Chapter Iii Methodology Research Design to Achieve Its Purpose, This Research Study Employed the Descriptive. According to Manuel and Medel, Descriptive Research Is the Norm or Standard of Population. It Involves the

In: Other Topics

Submitted By xeniaacebuche
Words 3000
Pages 12
CHAPTER I
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Introduction Alcohol is the drug of choice among youth. Many young people are experiencing the consequences of drinking too

much, at too early age as a result, at too early age as a

result, underage drinking is a leading public health problem in

this country.

As children move from adolescent to young adulthood,

they lifestyle changes, development transition, such as puberty

and increasing independent, have been associated with alcohol

use. So in a sense, just being an adolescent maybe a key risk

factor not only for starting to drink but for drinking dangerously.

Drinking at an early age has been associated with

later alcoholism and drinking problems in several countries.

This has led some people to believe that delaying the age at which

young people first drink alcohol might reduce the later incidence of

alcohol abuse and alcoholism. That might work if drinking at

age actually causes subsequent alcohol problems. ¹

__________________________
¹ Wikipedia free encyclopedia, internet

------------------------------------------------- However, there is growing evidence that early
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- drinking, in societies not permitting it, is not the cause, but
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- only a symptom of an underlying predisposition to alcoholism and
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- other behavioral problems. Now another research study has found
-------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------- evidence suggesting that early onset of drinking is not a cause…...

Similar Documents

Research Methodology

...RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Reference: 1. Dawson, Catherine, 2002, Practical Research Methods, New Delhi, UBS Publishers’Distributors 2. Kothari, C.R.,1985, Research Methodology- Methods and Techniques, New Delhi, Wiley Eastern Limited. 3.Kumar, Ranjit, 2005, Research Methodology-A Beginners,(2nd.ed.),Singapore, Pearson Education. Step-by-Step Guide for RESEARCH: a way of examining your practice… Research is undertaken within most professions. More than a set of skills, it is a way of thinking: examining critically the various aspects of your professional work. It is a habit of questioning what you do, and a systematic examination of the observed information to find answers with a view to instituting appropriate changes for a more effective professional service. DEFINITION OF RESEARCH When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question, you are implying that the process; 1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( approaches); 2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability; 3. is designed to be unbiased and objective . Philosophies means approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy. Unbiased and objective means that you......

Words: 10466 - Pages: 42

Research Methodology

...CHAPTER 4 Research Methodology and Design 4.1 Introduction All research is based on some underlying philosophical assumptions about what constitutes 'valid' research and which research method(s) is/are appropriate for the development of knowledge in a given study. In order to conduct and evaluate any research, it is therefore important to know what these assumptions are. This chapter discusses the philosophical assumptions and also the design strategies underpinning this research study. Common philosophical assumptions were reviewed and presented; the interpretive paradigm was identified for the framework of the study. In addition, the chapter discusses the research methodologies, and design used in the study including strategies, instruments, and data collection and analysis methods, while explaining the stages and processes involved in the study. The research design for this study is a descriptive and interpretive case study that is analysed through qualitative methods. Questionnaires were used to evaluate participants’ WebCT skills (before the course starts) and to determine their levels of satisfaction in the course (at the end of the case study). A descriptive statistical method was used to analyze the student satisfaction survey. Participant observation, face-to-face interviews, focus-group interviews, questionnaires, and member checking were used as data collection methods. Furthermore, the justification for each of the data collection methods used in the......

Words: 14381 - Pages: 58

Other Descriptive Research Methods

...Other Descriptive Research Methods l Developmental research l Case study l Job analysis l Observational research l Correlational studies ~Developmental Research l Is the study of changes in behaviors across years. l Infancy, childhood, adolescence, as well as, elderly.� The total human life span. l Longitudinal � follow same individuals over time l Cross-sectional � select different participants at each age level ~Longitudinal designs l Are time-consuming l Drop out rate l Participants become increasingly familiar with the test items l Items may cause a change in behavior ~Cross-Sectional Studies l Are less time-consuming l A cohort problem exists: are the environmental circumstances the same for all the cohorts l Either the longitudinal or cross-sectional studies can also be experimental as well as developmental (covered in chapter 17) ~Methodological Problems of Developmental Research l Unrepresented scores: Called outliers Occur in all research but more common in developmental research (children and seniors) Caused from shorter attention spans, distraction, and lack of motivation to do the task.� Plan the testing session within a reasonable time Prevent distractions Retest when one occurs Unclear Semantics Using words that the children will understand Understanding what is expected of them must be a concern Lack of reliability In younger children�s response Performances should be the same......

Words: 981 - Pages: 4

Chapter 3 Research Methodology

...CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design This chapter presents the methodology of the study by which the research activities were undertaken. This included the research design, the subject of the study, the locale, the research instruments, data gathering procedure and statistical treatment of data. Method of Study This study used the descriptive correlation method since its purpose was to determine the existing condition of the students’ study habits and their academic achievement. Moreover, it also described the existing relationship between students’ academic achievement and their learning environment. According to Good and Scales, a descriptive investigation includes all the studies that support to present facts concerning the nature and status of anything – a group of persons, a number of objects, a set of conditions, a class of events, a system of thought, or any kind of phenomena which one may wish to study. Subjects of the Study The subjects of the study were the Fourth Year High School students from Public and Private schools in Taguig. See Table 1 for the breakdown of sample. Table 1 School Type Male Female Total Total This study focused on the study habits and learning environment in relation to the academic achievement of Fourth Year level students of President Diosdado Macapagal High School, Signal Village National High School, Athens Academy and Royal Era which were utilized as the samples of the study. It was composed of...

Words: 635 - Pages: 3

Descriptive Research Report

...2013 Descriptive Research Report Fashion Clothing Purchases Student Name: Student Number: Tutor: Tutorial Time: Word Count: Table of Contents Abstract………………………………………………………………………………. 1.0 Introduction and Background…………………………………………………… 2.1 Importance of the research…………………………………………………... 2.2 Scope of the report…………………………………………………………… 2.3 Research problem/question………………………………………………….. 2.4 Aims and objectives…………………………………………………………... 2.0 Method……………………………………………………………………………... 2.1 Methodological considerations and assumptions…………………………… 2.2 Sample considerations………………………………………………………… 2.3 Data collection and framework, and analytical considerations…………… 3.0 Ethical consideration……………………………………………………………… 4.0 Analysis……………………………………………………………………………. 5.5 Data cleaning and coding…………………………………………………….. 5.6 Descriptives…………………………………………………………………………... 5.7 Exploring the Data (t-Tests)………………………………………………………… 5.8 Correlation…………………………………………………………………………… 5.9 Multiple regression…………………………………………………………… 5.10.1 Gender………………………………………………………………………. 5.10.2 Generational cohort………………………………………………………… 5.10.3 Relationship status………………………………………………………….. 5.10.4 Social Desirability…………………………………………………………... 5.0 Findings and Recommendations…………………………………………………. 6.10 Interpretation of the data …………………………………………………… 6.11 What this means for managers and for the next stage of the......

Words: 4551 - Pages: 19

Research Methodology Research and Design

...Assignment after class 6 Research design and research strategies: overview and distinctive features 2. Problem of safety on construction sites For the safety on construction sites: The degree to which the research question has been crystallized: Exploratory study. It is just a study to gain insights on the topic. The method of data-collection: Monitoring or interrogation/communication, It really depends on how they want to approach the situation. I think the method of interrogation and communication is the best, as the workers on the site probably know best where the dangers are to the safety on the construction site. The power of the researcher to influence the variables under study: Experimental, the researcher shouldn’t influence the variables since then the conclusions taken from the research will be false or biased. The purpose of the study: causal. We want to learn the causes of working accidents so the chances that these situations occur can be reduced to a minimum. The time dimension: ? The topical scope – breadth and depth – of the study: this really depends on whether we want to collect information over multiple construction sites, or just one construction site. If we want to learn general ideas about all construction sites in a certain region or from a certain company it would be best to use a census or sample type approach. If we want to gain information about a particular site, a case study seems the most efficient and cost effective way to approach......

Words: 1798 - Pages: 8

Research Methodology

...Welcome to Research Rundowns, a blog intended to simplify research methods in educational settings.  I hope this site can serve as a quick, practical, and more importantly, relevant resource on how to read, conduct, and write research. The contents are an expansion and revision of my class materials, intended for use as a refresher or as a free introductory research methods course. Topics are organized into five main sections, with subsections (in parentheses): * Introduction (INTRO)–a brief overview of educational research methods (3) * Quantitative Methods (QUANT)–descriptive and inferential statistics (5) * Qualitative Methods (QUAL)–descriptive and thematic analysis (2) * Mixed Methods (MIXED)–integrated, synthesis, and multi-method approaches (1) * Research Writing (WRITING)–literature review and research report guides (5) Most subsection contains a non-technical description of the topic, a how-to interpret guide, a how-to set-up and analyze guide using free online calculators or Excel, and a wording results guide. All materials are available for general use, following the Creative Commons License. Introduction (INTRO)–a brief overview of educational research methods 1. What is Educational Research? (uploaded 7.17.09) 2. Writing Research Questions (uploaded 7.20.09) 3. Experimental Design (uploaded 7.20.09) ------------------------------------------------- Experimental Design The basic idea of experimental design involves......

Words: 13095 - Pages: 53

Descriptive Research Methods

...University of Phoenix Material Descriptive Research Methods Worksheet Please list 5 research methods that you have reviewed from the book or video in the chart below. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages a researcher should consider when determining which methods to use. |Research Methods |Advantages |Disadvantages | |1. questionnaires |Ability to contact a large group of people quickly, get the | You do not get the questionnaires back all the time and some of them do not come | | |quantitative method of what you need, everyone is having the |back complete, the questionnaire relies on how the questions are phrased, they are | | |exactly same questions so it increases data, reliable. |shallow and only ask the questions they need to know. | |2. interviews |Able to understand the respondent’s views, gather more valid |Interviews are hard to quantify, can be hard to interpret, and they are more | | |information, and allow more flexibility. |difficult to replicate. | |3. naturalistic observation ...

Words: 550 - Pages: 3

Research Methodology

... | 2015 | | University Name Student Name | [Research Methodology Assignment] | This research specifies information needed, issues addressed, methods and a design of collecting information, how data collection has been managed and implemented, analyzed and lastly communicates the results and findings and their implications with Literature and evidence. | Table of Contents Background 2 Literature Review 2 Overview of the Marketing Research Procedure 2 Stages of Marketing Research Procedure 2 Stage 1: Purpose of Market Research 2 Stage 2: Research Objective 3 Stage 3: Estimation of value of research 4 Stage 4: Research Design 4 Exploratory research 4 Data Analysis 4 Questionnaire, Sampling and Sampling size designing 4 Stage 5: Data Collection 6 Stage 6: Data Analysis 6 Stage 7: Result and Presentation 7 Marketing Research Process of Tesco goes to China Analysis 7 Background 7 Stage 1 Research Purpose 7 References 8 Background The reason behind choosing the Market research is because as stated by Philip Kotler (2007), it defines the first step of economic process. And it links to the consumers, public to marketer, customers and lets you identify, define and analyse marketing opportunities and issues pertinent to the marketing. The process of market research renders researcher scope to evaluate process, generate, refine and define marketing current actions. It helps to monitor market performances, and also enables a clear picture of understanding the......

Words: 4728 - Pages: 19

Research Methodology

...RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ( For Private Circulation Only) Reference: 1. Dawson, Catherine, 2002, Practical Research Methods, New Delhi, UBS Publishers’Distributors 2. Kothari, C.R.,1985, Research Methodology- Methods and Techniques, New Delhi, Wiley Eastern Limited. 3.Kumar, Ranjit, 2005, Research Methodology-A Beginners,(2nd.ed.),Singapore, Pearson Education. Step-by-Step Guide for RESEARCH: a way of examining your practice… Research is undertaken within most professions. More than a set of skills, it is a way of thinking: examining critically the various aspects of your professional work. It is a habit of questioning what you do, and a systematic examination of the observed information to find answers with a view to instituting appropriate changes for a more effective professional service. DEFINITION OF RESEARCH When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question, you are implying that the process; 1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( approaches); 2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability; 3. is designed to be unbiased and objective . Philosophies means approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy.......

Words: 10492 - Pages: 42

Descriptive Research

...Texas A&M University – Commerce Department of Engineering & Technology TMGT 595 – Applied Research in Engineering & Technology Descriptive Research Study & Final Manuscript Each student will select a research topic of their choice appropriate to their degree field (technology management, safety management, or management information systems). Research topics must be submitted and approved by the instructor. A research question will be formulated for the topic and a descriptive archival study will be conducted. A descriptive study does not seek to show causal effects rather it is used to establish what currently exists. Data collection is commonly performed with surveys, questionnaires, standardized tests, or other direct observation instruments. The time limitation within the course does not permit a full descriptive study to be conducted. Rather than developing instruments and collecting actual data (which should not be done), each student will utilize data and findings from related published studies to establish what currently exists for a given phenomenon. The study will culminate in the preparation of a research paper suitable for publication. Each student will investigate and identify a journal that would be appropriate for their research paper topic. Note: The paper does not have to actually be submitted for publication. ------------------------------------------------- Each assignment is to be a unique and individual project. ......

Words: 1832 - Pages: 8

Research Methodology

...Research Methodology Name Institutional Affiliations Chapter III: Research Methodology 3.1 Introduction The methodology chapter will identify and discuss the methods of research applied in the current study and justify their ability to achieve the predetermined objectives and aims. The principal concepts for discussion in the chapter will include the type of research, time and location of research, sampling and data collection, measures of variables, data analysis, and the ethical consideration in the order. The selection of the research methodology is crucial in the achievement of the aims and objectives and, as a result, it should have a significant level of priority and consideration of the expectations and most viable options. A reflection of the reality and practicability of abstract ideas are key concepts in the development of a realistic and highly performing approach to research that will reach the laid expectations through the use of the available instruments and knowledge (Creswell, 2014). The methodology adopted for a study should always be the one with the potential to provide the best results with the input of the least resources, especially with the consideration of the value of time. The introduction and literature review chapters of the dissertation provide the foundation for the current section as they provide the definitions and relationships of the subjects. The hypotheses developed from the cumulated knowledge are the principal measurements......

Words: 7295 - Pages: 30

Research Methodology: an Introduction

...Research Methodology: An Introduction 1 1 Research Methodology: An Introduction MEANING OF RESEARCH Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as “a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.”1 Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”2 Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness for, when the unknown confronts us, we wonder and our inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research. Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether......

Words: 12045 - Pages: 49

Research Methodology

...RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ( For Private Circulation Only) Reference: 1. Dawson, Catherine, 2002, Practical Research Methods, New Delhi, UBS Publishers’Distributors 2. Kothari, C.R.,1985, Research Methodology- Methods and Techniques, New Delhi, Wiley Eastern Limited. 3.Kumar, Ranjit, 2005, Research Methodology-A Beginners,(2nd.ed.),Singapore, Pearson Education. Step-by-Step Guide for RESEARCH: a way of examining your practice… Research is undertaken within most professions. More than a set of skills, it is a way of thinking: examining critically the various aspects of your professional work. It is a habit of questioning what you do, and a systematic examination of the observed information to find answers with a view to instituting appropriate changes for a more effective professional service. DEFINITION OF RESEARCH When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question, you are implying that the process; 1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( approaches); 2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability; 3. is designed to be unbiased and objective . Philosophies means approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy.......

Words: 10470 - Pages: 42

Research Methodology

...RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ( For Private Circulation Only) Reference: 1. Dawson, Catherine, 2002, Practical Research Methods, New Delhi, UBS Publishers’Distributors 2. Kothari, C.R.,1985, Research Methodology- Methods and Techniques, New Delhi, Wiley Eastern Limited. 3.Kumar, Ranjit, 2005, Research Methodology-A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners,(2nd.ed.),Singapore, Pearson Education. RESEARCH: a way of examining your practice… Research is undertaken within most professions. More than a set of skills, it is a way of thinking: examining critically the various aspects of your professional work. It is a habit of questioning what you do, and a systematic examination of the observed information to find answers with a view to instituting appropriate changes for a more effective professional service. DEFINITION OF RESEARCH When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question, you are implying that the process; 1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( approaches); 2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability; 3. is designed to be unbiased and objective . Philosophies means approaches e.g. qualitative, quantitative and the academic discipline in which you have been trained. Validity means that correct procedures have been applied to find answers to a question. Reliability refers to the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability......

Words: 10476 - Pages: 42