Chemistry Practical Guide

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NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS CURRICULUM SUPPORT

Chemistry

A Practical Guide

Support Materials

[REVISED ADVANCED HIGHER]

[pic]

The Scottish Qualifications Authority regularly reviews the arrangements for National Qualifications. Users of all NQ support materials, whether published by Education Scotland or others, are reminded that it is their responsibility to check that the support materials correspond to the requirements of the current arrangements.

Acknowledgement
© Crown copyright 2012. You may re-use this information (excluding logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the Open Government Licence. To view this licence, visit http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/ or e-mail: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.
Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned.

Any enquiries regarding this document/publication should be sent to us at enquiries@educationscotland.gov.uk.
This document is also available from our website at www.educationscotland.gov.uk.

Contents

Introduction 5

Chemical analysis 6
Qualitative and quantitative analysis 6
Volumetric analysis 6
Gravimetric analysis 14
Colorimetric analysis 17

Organic techniques 22
Introduction 22
Preparation 22
Isolation 24
Purification 29
Identification 33
Percentage yield 37

Errors 39
Accuracy and precision 39
Repeatability and reproducibility 41
Quantifying errors 41
Absolute uncertainties and percentage uncertainties 42
Combining uncertainties 43
Some ‘forgotten’ uncertainties 46

Experiments 53
Experiment 1A: Preparation of a standard solution of 0.1 mol l–1 oxalic acid 53
Experiment 1B: Standardisation of approximately 0.1 mol l–1 sodium hydroxide 55
Experiment 1C: Determination of the ethanoic acid…...

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