Ciccarelli Chap 5

In: Science

Submitted By kashoo13
Words 1937
Pages 8
Chapter 5: Learning I. Definition of Learning any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice relatively permanent aspect of learning refers to learning being associated with physical changes in the brain experience although physical changes may be present we may not always be able to “get” to the information Maturation * Not all change is accomplished through learning. Changes like an increase in height or the size of the brain are another kind of change controlled by a genetic blueprint. * is due to biology, not experience II. Classical Conditioning learning to elicit an involuntary reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex. Ivan Pavlov focused on observable, measurable behavior; worked with salivating dogs * Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) * unconditioned means “unlearned.” * ordinarily leads to the reflex response * Unconditioned response (UCR) * involuntary (reflex) response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus * Natural Stimulus (NS) * stimulus that has no effect on the desired response * the sight of the food dish itself became a stimulus for salivation before the food was given to the dogs. Every time they got food (to which they reflexively salivated), they saw the dish. It had no effect on salivation. * Conditioned stimulus (CS) * stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus. * After being paired with the food so many times, the dish came to produce the same salivation response * When a previously neutral stimulus, through repeated pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, begins to cause the same…...

Similar Documents

Chap 8

...CHAPTER 8 BOND MARKETS CHAPTER OVERVIEW AND LEARNING OBJECTIVES ( This is the second of six chapters related to the study of financial markets. They are: (1) Money Markets; (2) Bond Markets; (3) Mortgage Markets; (4) Equity Markets (5) Derivatives Markets; and (6) International Markets. ( In part four and five of this text we will study specific financial institutions and their involvement (investing and/or financing) in various markets. ( The bond capital market finances "real investment," including commercial and consumer real estate construction, business plant and equipment, Federal Government deficit spending, and bridges, turnpikes, etc. of state and local governments. ( Long-term securities are purchased by capital market investors who desire income over the long term – pension funds, mutual funds, life and casualty insurance companies, and individuals. READING THE WALL STREET JOURNAL The Credit Markets column, located in the Money & Investing section (C), provides a daily analysis of major happenings in the U.S. credit markets. Included are discussions about new bond issues, changing rates, issues facing bond investors, etc. Want to understand what drives funds into and out of bond markets? Read this column daily and learn! CAREER PLANNING NOTE: Bonds are investment banks’ savior during the times when stock markets do not do well. It’s not only companies that use bonds to raise money – governments and government......

Words: 4377 - Pages: 18

Chap 6 History

...Terms and Names 1. Upton Sinclair was a journalist who focused his novel on the human condition of the stockyards in Chicago. 2. The Jungle, written by Upton Sinclair, exposed the conditions of the meatpacking industry. 3. Theodore Roosevelt was originally the McKinley’s vice-president, but after McKinley was assassinated, Roosevelt became president. He was also the youngest president at 42 years old. 4. The Square Deal is the term Roosevelt used to describe the various progressive reforms he sponsored. 5. The Meat Inspection Act introduced strict sanitary requirements for meatpackers and created the federal meat inspection. 6. The Pure Food and Drug act was passed by congress in 1906. It halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and demanded veracity in labeling. 7. Conservation, to Muir was the complete preservation of the wilderness. While to Roosevelt and Pinchot, it meant that some wilderness will the preserved while others will be developed. 8. The NAACP stood for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The NAACP’s purpose was to achieve equality among the races. Critical Thinking Forming Generalizations: Experts greatly influenced Roosevelt’s reforms. Upton Sinclair, an expert on the meat scandal, greatly influenced Roosevelt’s Meat Inspection Act by exposing the unsanitary conditions of the meatpacking industry. Dr. Harvey Washington, a Chief Chemist at the Department of Agriculture,......

Words: 411 - Pages: 2

Chap 6 Cost Leadership

...Chap 6 Cost Leadership Cost Leadership Strategies gaining advantage by reducing its economic costs below all of its competitors. 1. What are the major sources of cost advantages? a. Size differences and economies of scale: Exist when AC(Q)↓=TC(Q)/Q↑, until reach to optimal volume of production * Volume of Production and Specialized machines: Only big volume company has the ability to buy new machines to save cost. * Volume of Production and Cost of Plat and Equipment: Volume↑, per-unit-cost manufacturing operations↓ * Volume of Production and Employee Specialization: Volume↑, employment more specialized, cost↓ * Volume of Production and Overhead Costs b. Size differences and diseconomies of scale: when other firms grow beyond the optimal firm size, a smaller firm (which a level of production closer to the optimal) may obtain a cost advantage. * Physical limits to efficient size * Managerial diseconomies: too large to manage efficiently * Worker motivation * Distance to Market and Suppliers: transportation cost is too expensive and eat up those profit. c. Experience differences and Learning-curve economies: cumulated volume of production greater experience in manufacturing a product or service cost↓ * Learning curve vs economic scale: a) cumulated volume vs the volume at a given point in time and average units cost. b) Optimal volume affects cost per unit vs No optimal volume affects cost per unit ...

Words: 555 - Pages: 3

Chap 2 Review Question

...important to an organization because without it an organization will lose its record of transactions and/or its ability to furnish valuable deliverables to its customers. Other assets that require protection include the ability of the organization to function, the safe operation of applications, and technology assets. 3. Both general management and IT management are responsible for implementing information security. 4. The implementation of networking technology has created more risk for businesses that use information technology because business networks are now connected to the internet and other networks external to the organization. This has made it easier for people to gain unauthorized access to the organization's networks. 5. Information extortion occurs when an attacker steals information from a computer system and demands compensation for its return or for an agreement not to disclose it. For example, if a hacker gains unauthorized access to a celebrity’s computer and discovers embarrassing photos or videos of the star, he could then blackmail the star into giving him money in exchange for keeping the photos quiet. This causes not only a monetary loss for the celebrity, but also a loss of privacy and security. 6. Employees constitute one of the greatest threats to information security because employee mistakes can lead to the revelation of classified data, entry of erroneous data, accidental deletion or modification of data, the storage of data in......

Words: 1215 - Pages: 5

Chap 4

...value of the organizations data 2 Data is important to an organization because without it an organization will lose its record of transactions and/or its ability to furnish valuable deliverables to its customers. Other assets that require protection include the ability of the organization to function, the safe operation of applications, and technology assets. 3. General management and IT management are responsible for implementing information security 4. The implementation of networking technology has created more risk for businesses that use information technology because networks are now connected to the internet and other networks external to the organization. This has made it easier for people to get access to business’s data 5. Information extortion occurs when an hacker steals information from a computer system and demands compensation for its return or for an agreement not to disclose it. For example, if a Hacker r gains unauthorized access to a CEO’s computer and discovers unethical business transactions , he could then blackmail the CEO into giving him money in exchange for keeping the data from the public eye.. This causes not only a monetary loss for the CEO, but also a loss of security. 6. Employees constitute one of the greatest threats to information security because employee mistakes can lead to the outside access of classified data, entry of incorrect data, accidental deletion or modification of data, the storage of data in unprotected......

Words: 1249 - Pages: 5

Chap 3

...Chapter 3 – Conceptual Design: An Overview of Methodologies, Models and Notations CHAPTER OBJECTIVES (YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO): 1. Define and describe a methodology. 2. Define and describe traditional, structured analysis & design, information modeling, and object-oriented methodology classifications. 3. Define and describe a Data Flow Diagram (DFD) and an Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD). 4. Define and describe attributes, operations and relationships in an object-oriented methodology. 5. Define and describe the foundational characteristics of an object-oriented methodology. 6. Describe two classic information systems development challenges and their potential resolution. 7. Discuss Classification Theory and its relationship with object-oriented methodologies. 8. Describe Rational Corporation's Unified Software Development Process. 9. Define parallelism, substitution and omission. 10. Describe the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and describe Use Case, Class Diagram and Interaction Diagram. 11. Describe a simplistic object-oriented methodology for applying and using the UML. 12. Describe the foundational characteristics of the UML’s Class Diagram DESIGN A generic systems development life cycle (SDLC) was presented in an earlier chapter. You may recall that the purpose for this version of a SDLC was to give you a simplified way of sequentially studying the activities that are utilized to produce software-intensive information systems. In reality the......

Words: 13243 - Pages: 53

Chap. 11

...irrespective of type and basis of accounting. Therefore, it is said, the information is overly aggregated and hence of little value. This problem is mitigated by the requirement of Statement No. 34 that the government provide detailed financial information about each of its major component units. 4. The three main sections of the CAFR are: • the introductory section; • the financial section and • the statistical section. The main components of the financial section are: • the auditor’s report • the management discussion and analysis (MD&A) • the basic financial statements • required supplementary information other than the MD&A • combining statements and schedules 5. The combining statements provide the details of the nonmajor funds, one column for each of the funds. The totals columns of the combining statements tie into the amounts reported in the nonmajor funds column of the funds statements. Combining statements of nonmajor funds are not required by Statement No. 34; they may be presented as supplementary information. Internal service funds are presented in the proprietary fund statements in a single column that combines all of the government’s funds of that type. They do not have to be separately reported in the basic fund statements even if they would otherwise meet the criteria for classification as major funds. Therefore, it is appropriate that the internal service funds be......

Words: 1020 - Pages: 5

Chap 1

...& Co. is a buyer competing against other bidders for the right to obtain the antique blue jeans. The maximum you would be willing to pay for this asset is the present value, which is 150, 000 150, 000 150, 000 150, 000 150, 000 PV = + + + + 2 3 4 (1 + 0.09 ) (1 + 0.09 ) (1 + 0.09 ) (1 + 0.09 ) (1 + 0.09 )5 = $583, 447.69. 3. a. Net benefits are N (Q ) = 50 + 20Q − 5Q 2 . b. Net benefits when Q = 1 are N (1) = 50 + 20 − 5 = 65 and when Q = 5 they are 2 2. c. d. e. f. N (5) = 50 + 20(5) − 5(5) = 25 . Marginal net benefits are MNB (Q ) = 20 − 10Q . Marginal net benefits when Q = 1 are MNB (1) = 20 − 10(1) = 10 and when Q = 5 they are MNB (5) = 20 − 10(5) = −30 . Setting MNB(Q ) = 20 − 10Q = 0 and solving for Q , we see that net benefits are maximized when Q = 2 . When net benefits are maximized at Q = 2 , marginal net benefits are zero. That is, MNB (2 ) = 20 − 10(2 ) = 0 . 4. a. The value of the firm before it pays out current dividends is ⎛ 1 + 0.08 ⎞ PV firm = $550, 000 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 0.08 − 0.05 ⎠ . = $19.8 million b. The value of the firm immediately after paying the dividend is ⎛ 1 + 0.05 ⎞ Ex −Dividend = $550,000⎜ PV firm ⎟ ⎝ 0.08 − 0.05 ⎠ . = $19.25 million 5. The present value of the perpetual stream of cash flows. This is given by PVPerpetuity = CF $75 = = $1,875. i 0.04 Page 1 Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, 5e 6. The completed table looks like this: Control Variable Q 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 Total......

Words: 2176 - Pages: 9

Chap 16

...16–1 16–2 16–3 16–4 16–5 16–6 16–7 16–8 16–9 16–10 16–11 16–12 16–13 16–14 16–15 AACSB Tags Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Diversity, Reflective thinking Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Reflective thinking Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Exercises (cont.) 16–6 16–7 16–8 16–9 16–10 16–11 16–12 16–13 16–14 16–15 16–16 16–17 16–18 16–19 16–20 16–21 16–22 16–23 16–24 16–25 16–26 16–27 16–28 16–29 16–30 AACSB Tags Reflective thinking Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Communications Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic, Reflective thinking Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Reflective thinking Analytic Analytic, Reflective thinking Analytic, Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Analytic Reflective thinking Communications Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Analytic Diversity, Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Reflective thinking Brief Exercises 16–1 16–1 16–2 16–3 16–4 16–5 16–6 16–7 16–8 16–9 16–10 16–11 16–12 16–13 16–14 16–15 16–16 CPA/CMA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 Exercises 16–1 16–2 16–3 16–4 16–5 Solutions......

Words: 17693 - Pages: 71

Microeconomics Chap 5

...Ch 5: 4. Suppose you are the manager of a restaurant that serves an average of 400 meals per day at an average price per meal of $20. On the basis of a survey, you have determined that reducing the price of an average meal to $18 would increase the quantity demanded to 450 per day. a. Compute the price elasticity of demand between these two points. =0.125 b. Would you expect total revenues to rise or fall? Explain. I would expect the total revenue to fall because it its less the price elasticity of demand is less than one, so that means that the demand is not sensitive to price change. c. Suppose you have reduced the average price of a meal to $18 and are considering a further reduction to $16. Another survey shows that the quantity demanded of meals will increase from 450 to 500 per day. Compute the price elasticity of demand between these two points. =1 d. Would you expect total revenue to rise or fall as a result of this second price reduction? Explain. It would not fall or rise because price elasticity is equal to one, making it not affecting the total revenue e. Compute total revenue at the three meal prices. Do these totals confirm your answers in (b) and (d) above? The total revenue for 400 meals, at an average of $20 per meal, is 8000 The total revenue for 450 meals, at an average of $18 per meal, is 8100 The total revenue for 500 meals, at an average of $16 per meal, is 8000 The totals don’t confirm my answers in b and d because the......

Words: 285 - Pages: 2

Chap 3

...Team members: responsibility of the team members to give a status report of the project to the team manager in regular interval time bases. This is a major task which the manager has to consider. The other teams which are responsible for providing the project us are management supervisor, user group, internal IT staff and IT manager. The contract programmers are responsible for software specifications which are implemented in the project. Coordination of the team, internal IT staff, IT manager and contract programmers are the part of the elements which are required for a project execution process. Spending less time on these elements will eventually result in delay of the project which in turn results in delivery delay of the project. 5 Dividing a task into sub tasks and giving one sub task to a information system and other to a different project team various in many factors such as the team in information system are well organized as there are trained and experienced in detailing the projects in a systematic manner. Whereas the teams dealing with other projects may not handle the task in the same way but handling the task is same when considering both the teams. The successful completion of the task always involve collecting the requirements, planning, designing, implementation and deployment and finally testing and delivery of the project. The work consistent may not be completely different from both teams because dealing a project or task given requires the basic......

Words: 901 - Pages: 4

Chap 1

...Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. CHAPTER EIGHT Influence Influence in Negotiation The actual strategies and messages that individuals deploy to bring about desired attitudinal or behavioral change • People differ widely in their ability to use influence effectively • Persuasion is as much a science as a native ability • Everyone can improve persuasive skills 8-3 Two Routes to Influence • Central route – Occurs consciously and involves integrating the message into the individual’s previously existing cognitive structures (thoughts, frameworks, etc.). • Peripheral route – Characterized by subtle cues and context, with less cognitive processing of the message and is thought to occur automatically. 8-4 8-5 The Central Route to Influence: The Message and Its Delivery There are three major issues to consider when constructing a message: • The content of the message – Facts and topics that should be covered • The structure of the message – Arrangement and organization of the topics and facts • The delivery style – How the message should be presented 8-6 The Central Route to Influence: The Message and Its Delivery • Message Content – Make the offer attractive to the other party – Frame the message so the other party will say “yes” – Make the message normative – by following a course of action he will be acting in accordance with both his values and some higher code of conduct (e.g. “buy American”, “save a......

Words: 726 - Pages: 3

Chap 7

...QUESTION 1 1. Gerold invested $6,200 in an account that pays 5 percent simple interest. How much money will he have in ten years? | A. | $8,710 | | B. | $9,000 | | C. | $9,300 | | D. | $9,678 | | E. | $10,099 | 10 points    QUESTION 2 1. According to the Rule of 72, you can do which one of the following? | A. | double your money in five years at 7.2 percent interest | | B. | double your money in 7.2 years at 8 percent interest | | C. | double your money in 8 years at 9 percent interest | | D. | triple your money in 7.2 years at 5 percent interest | | E. | triple your money at 10 percent interest in 7.2 years | 10 points    QUESTION 3 1. You are comparing two annuities which offer quarterly payments of $2,500 for five years and pay 0.75 interest per month. Annuity A will pay you on the first of ech month while annuity B will pay you on the last day of each month. Which one of the following statements is correct concerning these two annuities? | A. | These two annuties have equal present values but unequal futures values at the end of year five. | | B. | These two annuities have equal present values as of today and equal future values at the end of year five. | | C. | Annuity B is an annuity due. | | D. | Annuity A has a smaller future value than annuity B. | | E. | Annuity B has a smaller present value than annuity A. | 10 points    QUESTION 4 1. How is the principal amount of an interest-only loan repaid? |...

Words: 699 - Pages: 3

Chap

...market return for these resources. If full economic costs are not covered, a less than “fair” market return is being realized on these resources. Since most producers have equity in their farm business and provide much of the labor associated with running their operation, in order to determine a particular producer’s cash costs, adjustments must be made to the WSU budget. Let us assume, for example, a producer in Columbia County agrees with all the WSU budget figures except interest, labor, and land costs. This owner-operator owns all land and equipment and furnishes 75% of all labor used on the farm. Furthermore, this person’s estimated annual 22.18 hours x .25 = .55 hours 3$32,000/1,500 acres = $21.33 4$20,000/1,500 acres = $13.33 5$33,000/1,500 acres = $22.00 4 principal and interest (P&I payment(s)) on his land loan(s) total approximately $33,000. His estimated annual P&I payment(s) on his machinery loan(s) total approximately $32,000. In addition, he estimates during the year he will equity finance $20,000 worth of machinery purchases. Labor costs are $12 per hour including Social Security and Labor and Industry payments. To keep things simple, it will be assumed that all P&I payments and equity financed machinery purchases are to be allocated equally among the 1,500 acres being farmed regardless of the crops produced. To convert the WSU economic budget to the producer’s cash budget (Table 2), all opportunity costs are eliminated. Thus, the quantity......

Words: 1690 - Pages: 7

Sibling Rivalry (Chap 4 and 5)

...undergo several tests to make sure it is effective. 2. Further study must be conducted for the enhancement and the advancement of the product. 3. Duranta leaves, lemon juice and coconut oil should be identified and qualified first by the used standards. Summary This product is aimed to produce: 1. An effective scar remover which is made from pure natural products. 2. This product offers cheap and effective alternative product. 3. The experiment is done to know if the Duranta Scar Remover can be more effective than those commercial products. The Scar Remover takes 2-5 weeks before the scar is cured; the number of weeks depends on the kind of scar and depending on the person who is using the alternative scar remover. Findings After intensive tabulation analysis and interpretation of the data the experiment these findings: 1. The Duranta Scar Remover takes 2-5 weeks to remove scars depending as well to the kind of scar and type of person using the alternative scar remover. 2. The scar remover is almost as effective as those other commercial products. 3. The scar remover is cheaper than those other commercial products....

Words: 552 - Pages: 3