Premium Essay

Crittically Assess the Statement in Order to Protect the Liberty of Individuals, the Role of the State Should Be Minimal

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By lnmamma
Words 505
Pages 3
The idea that the role of the state should be minimal in order to protect the liberty of individuals is a view fundamentally based in liberalism. Many liberals hold a positive view of human nature, seeing us as autonomous, and according to Locke and Bentham rational beings who act in their own self-interest, unlike many conservative theorists who view humans as fundamentally flawed. This positive view of human nature leads to the argument that the state should merely act as a neutral umpire, as is the view of Mill.
Firstly it is necessary to establish what liberty is. This may be considered as the freedom from oppressive restrictions imposed by authority, this is known as negative freedom, and is a view typical to liberals. Another view includes the application of positive freedom, the ability to carry out our desires and the possession of resources to do so, this requires more state intervention.

Anarchism however criticizes the state for limiting liberty unnecessarily, Individualist anarchists argue that negative liberty is required by the respect that we owe each person as sovereign over their mind. This may be supported by Locke’s view that humans are born free, however the anarchist view would be that all states oppress, according to Proudhon, the state humiliates. However Hobbes argues that in a state of nature, a society without a state, there would be a lack of negative freedom due to the ‘war of all against all’, making law a necessary evil, preventing the exploitation of individuals by other individuals. This makes the state necessary for the realisation of liberty. Too much liberty may also lead to licence and idleness. Negative liberty may also undermine traditional morality, leading to the collapse of civilised values; however this requires a biased view of morality.

To overcome this ‘collapse’ some checks must be implemented in the form of Mills…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Liberals Disaggrement over the Role of the State

...overbearing state to control us. Jeremy Bentham argued that the state should only intervene in cases in which an individual’s freedom imposes upon another’s. However the modern liberal T.H Green suggested that people have a natural desire to enhance others’ welfare as well as their own. Modern liberals have a more optimistic view of human nature. Hence, people’s egoism is tempered with a sense of social responsibility. Therefore according to modern liberals this philanthropic instinct suggests that the state should help those in need, enabling them to achieve the same fulfillment as others through the provision of state welfare. Therefore liberals agree on the primacy of the individual and in the pursuit of maximum freedom but they are divided over the role of the state to achieve these. Liberals disagree about the concept of liberty, and as a result the liberal ideal of protecting individual liberty can lead to very different conceptions of the task of government. Classical Liberals believe in negative freedom. This conception of freedom is ‘negative’ in that it is based on the absence of external constrains on the individual. Consequently the state is regarded as a ‘necessary evil’. Evil in that it imposes collective will on society thereby limiting the freedom of the individual but necessary in that, it lays down the conditions for orderly existence. Classical Liberals thus believe in a minimal state whose legitimate role is limited to the protection of ‘life, liberty and......

Words: 1390 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Liberty and Role of Media

...Rule and Liberty of Media in Pakistan When it comes to liberty in Pakistan, nowadays media is considered on the top because of it being free from the oppressive restrictions imposed by Government. Media of Pakistan is vibrant and free. The Era of Liberal media in Pakistan started in 2002, since then media has become powerful and independent. Nowadays the media in Pakistan enjoys freedom of expression. Independent and fair media is a pillar of any society. The constitution of Pakistan maintains the essentials for a vibrant democracy and guarantees liberty of expressing and the basic principle for media freedom. Although the Pakistani media had to work under dictatorships and governments, which imposed many restrictive laws and principles for media in order to 'control' it, yet the media was not fundamentally affected. Freedom to read or write is important to uncover and disclose the certainty and to safeguard self-development of people and to help ensure involvement of the citizens in a democracy. Freedom of media has never been steady in Pakistan. Different governments used lawful and legal means to control the media from public debate and condemnation. Media in Pakistan usually faces threats, financial pressure and violence. Condition of media after the February 2008 election has significantly been improved. In general, Musharraf regime followed a more liberal strategy towards the media with less restrictions and manipulation. However, condition on the ground was...

Words: 481 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Role of Audit in Helping to Protect Investors

...shareholders for resource diversion. In this process, auditors represent the mechanism whereby detection of diversion occurs. The critical role of auditing is to detect expropriations by insiders and to deter such behavior. Without detection, the degree of investor protection is significantly weakened. If law enforcement is not triggered, neither strictness of laws nor stringent enforcement matters; therefore, insiders have the incentive to retain auditors to provide outside investors with assurance that expropriations are limited when raising external capital (Jensen and Meckling, 1976). Some financial instruments and transactions and very complex with values that can only be estimated; that’s why in most cases, auditors may rely on the internal controls. The Internal control system plays a key role in the success of the accounting system: it protects the business from abuse and fraud, ensures that the information received is accurate and timely, and assures that all regulatory requirements are being met. The internal control system is especially critical for private fund investors. Security Exchange Commission (SEC) mandates internal controls for publically traded companies while hedge funds and other private equity funds are exempts from the regulations that other investment vehicles face. Although better internal controls should decrease the likehood of fraud and the manipulation of reported performance, not all business that operate using private equity funds......

Words: 409 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Assess the View That Conscience Should Be Obeyed

...Assess the view that conscience should be obeyed Conscience is an incredibly powerful thing that many people do not understand. It has the ability to shape the way we behave and control how we feel over certain situations which includes feeling guilty. Understanding what conscience is and how it is developed is an important thing as it could shape the way we behave and effectively change how society is. Aquinas linked the conscience to God, it isn’t God telling us what to do but it is a faculty of God given reason. Aquinas described the conscience as “the mind of man making moral judgement”. Aquinas saw the conscience as the natural ability of a rational human being to understand the difference between right and wrong, and to apply the most basic moral principles to particular situations. Aquinas believed that the conscience contains two essential parts: Synderesis and Conscienta. Synderesis refers to the rational principles on which moral decisions are based; it is ‘right reason’ which stems from our natural tendency to do good and shy away from evil. The other essential part of the conscience is conscienta which refers to the moral judgement that a person makes based on those principles. Aquinas points out that your conscience should always be followed even if it leads them to do the wrong thing; the conscience can go wrong however by following your conscience, it makes a person morally blameless. Despite a person being morally blameless if they follow their......

Words: 1108 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Liberalism Is Defined by a Desire to Minimise the Role of the State

...defined by the desire to minimise the role of the state Liberalism’s view over the years has evolved and so as a result different liberals have different views on the state and how “large” it should be. Over the years the trend has fir liberals to become more “state-friendly” moving from classical liberals who preached for fragmented government to modern liberals who were state friendly, however since the 1960’s/70’s Neo liberals have tried to reverse this trend. Classical liberals such as John Locke, “the father of liberalism”, have argued that in order for the state to achieve and uphold its core principles such as individualism and liberty then the frontiers of the state should be rolled back and state power curbed, An example of this is Thomas Jeffersons quote “an effective gov’t is one who governs least”. A major debate at the heart of liberalism is how to achieve freedom, positive freedom where the state ‘enables and empowers’ the individual to do more and therefore that individual is more free, or negative freedom where the gov’t should be rolled back and not inhibit the individual to be able to do things, to allow the individual to grow with minimal state intervention, classical liberals subscribe to the latter and this links in with the core principle of individualism where due to classical liberals optimistic view of human nature they believe that it is in the human nature to be rational and not take advantage of less state intervention, a key argument for this...

Words: 885 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Liberalism Is Define by the Desire to Minimise the Role of the State, Discuss.

...‘Liberalism is defined by the desire to minimise the role of the state’ Discuss. Liberalism as an ideology revolves around the idea of freedom for the individual. The reason for this is due to the liberal’s view of human nature; they see the human being as unique and rational; able to make decisions in their best interest. Although all liberals agree on individual freedom, when it comes to the role of the state they are split down the middle. On one side there are the classic liberals who believe in as little state intervention as possible, and on the other side there is the modern liberals who believe state intervention is necessary as it can develop people and create equal opportunity. When looking at a liberal view of the state it is necessary to focus on both modern and classic liberals and compare their ideas. Classic liberalism can clearly be defined by the desire to minimise the role of the state, this is also known as negative freedom. Whereas modern liberalism believes the state is necessary to develop individuals and create opportunity, this is known as positive freedom. The individual is important to both Classical and Modern liberals, as Mills stated, “Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign”. For liberals, the individual is the most important part of their belief and government should not restrict the individual. Instead of looking at society as a whole, they look at it as a group of individuals, all striving to be the best......

Words: 1518 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Role of Power in Financial Statement Fraud Schemes

...The Role of Power in Financial Statement Fraud Schemes Chad Albrecht • Daniel Holland • Ricardo Malaguen˜o • Simon Dolan • Shay Tzafrir Received: 24 June 2011 / Accepted: 12 December 2013  Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014 Abstract In this paper, we investigate a large-scale financial statement fraud to better understand the process by which individuals are recruited to participate in financial statement fraud schemes. The case reveals that perpetrators often use power to recruit others to participate in fraudulent acts. To illustrate how power is used, we propose a model, based upon the classical French and Raven taxonomy of power, that explains how one individual influences another individual to participate in financial statement fraud. We also provide propositions for future research. Keywords Financial statement fraud  Organizational corruption  Recruitment  Collusion  Power and influence Introduction In recent years, fraud and other forms of unethical behavior in organizations have received significant attention in the business ethics literature (Uddin and Gillet 2002; Elias 2002; Rockness and Rockness 2005; Robison and Santore 2011), investment circles (Pujas 2003; Albrecht et al. 2011), and regulator communities (Farber 2005; Ferrell and Ferrell 2011). Scandals at Enron, WorldCom, Xerox, Quest, Tyco, HealthSouth, and other companies created a loss of confidence in the integrity of the American business (Carson 2003) and......

Words: 8383 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Should the First Amendment Protect Sexual Images?

...Josephine Nguyen Professor Mark Harrison English 1A 6 December 2013 Should the First Amendment Protect Sexual Images? Very few of us are strangers to pornography. Pornography is not only defined as four-letter-word and indecency but it also is an issue that has and will keep on calling upon a lot of debate. There are numerous different opinions about pornography. While many people who identify pornography as derogatory, disgraceful, and abominable, there are also a large number of people who recognize it as an attraction, a form of sexual countenance, and amusement. Pornography is sexually accurate substance, such as pictures, videos, or even writing, whose constitutional element is to cause sexual awaking. Moreover, sexually explicit material becomes more and more abundance on magazines, television, movies, and on billboards, and it can be much more accessible through the Web. After exploring the war on pornography, although there are a lot of people who stand for pornography, I still think that pornography should be censored on magazines, movies, television, and on the Internet, and there also should be limits for pornography because it’s harmful to our society. First of all, let’s talk about the differences between sexual images of consenting adults and sexual images of children. Most people consider pornography to be stirring images of consenting adults. In particular, sexual images of consenting adults are images of someone who is legally eighteen years......

Words: 1731 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Role of the United States Constitution

...Role of the United States Constitution Paper Thomas Hofmeister University Of Phoenix BUS 415 David Cory June 9, 2009 Role of the United States Constitution Paper The Constitution of the United States and their legal system has impacted the guidance and operation of all types of businesses. For example, if an individual breaks the law, he or she maybe ordered to pay a fine and in some cases be imprisoned. The same thing happens if a business breaks the law. The only difference between an individual breaking the law and a business breaking the law is the company can also be taken over by the federal government for tax evasion and even be closed down. The company has the responsibility to hire legalized employess to be able to work for the. According to (Justia, 2005), “The United States Constitution and the United States legal system play a significant role in business regulation. The laws under these elements provide successful operations of business and society. They provide a standards and expectations while giving us a guideline for our business conduct and a means for settling disputes within corporations. In addition it enhances free competition and personal freedom. Without these laws that govern businesses and people, society would not function efficiently and commerce would likely disintegrate. Although the laws appear to be simple, the United States Legal system is incredibly intricate. The laws are a collection of different types. It can include common......

Words: 1445 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The View of Human Nature and the Role of the State

...The view of human nature and the role of the state: Human nature is difficult to define but can be summed up as the innate characteristics and traits that all human beings are born with, which is free from culture influence. What these characteristics and traits are, is often cause for debate as it is a general belief that these should apply to everyone. However the problem lies in the fact that no two humans are the same therefore reaching a unanimous decision on what human nature is, is near enough impossible. Over the years three ideologies have emerged as the leading theories on human nature; conservatism, classical liberalism and Marxism. The three have their own differing views on what the basis of human nature is. These ideologies have evolved into political parties and their policies are largely influenced by their views on human nature. This essay will look into the three ideologies, their beliefs on human nature and how this affects their view on the role of the state. The state is a sovereign entity within a clearly defined region which has monopoly of violence, thus holding the ability to create peace or war. Views on the state, in terms of its function and involvement in society, stems largely from ones ideas on human nature. The conservative view on human nature is quite pessimistic. Conservatism is largely based around the theories of Thomas Hobbes who developed these theories around the time of a civil war in the 17th century. This could possibly explain...

Words: 742 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Assess the Functionalist View of the Role of Education

...Introduction Assess the role of education form the functionalist perspective Functionalists believe that education performs very important roles for individuals, the economy and the wider social structure. It provides secondary socialisation, passing on shared culture enables individuals to develop their potential and regulates their behaviour. Functionalists argue that education has three broad; socialisation where education helps to maintain society by socialising young people in to key cultural values, such as achievement, individualism, equality of opportunity, social solidarity and democracy. The second one is skills provision in which education teaches the skills required by a modern industrial society. These may be general skills that everyone needs such as literacy and numeracy or the specific skills needed for particular occupations. And the final function is role allocation, where education allocates people to the most appropriate jobs for their talents using examination and qualifications. This is seen to be fair because there is equality of opportunity, everyone has the chance to achieve success in society on the basis of their ability. more. Middle Educational mechanisms such as grades, examinations, references and qualifications are used to sort individuals. Society is this a meritocracy in which people are rewarded for intelligence, ability and effort. Functional importance is decided by length and specialist training required for particular......

Words: 1367 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Assess the Marxist View of the Role of

...AS Sociology Sample 20 mark question Assess the Marxist view of the role of education (20 marks) Marxists view society as based on conflict. They believe that the role of all institutions in society can be understood in terms of how they relate to the economic system. They therefore see the education system as an institution which reproduces the class system and provides the economy with a suitable workforce. The labour force needs professional and managerial workers, as well as skilled and unskilled manual workers. According to Marxists, the role of the education system is to provide workers for every part of the economy. Support for this Marxist view comes from Bowls and Gintis who highlight a strong correspondence between what is learnt in schools and what is required in workers for the Capitalist system. For example, they found that in school the pupils who succeed the most are obedient and unquestioning, rather than independent and inquisitive. Bowles and Gintis believe that these qualities are valued in workers as they will accept the authority of their employers, and not question their orders. Bowles and Gintis believe that the content of the curriculum is not very important and that pupils learn most from the ‘hidden curriculum’, that is; the experience of being in school e.g. getting used to doing boring things for the reward of the qualification etc. However Bowles and Gintis have been criticised mainly because they did not actually conduct any......

Words: 563 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Critically Assess Role of Marketing

...Introduction To have a competitive edge a company needs to have a vision. A vision of who it is, what it stands for and where it is going. This vision is what should be translated into a business strategy, which serves to remind a company of its purpose. In an increasingly competitive global economy fuelled by technological advances, there is a seemingly prevalent idea that the customer is key and the use of marketing data is therefore crucial to a company’s success. However, the focal point is how a company can ensure their exposure to data is to be informed, not driven by data; and how the data can be used to the company’s advantage in order to achieve long term goals. Business Strategy Johnson et al. (2008), state that strategy is the direction and scope of an organisation over the long term. Without a strategy in place to refer to, it is easy for a business to become overly focussed on the day-to-day business activities, temporarily losing sight of the goals and aspirations they have set for the business. This loss of vision can in turn lead to strategic drift, a concept explained by Handy (1989), as being the cause for businesses becoming uncompetitive in their respective environments and ultimately failing as a result of being too slow to respond to external trends and losing touch with customers. One of the main causes for strategic drift is thought to be substantial changes in technology, which have been rapid across the span of the information age. Narayanan......

Words: 2690 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Professional Roles and Values Mission Statement

...with Florence Nightingale, and to present professional practices. At the heart of practicing as a nurse is the mission to provide expedient, effective and compassionate care to patients to allow for recovery to regain a quality of life that is acceptable personally and socially. A. Functional Differences Professional development of nursing is imperative to maintain goals of continuing nursing practice. Organizations within this profession serve to regulate and enhance nursing practice, specifically regulatory agencies, such as boards of nursing, and professional organizations, comparable to the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Boards of nursing have multiple roles but primarily exist to safeguard the public’s health, safety, and welfare through these functions. Within each state, a board exists that regulates nursing practice through establishing minimum practice standards, approving schools of nursing, developing and adopting regulations, investigating complaints against nurses, conducting disciplinary hearings, and collaboration with consumers and nurses alike to increase public awareness (Board Mission, n.d.). Nursing boards are able to establish a standard of practice that each nurse is responsible for adherence. Professional nursing organizations (PNO) assist professionals with maintaining that standard. PNOs such as the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) serves the nursing community by providing several resources for its members...

Words: 2227 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Assess the Significance of the Role of Individuals in Bringing About the Expansion and Dismantling of the British Empire in Africa in the Period 1870-1981

...Assess the significance of the role of individuals in bringing about the expansion and dismantling of the British Empire in Africa in the period 1870-1981 It seems rather farfetched at first glance that individuals have enough influence in events such as the expansion of the British Empire in Africa or on the other hand the dismantling of it. However once we look into the effect individuals such as Cecil Rhodes, who was one of the main figures in the expansion of the British Empire to southern Africa or Harold Macmillan who with one speech “the winds of change” could cause so much revolt in British colonies. Although there is definitely evidence that individuals did have an effect in bringing about the expansion and dismantling of the British Empire in Africa in the period 1870-1981 we must not discard other reasons, such as how in the beginning expansion was financially great and after the second world war it was no longer profitable and instead a liability or how events such as the Suez canal crisis were able to lead to revolt of British colonies and how that may have caused the dismantling of the British empire in Africa. One key individual in the expansion of the British Empire in Africa was Cecil Rhodes. His arrival to South Africa in 1871 was fuelled by the hunger for financial gain, more specifically through the diamond industry. Rhodes had a rather complex personality. He was the first to think of turning "riches into a political instrument"1...

Words: 975 - Pages: 4