Free Essay

Comparing Measure

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Enigmaticzeal
Words 1989
Pages 8
What is comedy? Funk and Wagnalls New Encyclopedia says: "A comedy depicts the follies and absurdities of human beings." Webster's Dictionary defines comedy as: "A drama or narrative with a happy ending." Shakespeare's play, Measure for Measure, fits both of these descriptions. Follies and absurdities are present in the play: Lucio slanders the Duke, not realizing that his crude remarks are being spoken to the Duke himself; Angelo abuses his power thinking that the Duke is not present to know; and Ragozine happens to die in prison the day a head is needed to substitute for Claudio's. The play also ends on several merry notes, consistent with the definition of comedy. For example, Angelo's life is spared and he is forgiven; Mariana is married to Angelo; the Duke punishes Lucio humorously with marriage; Barnardine is pardoned; and Claudio is saved. The parallels between Measure for Measure and three other Shakespearean comedies, The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night, also help to classify Measure for Measure as a comedy. In Measure for Measure, like in The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night, an arbitrary law or obstacle is eventually overcome; a disguised character affects the outcome of the play; a clown adds humor to the plot; a female character bears a large responsibility for the final resolution; and forgiveness and reconciliation mark the conclusion of the action.

Some critics consider Measure for Measure a "dark" play because of the serious obstacles encountered by the characters. However, doesn't The Merchant of Venice also have near-tragic hindrances that affect the comic plot? In The Merchant of Venice, Antonio's life is at stake because of his bond to Shylock, and in Measure for Measure, Claudio awaits execution for his fornication with Juliet. Comedy often begins with some kind of irrational law which blocks up the main thrust of the comic story, and the comic story somehow manages to evade or ignore the hindrance. Sometimes, instead of the law, the play starts with a mood of deep gloom that is the main obstacle the comic action must overcome. Twelfth Night, for example, opens with Duke Orsino's love melancholy, evident from his first lines: "If music be the food of love, play on/ Give me excess of it, that surfeiting,/ The appetite may sicken, and so die" (Twelfth Night, I, I, 1-3). The depression prevalent in Twelfth Night also affects two female characters, Olivia and Viola, who are in mourning for their dead brothers. The melancholic barriers in Twelfth Night are similar to the obstacles presented by the harsh rule of Angelo in Measure for Measure. The ugly law of fornication that is strictly enforced by Angelo scowls at the characters in Measure for Measure from the beginning, and Angelo's temperament, in both his incorruptible and later phases, ensures that there will be enough gloom.

Like Portia in The Merchant of Venice, the Duke in Measure for Measure disguises himself in order to intervene and turn the tide of the near-tragic plot. Some critics, however, have a difficult time accepting the crafty Duke because he tricks and manipulates everybody in the play. However, like the Christian idea of "providence" bringing events about in an unlikely and unexpected way, the Duke's mysterious and unusual workings eventually lead to a deep benevolence. In the long run nobody in the play is physically hurt; the Duke shows mercy by punishing Lucio and Angelo only with marriage, and even the condemned criminal Barnardine is set free, except that he has another friar attached to him. Like Rosalind, who masquerades as a male in As You Like It in order to test Orlando and manipulate the other characters, the disguised Duke serves as a puppeteer in the play, and tests the quality of his subjects. Angelo, the hypocrite, and Lucio, the liar, fail but are penalized lightly and forgiven to keep with the comic ideal, while both Isabella and Escalus pass. The Duke, like the majority of Shakespeare's disguised comedic characters, affects the outcome of the play, which parallels Measure for Measure with other Shakespearean comedies.

In Measure for Measure, like in The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night, there is a clown-like character or characters who adds humor to the plot. The Merchant of Venice has Lancelot, As You Like It has Touchstone, Twelfth Night has Feste and his humorous lower-class friends, and Measure for Measure has Pompey, who is accompanied by other comic ruffians, the most prominent being Lucio. What Pompey and Lucio do in Measure for Measure is similar to all of the other mischievous characters mentioned: they make the audience laugh. Lucio does three humorous actions to liven up the plot: first, he slanders the Duke, unknowingly to the Duke himself; second, he serves as a cheerleader during Isabella's first encounter with Angelo; and finally, he makes rude yet amusing remarks during the last scene of the play. A few critics find Lucio's final punishment of being forced to marry a whore troubling because Shakespeare spared the life of this slanderous liar. However, one must consider that when choosing a punishment for the comic character, Shakespeare had only three choices. First, he could have had the Duke execute Lucio; however, an audience that had been entertained by this genial rascal throughout the play would have been outraged to see him severely punished. Second, Shakespeare could have had the Duke let Lucio off scot-free; however, this would have severely contradicted Angelo's punishment and left room for further disquietude. Shakespeare therefore picks the third choice, which leaves room for Lucio's comic outlook on marriage: "Marrying a punk, my lord, is pressing to death, whipping, and hanging" (Measure for Measure V, I, 516-517) and helps to end the play on an amusing note.

Another similarity between Measure for Measure and the typical Shakespearean comedy is the power of the female characters. For example, Rosalind, in As You Like It, decides how the play will end when she says:

[To Silvius] I will help you if I can. [To Phebe] I would love you if I could. To-morrow meet me all together. [To Phebe] I will marry you if ever I marry woman, and I'll be married to-morrow. [To Orlando] I will satisfy you if ever I satisfied man, and you shall be married to-morrow. [To Silvius] I will content you if what pleases you contents you, and you shall be married to-morrow. [To Orlando] As you love Rosalind, meet. [To Silvius] As you love Phebe, meet. And as I love no woman, I'll meet. So fare you well. I have left you commands (As You Like It V, ii, 103-114).

Like Viola in Twelfth Night and Portia in The Merchant of Venice, Rosalind influences the other characters while disguised in men's clothing. In Measure for Measure the females will not masquerade as men to cause the identity confusion that often affects the resolution of Shakespearean comedies, but instead play the bed-trick, which results in the same effect. The bed-trick can be classified as a type of disguise because Mariana takes Isabella's place for a night, and like the other disguises mentioned from other plays, it allows a female character, Isabella, to influence the play's outcome. Without the bed-trick, Angelo would not have sinned with Mariana, so there would have been no crime committed by Angelo to counter-balance Claudio's sin; and therefore no need for a reversal resulting in Isabella's forgiveness of Angelo. After Angelo is publicly humiliated and forced to marry Mariana, the Duke orders that he be executed. Mariana pleas for his life but is rejected, and in desperation, she turns to Isabella and says: "Sweet Isabel, take my part,/ Lend me your knees, and all my life to come,/ I lend you all my life to do you service" (Measure for Measure, V, I, 426-428). Isabella's response shows that she forgives Angelo because Angelo's desire to sleep with Isabella was foiled; therefore Angelo did not commit the evil he intended because he was tricked into sleeping with the wrong woman, and does not, in Isabella's eyes, deserve to be punished for his intents. In contrast, Isabella knows that Claudio died for a sin that Claudio actually committed. She says:

Let him not die; my brother had but justice,/ In that he did the thing for which he died./ For Angelo,/ His act did not o'ertake his bad intent,/ And must be buried but as an intent/ That perished by the way./ Thoughts are no subjects,/ Intents but merely thoughts (Measure for Measure, V, I, 444-450).

Some critics see Isabella's actions as foolish; how could she not want to kill the man who she thinks murdered her brother? The answer lies in Isabella's ethereal virtue. She does the Christian thing which she earlier asked Angelo to do for Claudio: "judge not, that ye be not judged." She said: "I would heaven I had your potency,/ And you were Isabel; should it then be thus?/ No, I would tell what 'twere to be a judge,/ And what a prisoner" (Measure for Measure II, ii, 66-69). Isabella remains true to her word after the reversal takes place. Isabella's capacity to forgive shows that she is ready to become a nun, or marry the Duke, whichever path she chooses, and leaves room for the happy ending expected in a comedy.

A few critics despise the ending of Measure for Measure, and label the unresolved issue of whether the Duke marries Isabella or not as a flaw. However, Measure for Measure is not the only Shakespearean comedy where bits and pieces of the plot are left unresolved. In Twelfth Night, after Orsino decides he wants to marry Viola, he tries to help her regain her female attire; however, the reader learns that Malvolio has since imprisoned the Captain who has Viola's clothes. Why Malvolio jailed the captain is never mentioned. Another commonly used argument against the resolution of the play is its near-tragic ending. However, the possibility of tragedy is a device commonly used in comedies. For example, in The Merchant of Venice, Antonio is threatened with death, like both Claudio and Angelo are in Measure for Measure. Once Claudio and Angelo are spared, the possibility of tragedy is struck down in Measure for Measure, and the action proceeds upward through the play's ending. The last scene of Measure for Measure presents the vision of a renewed and regenerated society, with forgiveness, reconciliation, and the pursuit of happiness all over the place. Like Measure for Measure, forgiveness and reconciliation also come at the end of The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night. At first glance, the unresolved plot fragments and the near-tragic denouement make it appear difficult to classify Measure for Measure as a Shakespearean comedy; however, when Measure for Measure is compared to Shakespeare's other comedies, its ending relates to The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night.

Not only does Measure for Measure fit the definition of comedy, it also parallels Shakespeare's other comedies. Like The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night, the plot of Measure for Measure overcomes an adversarial obstacle, possesses a disguised character who affects the denouement, touches the audience with the humor of a clown or ruffian, endures the influence of a powerful a female character, and ends with forgiveness and reconciliation. The similarities between Measure for Measure and The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night help to place Measure for Measure in the same category with Shakespeare's other comedies. Furthermore, the "problems" many critics single out in Measure for Measure are also present in The Merchant of Venice, As You Like It, and Twelfth Night, and further help to classify Measure for Measure as a comedy.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Performance Measures

...Performance Measures Introduction Performance measurement is a system and vital process to evaluate and record results and the success of goals. Historically, performance measures have been indicator that is used in measuring an organizations performance. Identifying the research of performance evaluations, employee turnover, profit/loss, return on investment, market share, size of company in comparison to competitors, product rate of failure and customer satisfaction survey in the critique of a company or organizations. The organizations innovation, total quality management, and controlling operation within a company. This section covers why measuring performance for the selected measures are useful and important to improve the awareness of the effect in an organization. It is important to know where the strengths and weakness are in an organization and the balance of key essential performance measurement system. Performance Evaluations The primary purpose of performance evaluations is to provide feedback to employees on their current productivity, and identify areas in which an employee can improve on their future productivity. (Albright, 2009) Individual performance evaluations allow Human Resources the ability to measure an employee’s performance. Evaluations not only help develop individuals, but can also improve organizational performance and feed into business planning. Performance evaluations are usually conducted on an annual basis. Normally, employee......

Words: 2500 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Plan and Measure Perfomance

...mission “help people save money so they can live better” and vision “Always low prices, always!” tells customers that they will always keep lower prices, maintaining loyalty to continue to be competitive in the market (Wal-Mart 2012). To continue their efforts in maintaining the lower prices, the company must accomplish two goals; customer satisfaction and keeping lower prices. To accomplish these goals, a detailed evaluation needs to be performed to identify the most useful tools to measure the company’s performance. Planning and measuring the performance of the company will guarantee that Wal-Mart will continue to be the largest, most profitable, and successful retail store in the industry. To evaluate the company’s goals, managers will need to have a control process. This entails “the process of monitoring, comparing, and correcting performances” (Robinson & Coulter, 2012, p. 4). According to Robbins and Coulter (2012), there are four control processes that managers may use to measure performance; personal observation, statistical, oral, and written reports. Wal-Mart managers would benefit performing personal observations and statistical reports. Using the personal observation report process will provide managers in their departments a visual of how the employees are interacting with the customers. Observing employees interaction with customer will determine the employee’s job satisfaction, which is crucial to customer service satisfaction. Because Wal-Mart......

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Performance Measures

...Chelsea Millard Performance Measures An intensive care unit (ICU), also referred to as a critical care unit, is a healthcare operating unit that treats persons who have been inflicted with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. Patients in an intensive care unit are observed closely by specially trained health care providers. Problems that are treated range from accidents to severe breathing problems. Patients are normally exposed to monitors, intravenous (IV) tubs, feeding tubes, catheters, and breathing machines. These particular items are used to extend a patient’s life, but infection risk can become common also. In an intensive care unit, many patients recover and are moved to a regular hospital room to receive care. Death is a common outcome for patients in an intensive care unit. If a patient’s family and health care providers have to make end-of-life decisions, advance directives will help the individuals come to a final decision (“Critical Care“). In the article “The Competitiveness and Balanced Scorecard of Health Care Companies,” the balanced scorecard has become an idea that has become influential to the business aspect. A balanced scorecard measures employee knowledge, relationship with customers, cultures of innovation, and change generated success. Many businesses has improved their performance by improving processes and becoming more competitive in the market (Mavlutova, Babauska, 2013). In the article “Pabon Lasso and Data Envelopment Analysis: A......

Words: 1160 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Counterterrorism Measures

...principles as being the fundamental premise in the fight against terror, even at the expense of reduced effectiveness of counterterrorist measures. The war model (WM) places a stronger emphasis on restraining or countering terrorism rather than upholding liberal democratic rights. Viewing terrorism as an act of revolutionary warfare, the onus for response is placed on the military, ranging from using elite Special Forces, retaliatory strikes, and large troop deployment. The reasoning behind this is that because terrorists are “waging war,” the state must deploy its war-fighting capability in order to counter the problem effectively. But this raises several civil liberties problems, such as what are the legal ramifications of soldiers taking over a policing role, given that they are trained to kill rather than to use minimum force and to know the law and its application. Many academics think these two models are mutually exclusive. However, most democracies use a hybrid of the CJM and WM. Indeed, an “expanded criminal justice model” (ECJM) would be a useful analytical tool, covering the “gray areas” between the other two models and dealing with theoretical, moral, and legal considerations. Paul Wilkinson, a leading expert on terrorism and counterterrorism, argues that the need for flexibility and the ability to use and combine all measures to suit specific cases are paramount in countering terrorism effectively. The ECJM and the WM belong to the school of utilitarianism,......

Words: 6026 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Psychological Measures

...PSY4807: Chapter 3: * ‘Measurement: is the transformation of psychological attributes into numbers’ * Properties of measurement scales: three key principles – magnitude – Is the measure of moreness – whether a measure is more, less of equal to another attribute. 2) Equal interval – distance between each interval is equal (6cm-8cm is the same interval as 10cm-12cm). 3) Absolute zero: nothing present of the attribute being tested. I.e 0 cm tall. Not the same for measuring intelligence, as a ‘0’ reading may indicate some intelligence, but scale does not measure this. * Categories of measurements are important when constructing assessments: 1) Nominal: number are assigned to a measurement to describe it (i.e 11 official languages assigned a number of 1-11). 2) Ordinal: numbers are assigned to an object to represent a specific sequential order (i.e finishing a race, height of people, etc). * Continuous date = can be measured on a continuum which can be broken down into smaller units. Two types: 1) Interval: equal numerical differences can be interpreted as relating to equal differences in a characteristic (i.e employees rating success of a company of a scale of 1-10). Ratio: not only are there equal differences be interpreted as equal differences between the characteristics, but also have an absolute zero. * Measurement errors: 1) Random sampling errors: occur as a result of chance variations in the elements selected for a sample. Reduced with......

Words: 1580 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Psycholocial Measures

...Ch08.qxd 10/28/04 2:54 PM Page 181 Psychological measurements: their uses and misuses 8 ‘Measure all that can be measured and render measurable all that defies measurement.’ Galileo Galilei ‘Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts.’ Albert Einstein The words ‘test’ and ‘measurement’, as used in psychology, are misleading because of the implied similarity to scientific measurements and medical tests. Conventional psychological testing is quite different from scientific measurements in natural sciences. What is accomplished by the application of psychological measurement is an estimation of a psychological construct. Psychological tests and measurements of personality, intelligence, attitude and motivation are fundamentally different from quantitative measurements in physical sciences such as height, weight and blood urea. Paul Kline, one of the foremost exponents of psychometric theory clarifies the issue as follows: ‘There are no units of [psychological] measurement and no true zeros. Whatever psychological measurement is, it is not scientific measurement as defined in natural sciences ... If we consider what is meant by intelligence or extraversion, just for example, it is by no means clear what units of measurement might be used or what the true zero may mean. This problem applies to the majority of psychological concepts and variables’ (Kline, 2000). Besides, it is often mistakenly......

Words: 9864 - Pages: 40

Free Essay

Psychological Measure

...Psychological Measure Paper Psy 475 May 18, 2015 Psychological Measure Paper It is well known fact that people suffer from various kinds of depression. They might be from some health problems that they have developed and some issues associated with factors that are attributed to the way they feel about themselves. There are many ways to measure depression or how to scale it on the degrees of danger. In our Paper we are analyzing depressions psychological measures. The measure that is analyzed by us is the Depression Inventory for adolescents. The Depression Inventory for adolescents is an auto- report tool that employs a twenty seven item questions. We will be choosing 2 articles that explain the use of the Depression Inventory for adolescents. In our paper, we will be describing who are qualified for administering and interpreting the setting and measure. This means academic, counseling or occupational in which we optimize the usage of the measure. At the end of our paper, we will classify among the populations for whom the Depression Inventory for adolescents is valid or not valid as a psychological measure. Article One Becks Depression Inventory is used to measure many different depression circumstances. Above it (what is it?) discusses how the inventory is used and the measurement of how deep depression can go based on Becks inventory. The following article on Becks Depression Inventory involves the connection between two epidemics including depressiveness among...

Words: 1615 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Measures of Psychology

...Intelligence • Measured biologically, individual difference and cognitive process • Constructed by the ability to problem solve, environment and judgment The relationship between measures of intelligence and achievement are essential to theories and standard and psychological tests. Intelligence tests are used by practitioners to calculate achievement. The difference between the two tests may signify the presence of a learning disability, thus necessitating an intervention (Gottfredson & Saklofske, 2009). But to compare and contrast the different constructs and measures understanding the definition of intelligence and achievement is important. Intelligence is the ability to memorize, use imagination, knowledge, experience and understand reasoning and mental speed (Hogan, 200, p256). Intelligence is based on potential and it constructed by environment and the ability to problem solve. Three ways intelligence is measured, cognitive process, biological and individual difference. Slide 2 Achievment Achievement is the result of an effort a person put in toward something to have gain. Tests have been created to measure the level of success or learning in a specific subject (Hildreth & Gertrude, 1929). The achievement test will allow the researcher to know how much the individual has mastered in the specific subject. To obtain accuracy in an Achievement test, it has to be measured more than once. References Gottfredson, L., & Saklofske, D. H. (2009).......

Words: 253 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Measure for Measure

...‘Measure for Measure’ in Filipino–because ‘Shakespeare is truly global’ A roundtable meeting is “a venue for intellectual discussion among the academe, students, playwrights, directors, media and anyone interested in theater,” said Jeffrey Hernandez, council master of the University of the Philippines Theater Council. He added: “We have a responsibility to the audience to explain our craft, to touch lives and bring them back to the reality of life. We do art for the people we love, and in a larger sense for the country.” That statement opened the press launch of Dulaang UP’s 39th season, held recently at the Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero Theater in UP Diliman, Quezon City. The theme running through the five plays that will be presented, in Filipino as well as English, until February next year is “Regaining Dignity.” The plays in the season are Shakespeare’s “Measure for Measure/Hakbang sa Hakbang” (with Filipino translation by Ron Capinding), Aug. 20-Sept. 7, directed by DUP artistic director Alexander Cortez; Floy Quintos’ “Ang Huling Lagda ni Apolinario Mabini,” directed by Dexter M. Santos, Oct. 1-19; William Wycherley’s “The Country Wife/Ang Misis kong Promdi,” with Filipino translation by Nicholas B. Pichay, Nov. 19-Dec. 7; and Rody Vera’s “Bilanggo ng Pag-ibig,” inspired by the works of Jean Genet, the novelist-playwright who best exemplified the French spirit of succès de scandale “The Country Wife” will be directed by Tony Mabesa, “Bilanggo ng Pag-ibig” by José......

Words: 9373 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

Measures of Variability

...Measures of Variability Measure of variation is a measure that describes how spread out or scattered a set of data. It is also known as measures of dispersion or measures of spread. There are three measures of variation: the range, the variance, and standard deviation. The range is the true upper limit in a distribution minus the true lower limit. In a visual sense the Range = Highest value – Lowest value. In the sample we were provided, the range for this set of data is 8. This is because the highest value of the sample was 8, and the lowest value of the sample was 0. If I plug the numbers of the data set into the formula, range = 8-0. The answer we receive is 8. The interquartile range is range in a distribution between the end of the first quartile and the beginning of the third quartile. The formula for calculating the IQR is IQR = (QU-QL). Quartiles are the points in a distribution corresponding to the first 25% of the data set, the first 50% of the data set, and the top 25% of the data set. With all this being said, you must first find the quartiles before you find the interquartile range. In the sample that was given our quartiles are as follows: QL (lower quartile) equals 0.75, QM (median) equals 2, and QU (upper quartile) equals 3.5. My next step was to plug these numbers into the IQR formula. IQR = (3.5 –0.75), this makes the interquartile range equal to 2.75. The variance is a statistic that measures variability of a distribution as the average squared......

Words: 451 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Comparing

...Pascal Debowiak Mrs. Morse Comparing/Contrast Essay 02/03/16 The Environmental benefits of bicycling There are numerous reasons to own a car. Every day people drive a car to get to work, visit friends, buy groceries and complete many other chores. We are, like it or not, dependent on automobiles. However, bicycles are often a useful alternative and are more environmentally friendly. A car is but also costly and often difficult to pay for. To begin with, buying a two-year old car is smarter than purchasing a new one. After a new car depreciates a couple years, it can be purchased for thousands of dollars less. But whether buying new or used, the car’s cost is only part of the expense. Paying for insurance, maintenance, gas, and repairs adds significantly to the expense. Being able to repair a car yourself helps keep costs down, but there still is an expense. Costs of purchase, maintenance and repair aside, automobiles have an adverse effect on the environment that bicycles do not. Even before a car is driven it consumes energy. Automotive production leaves a giant footprint because materials such as steel, rubber, paints, plastics, and glass must be created before a new ride is ready to roll. But that’s not all; air quality suffers because vehicles are America’s biggest air quality compromisers, producing about one-third of all U.S air pollution. The also contribute to global warming. These findings have caused engineers to develop more eco-friendly cars for the future.......

Words: 666 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Perfomance Measures

...Performance measurement is the process of using a tool based on research (a "performance measure") to evaluate a managed organization, plan or program. A responsible, providing entity can be identified, is held accountable for its observed behavior, and has a reasonable degree of control over the aspect of care being evaluated in what the term "performance" implies. The term "measurement" implies that the approach being used is rigorous and systematic. It also has to be quantifiable. In many industries performance measurement is a type of evaluation that is used. For example, a common way of evaluating car performance is to calculate miles per gallon, a performance measure. This is a simple ratio of the number of miles driven divided by the number of gallons of gas consumed. Performance measurement is now increasingly common in health care as well. Some examples of application of performance measurement are the percentage of children age 2 who receive the appropriate immunizations. This, too, is a simple ratio of the percentage of children age 2 with the appropriate immunizations divided by the total number of children age 2 in the applicable population (health program, MCO, State, etc.). Another example is the percentage of parents reporting "not a problem" in obtaining a specialist referral for their child. Again, this is a simple ratio of the percentage of parents reporting "not a problem" divided by the total number of parents in the applicable population......

Words: 616 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Brand Measure

...Measuring Brand Awareness, Brand Image, Brand Equity and Brand Value by P. Chandon 2003/19/MKT Working Paper Series Note on Measuring Brand Awareness, Brand Image, Brand Equity and Brand Value Pierre Chandon* INSEAD March 2003 * Pierre Chandon is Assistant Professor of Marketing at INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, 77300 Fontainebleau, France. Tel: +33 (0)1 60 72 49 87, e-mail: pierre.chandon@insead.edu. Note on Measuring Brand Awareness, Brand Image, Brand Equity and Brand Value The purpose of this note is to provide an overview and references on the various methods that can be used to measure brand knowledge (brand awareness and brand image), brand equity and brand value. This note provides a short definition of each concept and illustrations of the most widely-used measurement techniques. Once you know what you want to measure, it is important to look at the original sources cited to understand how to properly use these techniques. Keller’s (2003) excellent book also provides detailed information on each concept and its measurement. 1. Brand knowledge Brand knowledge refers to brand awareness (whether, and when, consumers know the brand) and brand image (what are the associations that consumers have with the brand) (Keller 2001). The different dimensions of brand knowledge can be classified in a pyramid (adapted from Keller 2001), in which each lower-level element provides the foundations of the higherlevel element. In other......

Words: 3698 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Disney Measures

...Networks will absolutely compete with media networks owned by Disney for commercial fees. (c) Universal Studio: I think Disney could compare the profit ratio generated by the Disney theme park with those generated by Universal theme park. We can’t just see the profits because it is probably the efforts and capital each company puts in their theme park are different. So if we use the profit ratio we can see the “real benefits” each theme park bring to their company and compare with these two theme parks in the same standard. So Disney can see whether they have bigger profit ratio than Universal Studio and whether this ratio grows every year. Fox Cable Networks: I think Disney can use audience rating and commercial revenues to measure their success. If ESPN has higher audience rating and generates more commercial fees than those sport channels owned by FCN do, it means that ESPN is more popular and Disney beats FCN in this area....

Words: 543 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Comparing

...Comparing Oedipus and Othello For Oedipus and Othello “duty” should have their first priority. Othello’s duty was supposed to be the importance of his marriage, but he listened to Iago, ignored Desdemona, didn’t believe his own conscience, and his own heart. Oedipus’ duty was to defeat the Sphinx(which he does) free Thebes from heavy taxes(which he does) be a great king of Thebes and be a good husband, but instead he offends Creon, his brother-in-law and uncle; insults his friend, Tiresias the blind prophet; kills his father; and destroys Jocasta, his mother and his queen. Fatal flaws demolished the lives of both Oedipus and Othello. Othello was so proud of his honor and bravery that he didn’t recognize his violent temper and Iago’s mind tricks. Oedipus was so proud of his cleverness that he tried so hard to escape his own fate. With all that said, these were honestly just a couple of comparable traits between Oedipus and Othello. When looking for a great leader that would lead your city through anything and everything it is not hard to tell that both Oedipus and Othello could be those leaders. Both had great gifts in leadership. They stood up in what they believed in. Each held exceptional accomplishments and both possessed the ability to be an all-around leader. Othello was a respectable citizen who was usually known for his fighting or war success. He knew how and what the goal was to succeed. Not all leaders knew that. Oedipus was also somewhat the same. He,......

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5