Critical Reasoning

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By xianghua79
Words 4783
Pages 20
Critical reasoning – is both active and open to alternative points of view
Passive reading/listening – writing down notes in lecture, you are passive in the sense that you don’t evaluate which statements to accept and which to reject and you don’t consider the speakers pattern of reasoning.
Mere disagreement – is both critical and active but is not open to alternative views. You enter with your own established beliefs already in mind.
Cooperative enterprise – two people have opposing views; one person sets his beliefs aside and help the other to strengthen his argument.
Critical reasoning misconceptions – it’s too rigid or linear, it supposes that there is a right and wrong point of view.
Argument – reasons for believing something or acting in a certain way

If the author is attempting to state what has happened, or what is the case, or what something is like, he is engaged in descriptive writing, not argumentation
If he is trying to prove something by giving reasons, he is engaged in argumentative writing.

Diatribe is bitter and violent criticism or invective
Examples of diatribe are often found in letters to the editor, in which people tend to give vent to their strong feelings instead of backing up their opinions with arguments. Consider the following (fictitious) letter: The politicians are at it again. An election coming up, and new spending just “happens” to be needed. Name your favourite issue, and you will find money for it—health care, education, social services. And tax cuts too? I don’t trust a single one of them. It is clear that the author of this letter believes that the new money allocated to social programs has more to do with an upcoming election than with real needs of the electorate, but she doesn’t give any reasons for this view.

Roughly speaking, explanations are answers to certain kinds of “why” or “how” questions, questions about…...

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