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Contemporary China

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1. For the consumption and class issue, please review any two articles in the section to show how the state’s social engineering projects created classes in contemporary China.
a. State Meets Capital: the Making and Unmaking of a New Chinese Working Class by Ngai Pun
b. Creating an Urban Middle Class: Social Engineering in Beijing by Luigi Tomba

Before explaining how the state’s social engineering projects created classes in contemporary China, I will provide a definition of class. According to Fred Chiu in Pun’s work, the term “class” exists because individuals join together to form an identity. Classes are created in contemporary China through modernization and creating job opportunities.
Traditionally, during the Mao era, urban planners tried to design cities that had diversity and not segregated to prevent inequality. It was to emphasize and support the principles of Communism. Also, the usage of temporary workers in the Mao era was not common. According to Tomba, the way the government distributes is still part of the segregation today. The government has been giving easier access to those that work for the government housing of their choice. Also, the commercialization of housing is another reason.
However, it started to change when plants starting to grow in cities like Shenzhen. According to Pun, open-door policies and economic reform encouraged the introduction of foreign capital. Shenzhen was chosen by Guangdong provincial government as an experimental model to test if it can be an economic zone. If it succeeds, then other mainland cities are available to such growth as well. It meant that the global capital in the Chinese society would grow, too. The number of workers has increased from less than 30,000 to 3.09 million workers in the labor force.
The population increase is based on temporary residents that migrated to Shenzhen for work. The…...

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