, a writer for the Washington post asserts that according to the Pew Internet and Life Project only seventeen percent of Americans still have a land line and ninety percent own a cellphone. (Tsukayama, 2014) The largest contributor to this trend is convenience. Most cellular devices are small and easily portable, allowing the user to move around freely...

Words: 19048 - Pages: 77

Cellular Aging

...be correlated with poor health in various studies which include risks to cardiovascular disease and poor immune function (Epel et. al, 2004). Epel et. al investigates whether stress may accelerate cellular aging translating to diseases associated with organismal aging. Telomeres, a vital component of chromosomes, provides chromosomal stability as a repeated nucleotide sequence cap. DNA Polymerase struggles to replicate the ends of linear molecules therefore the ends of telomeres are not fully replicated causing telomeres to shorten with each replication in somatic cells (Epel et. al). As a result, their length are typically used as a measure of biological “age”. Additionally, telomerase is another crucial component considered to analyze cellular aging. Telomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of required T2AG3 repeats onto 3’ ends of the telomeres; individuals with diminished telomerase may suffer from shortened telomeres (Epel et. al). Zglinicki et. al has demonstrated in vitro that oxidative stress can result in shortened telomeres and notably perceived stress has been linked to oxidative stress in leukocytes. Epel et. al hypothesize that chronic psychological stress may result in telomere shortening, oxidative stress, and reduced telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Objective and subjective stress is studied to examine its importance in cellular aging. To differentiate subjective and objective stress 58 healthy premenopausal mothers...

Words: 690 - Pages: 3

Cellular Structures

...Microbiology Unit 2 ass 1 Cellular Structures A cell needs many things to fully function. Three important parts of a cell is the cell wall, plasmid and the flagellum. The cell wall gives the cell a barrier from things around it. It protect the cell. Plasmid is a DNA molecule. Flagellum is a “tail” that wipes back and forth allowing the cell to move. Plasmid is found in bacteria. They need a host to live of. It is a clone of the bacteria’s DNA. It typically provided the bacteria with genetic advantages, such as antibiotic resistance. Plasmid can be passed to other cells through a process called conjugation. Plasmid can be cloned into daughter cells thousands of times, making it easy to spread the bacteria’s DNA. Plasmid is not said to be live just like a viruses. Plasmid is very important if come type of organism is about to die, because plasmid can quickly clone the DNA of the organisms allowing for growth. Today microbiologists use plasmid in many forms to help people. They use it in gene therapy so it can find the protein that is missing. In history they used plasmid to genetically engineer the embryonic stem cells of rats in order to create rat genetic disease models. A flagellum is a tail at the end of cells that whips back and forth pushing the cell up. Is does not allow for the cell to go backwards. It can allow it to go clockwise. The main point is to move the cell. It also can hook onto a host, and then the cell can enters its host. There are 3 types...

Words: 332 - Pages: 2

Parkinson's Disease

...Abbey Ward Period 1 Parkinson’s disease Symptoms and Diagnosis Parkinson’s disease, other known as PD, is motor system disorder. The trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw and face are main symptom of PD; along with stiffness of limbs, slow movements, impaired balance and/or coordination. If symptoms begin to become worse patients with PD may difficulty walking, talking, or even completing simple tasks. A diagnosis can be made by looking at the patient’s medical history and a neurological exam sometimes a brain scan or labs test may be done to rule out the possibilities of other diseases. Etiology PD is caused by low dopamine levels, a chemical that is involved in controlling movements. Low levels happen when the brain makes dopamine break down; there is no known cause for the breakdown to occur. Scientists believe that PD may have links with genetics and/or age. Pathogenesis The lack of dopamine in the basal ganglia, where most of motor controls are located, causes the motor functions to be greatly affected. This lends to the constant trembling within the hands, arms, legs, etc. The trembling throughout the body limbs can cause balancing and/or coordination problems. Epidemiology PD can affect anyone no matter what their social or economic class, or even geographic area. About fifty thousand American are diagnosed with PD. Statistics show that it affects men more often than women, along with affecting whites more than African Americans or Asians. Age is......

Words: 297 - Pages: 2

Parkinson's Disease

...Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects four major areas which are: the motor system, cognitive or thought changes, behavioral and emotional changes, and the autonomic nervous system. Symptoms of PD may be subtle at first and usually progress very slowly. They are often thought to be part of normal aging. However, early symptoms strongly correlated with eventual PD diagnosis include impaired sense of smell, constipation, slow reaction time, excessive daytime sleepiness, and impaired executive function (the brain's cognitive tasks that include organizing information, solving problems, forming concepts, and making decisions). Atlas, S., Matthews, J. R., Fritsvold, E., & Vinall, P. E. (2014). Ella’s father, Frederic is often referred to as the “shakey grandpa” by the grandchildren and great grandchildren due to the manifestation of some symptoms of his Parkinson’s disease. Joe who is Frederic’s grandson might see things differently and understand why his grandfather is called “shakey grandpa” as compared to Ella’s husband John who is superstitious. He might even tell the grandchildren Frederic is possessed with bad spirits that’s why he shakes. Even though he might understand that it is a disease he might be in denial and not accept it. There are challenges that a person with Parkinson's disease confronts. There will be times when he or she can function almost normally and then other times when he or she will be very dependent. This is a......

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

About Parkinson's Disease

...arkinson's Disease: Is It All In the Brain? :: 6 Works Cited :: 6 Sources Cited Length: 1098 words (3.1 double-spaced pages) Rating: Red (FREE) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Parkinson's Disease: Is It All In the Brain? "When I should go lay down on the couch, but I know that I will never find a comfortable position, so if I'm to be uncomfortable, it may as well be here, in front of this gently glowing screen. I feel the last of last night's meds burn away in my throat and then the dreaded "heebie-jeebies" come" (6). Parkinson's disease otherwise named the "shaking palsy" in 1817 by James Parkinson affects 50,000 Americans every year. The risk of the disease is higher amongst men giving them twice risk of developing Parkinson's disease compared to women (5). It is not clear why men are more prone to getting the disease, but it may be related to them not having the female hormone estrogen. (5). The general population that is at risk for developing Parkinson's disease are people older than fifty (1,5).The disease is related to a motor system disorder that cause the patient's hands, legs, jaw, face, and arms to tremor. Parkinson's disease may also cause bradykinesia (slowness of movement) as well as a loss of balance, and a difficulty in doing ordinary daily activities such as walking, talking, eating, and writing (1,2,5). How does this disease then affect the I-Function? If we already have all of our learned......

Words: 1183 - Pages: 5

What Are the Risks of an Elderly Man with Parkinson's Disease Developing Further Complications After Getting an Electrode Implant Compared to an Elderly Man with Parkinson's Disease Without an Electrode Implant?

...Ryan Walsh McHenry County College Fall 2015 Abstract: If a patient that has Parkinson's Disease (PD) there is an electrical implant they can receive called Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation (STN-DBS) that is extremely effective in curing the disabling neurological symptoms, most commonly the debilitating motor symptoms of PD. The reason I'm doing this doing this research is to see the negative outcomes of the surgery. I am looking for any emotional or cognitive consequences that can occur in the long-term or short-term time periods. Through my research, I have found that there are some side effects such as: change in mood and behavior, trouble creating and expressing words and having a hard time recognizing facial expressions. I have also found out that there have been cases that have occurred with no negative long-term or short-term effects. Regarding these possible negative consequences, I personally have worked as a caregiver taking care of multiple people with PD and I have seen the extreme negative consequences with the rigidity of their bodies and the danger they put themselves in when they try to do menial tasks such as trying to go to the bathroom. I feel as if the positive outcomes outweigh the negative consequences with the STN-DBS implant. If I personally had PD, I would wait another 10-15 years until more research is done for the negative consequences. Annotated Bibliography Pham, U.,......

Words: 3248 - Pages: 13

Parkinson's Disease

...Parkinson’s Disease Part 1 Melissa Whisman King University NURS 3005 Pathophysiology Jessica Belnap Parkinson’s Disease Part 1 Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common and complex neurodegenerative disorder. It is second only to Alzheimer’s disease in commonality (Lees, A. J.,2011). Parkinson’s disease is a slowly progressive degenerative disorder and is usually idiopathic. The first extensive description of Parkinson’s Disease was written over 2 hundred years ago. In 1817, English physician James Parkinson write an essay describing six causes of a condition called paralysis agitans (Lees, A.J., 2011). The essay, titled “Essay on the Shaking Palsy” described characteristic traits such as resting tremor, abnormal posture and gait, paralysis, and decreased muscle strength, and the way the condition progressed over a period of time (Lees, A.J., 2011). Early neurologists such as Trousseau, Gowers, Kinnier Wilson, and Erb made contributions to the knowledge of Parkinson’s disease. But the most noteworthy was Jean-Martin Charcot. His specific studies between 1868 and 1881 proved to be the turning point in gaining knowledge about the disease (Lees, A.J., 2011). During this particular period of time, Charcot was able to distinguish between muscle rigidity, muscle weakness, and the slowness of movement, also known as bradykinesia. Charcot was instrumental in renaming the disease in honor of James Parkinson. In 1912, Frederic Lewy observed microscopic particles in the...

Words: 2250 - Pages: 9