Free Essay

Cultural Assignment

In: Business and Management

Submitted By estherkang123
Words 4495
Pages 18
Cultural Awareness Assignment: Part 1

Part A

Cost of Living

Living in Australia, students have many choices to choose from when it comes to their accommodations. With each choice the price varies:

* Hostels and Guesthouses - $80 to $135 per week * Shared Rental - $70 to $250 per week * On campus - $80 to $250 per week * Homestay - $110 to $270 per week * Rental - $100 to $400 per week * Boarding schools - $10,000 to $20,000 a year There are many other living expenses that should be considered when living abroad such as food costs, transportation, etc. Based on each individual the amounts may differ. Here are the approximate prices: * Groceries and eating out - $80 to $200 per week * Gas, electricity - $60 to $100 per week * Phone and Internet - $20 to $50 per week * Public transport - $10 to $50 per week * Car (after purchase) - $150 to $250 per week * Entertainment - $50 to $100 per week As the Department of Immigration and Citizenship demands you to receive a student visa in order to study in Australia, for one individual it costs about $18,610 Australian dollars. Communication

Generally you should stand about an arm’s-length away when speaking to someone face to face but the distance will likely be less when standing side by side. Eye contact is generally considered important when expressing sincerity, although Aboriginal Australians are less comfortable making eye contact, which may be seen as overly confrontational. Touching someone on the shoulder or the arm when speaking or to make a point is generally acceptable. Some people view Australians as less formal and less politically correct. They will use some swear words but should not be taken as harshly as it will seem. Australians are known for their laid back attitude and so will generally not get too worked up about things. Australians are relaxed honest people who are comfortable with themselves, down-to-earth and say and do as they please.
In a business or formal context, most people will shake hands as a greeting. In a more familiar situation or amongst family and friends, a kiss on one or both cheeks between a man and a woman or between two women is usual. Whereas Canadians may hug in this sort of situation, Australians will usually hug if they know the individual well.
All people in Australia are encouraged to learn English, which is the national language and symbolizes a unified society. However, languages other than English are also valued. In fact, more than 15 per cent of Australians speak languages other than English at home. The most commonly spoken languages after English are Italian, Greek, Cantonese, Arabic, Vietnamese and Mandarin. Australians speak more than 200 languages, including Indigenous Australian languages. There are many uses of colloquial or slang words that can confuse non-locals and tourists. Australians are direct and have almost a language of their own. They have many words that sum up multiple sentences. Words are shortened such as; arvo = afternoon, brollie = umbrella, narky = annoyed, upset, togs = bathing suit. There are even"Aussie" Dictionaries available for use. Australians speak slower and have the tendency not to interrupt.

Dress, Punctuality, and Formality

Among friends, Australians generally call each other by their first names. But this informality does not extend to physical contact. When meeting someone for the first time, it is usual to shake the person’s right hand with your right hand. People who do not know each other generally do not kiss or hug when meeting. Australians queue or line up when waiting to be served in a shop, a bank, a government department, a cinema, or anywhere that a number of people are all seeking a service at the same time. Australians generally wait until it is their turn to be served or attended to. Being on time for meetings and appointments is important.
Workplace Culture: Dress, Punctuality, and Formality
In a typical office, business casual dress is usually acceptable. The weather is mostly warm to hot and not all buildings have air conditioning. Clothes are therefore more casual than in Canada. However in the big cities, tend to dress more formally than Canadians. Some work places are moving towards "smart casual wear" but it is probably best to start off with a suit, or something similar and take note of what others are wearing. In a business situation you should still look smart and presentable.
Colleagues and supervisors tend to be addressed by their first names, unless they are very senior and old-fashioned. Long names will be shortened if possible. There is little difference in the form of language used between colleagues and supervisors and in most respects every day language is used.
Deadlines will usually have some flexibility and the exact nature of the task and deadline should be ascertained when the task is set. Punctuality is definitely preferred, but there is also some degree of flexibility. Absenteeism is unacceptable and reliability is highly regarded.
There may be some flexibility in working hours. Workers may start from about 8 am onwards although it is rare to leave before 5 pm (unless on shift work). Overtime and weekend hours may well be required to meet particular deadlines.
In a workplace it will be expected that management will make decisions, although often after having gone through a committee or working group. This of course depends on the type of decision and employees would not expect to be involved in high-level corporate issues. Employees may wish to provide some input into decisions that affect them. Employees will generally appreciate constructive reviews and feedback. Communication and feedback is usually done directly between the employee and supervisor, although a human resources manager may be involved if necessary or wanted. Communication is encouraged as well as constructive suggestions. There is a level of mutual respect between workers and managers. Discussions are encouraged and hopefully decisions are made as a result.
Work related issues should usually be resolved privately and directly with the colleague if at all possible. People will generally expect open and honest communication and going to a superior may be seen as trying to undermine the colleague or create bias. Discussion in such circumstances should generally occur privately on a one on one basis. Rarely would it be appropriate discuss sensitive issues publicly.
If there is a work-related problem, it is best to confront the person in question in a rational way, privately. Your colleague should do the same if there is a problem with you. The other approach would be to go to your immediate supervisor and discuss the problem first.
Most business relationships exist independently of personal relationships and it is not necessary to develop a particular personal relationship with a colleague or client, although one may develop naturally through good rapport. Many people will prefer to keep business and personal life distinct and so even if a personal relationship exists, it may not be acknowledged in business circles.
In regards to creating a cover letter and resume when seeking for a job in Australia, it is best to keep your font type and size the same in both your cover letter and resume. Be concise and use descriptive words, as the reader will spend less than a minute reading the resume/cover letter. It is also important to remember that the reader will be looking at how the information is communicated as the documents give a good idea of the communication skills of the applicant. The cover letter and resume should work together as a partnership, both delivering a powerful message about the individual.

Business Hub: Top 10 Multinational Companies

According these 10 Australian companies are the largest in 2013 based on their revenue.
1) BHP Billiton (72190.62)
BHP Billiton is a leading global resources company and the largest company in Australia. BHP is among the world’s largest producers of aluminum, copper, energy coal, iron ore, manganese, metallurgical coal, nickel, silver and uranium along with substantial interests in oil and gas. It is a global organization with over 100 locations throughout the world and more than 100,000 employees and contractors.
2) Rio Tinto (59879.25)
Rio Tinto Group is a British-Australian multinational metal and mining corporation with headquarters in London, UK and a management office in Melbourne, Australia. The focus of the firm is on finding, mining and processing the Earth's mineral resources in order to maximize value.
3) Wesfarmers (58463)
From its origins in 1914 as a Western Australian farmers' cooperative, Wesfarmers has grown into one of Australia's largest listed companies and employers. Its diverse business operations cover: supermarkets, department stores, home improvement and office supplies; coal mining; insurance; chemicals, energy and fertilizers; and industrial and safety products.
4) Woolworths (55526.8)
Since opening its first single basement store in Sydney’s Pitt Street in 1924, Woolworths has grown into a household name with a presence in almost every metropolitan and regional center in Australia and New Zealand. It began operating fresh food stores 60 years ago when advances in refrigeration technology revolutionized transport and storage.
5) National Australia Bank (48556)
National Australia Bank Group is a financial services organization with over 12,000,000 customers and 50,000 people, operating more than 1,750 stores and Service Centers globally. Its major financial services franchises in Australia are complemented by businesses in New Zealand, Asia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Each of its brands is uniquely positioned, but built on a common commitment to provide its customers with quality products and services, fair fees and charges, and relationships built on the principles of help, guidance and advice.
6) Commonwealth Bank of Australia (47193)
The Commonwealth Bank was founded under the Commonwealth Bank Act in 1911 and commenced operations in 1912, empowered to conduct both savings and general banking business. Today, the company has grown to a business with more than 800,000 shareholders and 52,000 people working in the Commonwealth Bank Group. It offers a full range of financial services to help all Australians build and manage their finances.
7) Westpac Banking Corporation (42354)
Westpac Banking Corporation was founded in 1817 and was the first bank established in Australia. On 23 August 2002, Westpac was registered as a public company limited by shares under the Australian Corporations Act (2001). In December 2008, Westpac merged with St. George Bank Limited. Today Westpac Group has branches and controlled entities throughout Australia, New Zealand and the near Pacific region and maintains offices in key financial centers around the world including London, New York, Hong Kong and Singapore.
8) ANZ Banking Group (40036)
ANZ Banking Group’s history dates back over 175 years and it is committed to building lasting partnerships with its customers, shareholders and communities in 32 countries in Australia, New Zealand, throughout Asia and the Pacific, and in the Middle East, Europe and America.
9) Telstra (25637)
Telstra builds technology and content solutions that are simple and easy to use – including Australia’s largest fully integrated IP network and Australia’s largest and fastest national mobile network.
10) Xstrata Holdings (23137.4)
Glencore Xstrata is one of the world’s largest global diversified natural resource companies and is one of the ten biggest companies within the FTSE 100 Index. A global network of more than 90 offices located in over 50 countries supports the Group’s industrial and marketing activities. Its diversified operations comprise of over 150 mining and metallurgical sites, offshore oil production assets, farms and agricultural facilities. The company employs approximately 190,000 people, including contractors.

Dominant Religion, Class and Ethnicity

Religion: Australia is largely a secular society, although historically the largest religious group is Anglican. It is not uncommon for many Australians not to go to church even at Christmas. For those who do go to church or are religious, it is a private affair. The Aboriginal peoples have their own traditional beliefs but many were converted by early missionaries, and are now practicing Christians, ironically attending church and following traditions more so than the average "European" Australian. With the influx of immigrants, many other religions have been imported. However, religion does not play a major part in public life or the workplace.

Class: Australians like to pride themselves in having a "classless" society; however, this is not strictly true. While not having the clear distinction of English classes, there is a growing distinction between the educated and well off, and those that are less so. These distinctions are often compounded by location: inner city v suburban; urban v rural communities. It may also be related to schooling and background. However, these distinctions do not generally carry over into the workplace.

Ethnicity: Australian society is made up of many different cultures and therefore the majority of the urban population enjoys the benefits of being among a variety of people, cuisines and cultures. The larger cities have a good cultural and ethnic mix. Originally many Chinese, Lebanese, Greeks and Italians came to Australia. More recently many Asians and East Indians etc. have come over. Some rural communities will not have the same exposure to immigrants and international visitors. Generally variety is accepted and people of many cultures will be seen in the workplace and are accepted. Overall, Australians are professional, and once they get to know anyone will treat them the same as they would anyone else. It should not be an issue in the work place, even if it were an issue outside of the work place.

Recommended Safety Measures
Australia is generally a very safe place to live and study. The 2011 OECD Better Life Index rated Australia 9.3 out of 10 for safety, one of the highest ratings awarded to any country. But it is still important be aware of the risks that exist and ways to minimize them. This is particularly important for when you first arrive and are adjusting to your new way of life. The assistance and emergency networks in Australia are widespread and well equipped for any potential emergencies. Fire, ambulance, and police services will be able to provide you with any health and safety assistance you may need. Wherever you are in Australia, if there's a life-threatening emergency, call 000. It's a free call, even from your mobile. An operator will answer and will ask which services you need. Most institutions provide on-campus security that can be easily contacted.
When you are out with friends or by yourself, here are some simple things to consider: * Always plan your trip home, especially at night. You may want to pre-book a taxi or arrange transport with a friend. Always make sure you have enough money to get home. * Try to travel with a friend or in a group. * Keep your bag and belongings close to your body and where you can always see them. * If you don’t have a mobile phone, make sure you have a phone card or money to make a phone call. * Where available, use pedestrian walkways and cross the street at pedestrian crossings or lights. * Leave valuables at home if you don't need to take them with you. This includes jewelry, electronic equipment such as iPods and your passport. * If you've recently arrived and don't have anywhere permanent to live yet, talk to your institution’s international student support staff about secure storage facilities on campus. * Don't carry large amounts of money with you. You can access your money at ATMs found in shops, supermarkets, petrol stations, shopping malls, bars, shop fronts and many other public places.

Public transport is reliable and widely used in Australia, particularly in metro and urban areas. A number of security measures have been implemented to maximize the safety of public transport users.
Safety at home is important, no matter where you live. Here are some tips to help keep you and your home safe. * Always keep your doors locked – both when you are home and when you go out. * Lock windows when you go out, or in rooms you are not in while at home. * Do not let strangers into your house. * Be careful of the information you give out to strangers through the internet, on social networking sites, or over the phone. If you are not at home or go on holidays do not make this information available to strangers. * Smoke alarms will alert you to smoke on the property so don't remove the batteries or tamper with them. If you live in a rental property, hostel or hotel it's the law to have smoke alarms fitted. If your property doesn't have them, talk to your landlord or real estate agent. * If you come home to find evidence of a break in (broken window or door lock), contact the police from a safe location.

The Australian sun can be very hot and may be stronger than what you are used to in your home country. As well Australia has many beautiful beaches and waterways, but it is important to take care when swimming. Many Australian beaches have ‘rips’. These are strong underwater currents that can be hard to spot but which can draw you away from the shore quickly. If you swim between the flags you should not have any problem with rips. If you do find yourself in a rip, try not to panic or swim against it. Stay with your surfboard or other floating device if you have one. Swim gently parallel to the beach out of the rip zone, or wave and call for assistance from lifeguards or other swimmers and surfers.

Healthcare System

The Australian Government provides help with medical expenses and hospital care through a scheme called Medicare. The government also subsidies the cost of most medicine under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). Most temporary visa holders are not eligible to enroll in Medicare; however, the exception is people who have applied for a permanent visa and meet the necessary criteria.

All international students are required to purchase health insurance for the duration of their studies in Australia using the Overseas Student Health Cover (OSHC) scheme. Evidence that you have OSHC is a requirement for obtaining a student visa for Australia. Most tertiary education providers will recommend a specific OSHC provider. You must ensure that your OSHC is valid for the duration of your time in Australia. Coverage of OSHC for 12 months costs around AU$370.

Typical Salaries of Co-ops or Interns in Business Field

The full-time minimum wage is $16.37 per hour or $622.20 per week. This means that most employees in the national system shouldn't get less than this.
There are special national minimum wages for trainees, apprentices and juniors who don’t have an award or agreement. From 1 July 2013 these are:

Juniors: Age | % of national minimum wage | Minimum hourly rate | Under 16 | 36.8% | $6.03 | 16 | 47.3% | $7.74 | 17 | 57.8% | $9.46 | 18 | 68.3% | $11.18 | 19 | 82.5% | $13.51 | 20 | 97.7% | $16.00 |

Apprentices Year of apprenticeship | % of the level 3 adult hourly rate ($19.07) | Minimum hourly rate | 1 | 55% | $10.49 | 2 | 65% | $12.39 | 3 | 80% | $15.25 | 4 | 95% | $18.11 |

Part B

Esther Kang
Esther Kang
1295 Military Trail Elm Hall Unit #E-1-H
Toronto, ON, M1C3A8
Telephone: (705)-941-8055

Career Statement
To pursue a highly rewarding career, seeking for a job in challenging and healthy work environment where I can utilize my skills and knowledge efficiently for organizational growth. Education
2013- Bachelor of Business Administration, Specialization in Management International Business Co-op University of Toronto
2009-2013 International Baccalaureate Program (IB), High Honours Korah Collegiate, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario

Work Experience
Nov 2012 – July 2013 Teavana Sales Representative
Ensured quality customer service through active listening, the ability to identify the best products for the customer and suggesting alternatives and/or additional items as appropriate. Thrived on interaction and consistently met or exceeded sales and customer service goals
Aug 2012 – Aug 2013 Algoma District School Board of Education Student Trustee
Represented the student voice in the Algoma District Schools, showing leadership and responsibility within the community. Aug 2011 – Nov 2011 Bento Sushi Supervisor
Had the responsibility of opening and closing the business kiosk. Maintained cooking, cleaning the surroundings, and controlling customer service. Sept 2010 – Aug 2011 KFC/Taco Bell Grill, Cash & Expediting Managing cash, grill, and expediting during every shift. Responsible for counting the till, opening and closing the restaurant.

Volunteer Experience
April 2012 – July 2013 United Way Youth Empowerment Council Secretary Took down the minutes of all the meetings, dealt with external contacts, etc. Feb 2011 – June 2013 Students Without Borders, Algoma Public Health Promote awareness against the usage and effects in tobacco. Organized and supervised an art gallery for the community showcasing inappropriate use of tobacco with ways of prevention. Sept 2010 – June 2013 OSAID (Ontario Students Against Impaired Driving) Promote awareness against impaired driving, Organized and supervised fundraisers and community events Summer of 2009 and 2008 Volunteer work at YMCA Summer Day Camps
Worked with children aged 7-9, Provided leadership and guidance of children aged 7-9. Showed cooperation with the entire staff in working together for the welfare of the camp and campers. Maintained a positive working relationship with other staff in the camp. Extra-Curricular Experience
DECA UTSC, September 2013- Professional Development Associate
Assist with the logistics and execution of all PD events as well as adding development initiatives to improve member/executive life. Work closely with events and marketing divisions across the executive team and seek and build relationships with externals that could assist with development initiatives
Student Council, Korah Collegiate, September – June 2012 Co-President:
Contribute in leading various activities and events for the student body such as Operation Christmas Child, Canned Food Drive, Winter Carnival, Walk for a Cure, Wake-a-thon, etc.
Green Council, Korah Collegiate, September – June 2012 Grade 12 Representative:
Assist in cleaning the environment around the school and community. Organize events such as garbage clean up day; create ideas to conserve waste, water bottle project, etc.
OSAID (Ontario Students against Impaired Driving), Korah Collegiate, September – June 2012 Co-President:
Promote awareness against impaired driving, supervise fundraisers and community events, regularly attend provincial OSAID conferences to share ideas with the rest of the members.
Student Senate, Algoma's Board of Education, September – June 2012 School Representative:
Promote awareness against drugs, as well as concepts such as anti-bullying and equity. Create and supervise events for elementary students on the harmful effects of drugs and bullying.
Algoma Youth against Action Alliance, Algoma Public Health, September – June 2012 School Representative:
Promote the usage and effects in tobacco, especially the concept of smoke free movies. Organize and supervise an art gallery for the community showcasing captures of the community and its inappropriate use of tobacco with ways to prevent it.
Duke of Edinburgh’s Programme, Korah Collegiate, September – June 2012 Gold Recipient
Fulfills areas of volunteer service, skill, and physical recreation around the community for a set amount of hours. Explore nature during outdoor expeditions to develop self-reliance.

Key Skills * Proficient in use of Microsoft Word, PowerPoint and Excel; 108 wpm * Communication * Organization * Teamwork
Interests and Accomplishments * Currently in Grade 10 Piano * Have won various scholarships from Kiwanis Music Festival * Runner up for Kiwanis Shield * Recommended for the Ontario Music Festival (Provincials) 2010, 2011 * Awarded Certificate of Distinction in Waterloo’s Pascal Math Contest

Wendy Bangma
Manager of Teavana
293 Bay Street, Sault Ste. Marie, ON

Asima Vezina
Superintendent of Education
Algoma District School Board of Education


The idea of the Australian resume and cover letter is almost identical to that of Canada’s. There are only slight changes are minimal to each other such as:

* Always end your cover letter with Yours Faithfully if you are not addressing them by name * In your resume, include Key Skills – skills most releveant to the position and list in order of relevance.

With the exception of a couple differences, essentially the writing process is the same.

Part C

I) I have health insurance that is included with UTSC Tuition fees II) I am a Canadian Citizen, and I also obtain a Canadian passport. I also have a Social Insurance Number

Works Cited

“About Australia,” Australian Government: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, “Australian Cover Letter and Resume Guidelines,”

“Australia’s Largest Companies 2013,” Australia Business Review,

“Centre for Intercultural Learning,” Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada,

“Health and Safety,” Australia,

“Living Costs in Australia,” Australia,

“National Minimum Wage,” Fair Work OMBUDSMAN,

“Personal Safety,” Australia,

“Sun and Water Safety,” Australia,

“The Australian Healthcare System,” Working in Australia,

[ 1 ]. “Living Costs in Australia,” Australia,
[ 2 ]. “About Australia,” Australian Government: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade,
[ 3 ]. “Centre for Intercultural Learning,” Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada,
[ 4 ]. “About Australia,” Australian Government: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, [ 5 ]. “Centre for Intercultural Learning,” Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada,
[ 6 ]. “Australian Cover Letter and Resume Guidelines,”
[ 7 ]. “Australia’s Largest Companies 2013,” Australia Business Review,
[ 8 ]. “Centre for Intercultural Learning,” Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada,
[ 9 ]. “Health and Safety,” Australia,
[ 10 ]. “Personal Safety,” Australia,
[ 11 ]. IBID.
[ 12 ]. “Sun and Water Safety,” Australia,
[ 13 ]. “The Australian Healthcare System,” Working in Australia,
[ 14 ]. “National Minimum Wage,” Fair Work OMBUDSMAN,…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Cultural Assignment Singapore

...Singapore Singapore has a population of 5,4 million with a population growth of 1.993% in 2011, and is very densely populated. There are a lot of different Asian cultures in Singapore which gives them the name “Instant Asia”, but there is a majority of Chinese people who are also very active in business. There is a lot of Western influences in Singapore which gives them the ability to speak English, or also called “Singlish”. Business relationships are really essential in Singapore, therefore it is necessary to network and meet new people in order to build an image of trustworthy and reliability. Relationships are more valued than the companies, and spending personal free time is expected which include for example dining, and playing golf. Singapore has a high level of power distance that can be seen in all the rules they have to follow which are very strict and can result in a heavy fine if someone does not obey the law. The government involves itself in every aspect of society which means there is a lot of control in Singapore, and makes the country one of the cleanest and safest place in the world. Also, the high power distance can be found in the workforce, where the head of the company is the sole decision maker. When planning a meeting it is important to send officials from equal rank, since it can be insulting and damaging to the business relationships. The oldest and highest ranking people are introduced first due to the respect people need to have for......

Words: 1091 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...My particular culture is from Irish American. Both of my parents are from the same background and are very prominent in their families. We are strong believers in healing within the healthcare system. Ethic and cultural diversity are not new phenomena in Ireland. Have strong culture and identity of their own. The Irish healthcare is founded on a belief that awareness and sensitivity is the key requirement for adapting to a culturally diverse patient population. There has always been cultural diversity in Ireland. There has always been ‘people of colour’ in Ireland, including black Irish and other EU citizens and this visible form of diversity has also increased in recent years and is now part of the fabric of Ireland’s increasingly multicultural society. The increasing diversity means that the people who are seeking to avail of our healthcare services are from a broader range of ethnic groups than previously experienced. It is clear that cultural diversity is a key challenge for the Irish health care sector, both in terms of diversity in the workplace and the development and enhancement of service delivery that has the potential to impact positively on minority ethnic groups. 2. Within the community I live in, I feel that Hispanics are rising and especially within the healthcare system. Hispanics have very strong family connections, and have a variety of beliefs regarding healthcare. Some believe in folk medicines such as herbs. Folk medicine has a long-standing......

Words: 526 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Cultural Assignment

...Cultural Awareness Assignment: Part 1 Part A Cost of Living Living in Australia, students have many choices to choose from when it comes to their accommodations. With each choice the price varies: * Hostels and Guesthouses - $80 to $135 per week * Shared Rental - $70 to $250 per week * On campus - $80 to $250 per week * Homestay - $110 to $270 per week * Rental - $100 to $400 per week * Boarding schools - $10,000 to $20,000 a year There are many other living expenses that should be considered when living abroad such as food costs, transportation, etc. Based on each individual the amounts may differ. Here are the approximate prices: * Groceries and eating out - $80 to $200 per week * Gas, electricity - $60 to $100 per week * Phone and Internet - $20 to $50 per week * Public transport - $10 to $50 per week * Car (after purchase) - $150 to $250 per week * Entertainment - $50 to $100 per week As the Department of Immigration and Citizenship demands you to receive a student visa in order to study in Australia, for one individual it costs about $18,610 Australian dollars. Communication Generally you should stand about an arm’s-length away when speaking to someone face to face but the distance will likely be less when standing side by side. Eye contact is generally considered important when expressing sincerity, although Aboriginal Australians are less comfortable......

Words: 4494 - Pages: 18

Free Essay


...offer to create a 2,000-person military advisory force under NATO auspices. The force could consist of multinational forces committed, on a rotating basis, to a six-month period of joint training prior to the start of an operational stand-by period. Joint training would continue throughout the standby period. This would ensure that NATO has a highly flexible, OMLT-style capability and that the experiences of the trainers deployed to ISAF are maximised. In the first instance, NATO should create an alliance-wide database of soldiers who have served in OMLTs. These soldiers could provide trainthe-trainers courses and subsequently help tailor courses for other soldiers being deployed to Afghanistan. All European soldiers serving in OMLT-style assignments should be on 12-month rotations. NATO should also declare its intention to create a purpose-built military advisory centre to gather together training currently carried out at the Joint Force Training Centre in NATO’s Headquarters Multinational Corps Northeast, in Poland, and the US Army Europe’s Joint Multinational Readiness Centre, in Germany. The centre would teach prospective advisers the tricks of the trade, along with the necessary language skills. European governments, meanwhile, should consider how to improve their own contributions to the Afghan army’s development. Notwithstanding the few OMLTs, the bulk of Afghan troop training is conducted by the US-led Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan (CSTC-A). NATO......

Words: 14014 - Pages: 57

Premium Essay


...Cultural diversity refers to the differences in culture, especially when comparing minorities and majorities. In very culture, there are basic standards for social interaction such as personal space distance, eye contact and amount of body language displayed in public. Cultural diversity makes a place richer by making it more interesting to live. To provide culturally competent care for Ms. Li, it is important for the provider that is assessing her to have background knowledge of the traditional health beliefs and the historical experiences that may have influenced her current cohort. One of the cultural consideration for Ms. i may belanguage barrier as most Asian-Americans face some of the same limitationgood health as other minority groups like Language barries which can interferewith receiving quality health care. About one-third of Asian-Americans do not speak english very well while some do not speak any English. Many Asian-Americans may not know about the risk factors for disease or the role of preventive health care. If the danger is not immediate, but you suspect that abuse has occurred or is occurring, please tell someone and as nurses, we have duty to report cases of suspected abuse. Follow your health care facility policy and outlined procedure to know the exact steps you should take. This assessment will take place, either during telephoned consultations with other professionals or during a formal planning meeting (Social institute for excellence......

Words: 256 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...individual retrieves it and responds. However the message that is sent can be misunderstood in various ways usually this can happens for a number of reasons however cultural influence in the most prominent effector for both verbal communication and non-verbal communication. All heath care professionals need to be understanding, considerate and have patience in order to communicate to other individuals what are native to speaking English and using English terms and customs. Responding to the sent message. Responding to the sent message. Retrieving and understanding the message. Retrieving and understanding the message. Sender Sender Care professionals need to have awareness of and sensitivity to cultural differences when communicating with others. For example people speak a range of languages, use different words, phrases and dialects I different regions of the world and may use different forms of non-verbal behavior to express themselves during individual and group interactions based on their culture. Health care professionals don’t develop an awareness of cultural variations in communication and in interaction styles and presences, communications may be misunderstood or may make no sense at all. Cultural influence on verbal communication. Words. Many people find that that learning a second language is exceptionally difficult and are more comfortable mixing......

Words: 2650 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Cultural Competence Assignment

...ßCultural-Competence Assignment Introduction The purpose of this essay is to firstly understand the arguments between McSweeney and Hofstede about national cultures. The argument starts on the Hoftstede’s published book Culture’s Consequences. Hoftstede’s cultural dimensions theory has got popular and in the same time criticised by other scholars, while McSweeney is one of the scholars who have been critising the cultural dimensions on people from different nations. This essay will firstly summarise the ideas and arguments of both of McSweeney and Hofstede in order to develop the understanding about the reasons why they are conflicting with each other on the cultural dimension theories. Following the summary of the two scholars ideas and argument, this essay will discuss the agreement and disagreement of both scholars. Reflection on this course on national culture will be specified as well in order to show whether my personal understanding about culture has been changed or improved. Summary of the ideas and argument of both McSweeney and Hofstede * McSweeney’s argument McSweeney expresses his doubts about Hoftstede’s model of national cultural differences and their consequences. The criticism that McSweeney has on the theory of Hoftstede’s cultural dimensions based on the description of national cultural differences in the Culture’s Consequences published in 1980 (McSweeney, 2002). First of all, the methodology applied in the research of Hoftstede’s model is......

Words: 1737 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...Question choose: Base on one of the cultural site of cultural tourism in Southeast Asia, discuss its history, development and efforts to enhance its development. TITLE OF ASSIGNMENT: Malacca A Unique Hybrid of Two Cultures A Unique Hybrid of Two Cultures 1. INTRODUCTION In the past time, people travel or moving from one place to another in order to avoid from danger, hunting for the food and so on, but with the development of economy, the traveling had mad more meaningful and colorful. Malaysia is a multicultural country, a very unique country for its diversity of races, religions and cultures. Since the very beginning its history and establishment, different races and cultures have been mixing and living together peacefully. This report is focusing on the historic state of Malaysia-Malacca, in malay, people called melaka, which is 148 kilometres (92 miles) south east of Malaysia's capital city Kuala Lumpur. Malacca city centre has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008. This report will describes few aspects of the Baba and Nyonya culture in Malaysia, the customs, art and architecture, cuisine as well as the development of Malacca. 1.1 The Origin of The Baba and Nyonya The unique hybrid of Baba and Nyonya started evolving in the fiftieth century when Chinese merchants arrived in the Malacca. At this point, Malacca was the centre of trading and The Malacca Sultanate. When the Chinese men arrived in Malacca and they did...

Words: 2285 - Pages: 10

Free Essay


...Contents Preface………………………………………………………………………………….…….….001 Scope of Guidelines…………………………………………………………..….…………...…003 Racial/Ethnic Diversity in the United States and Psychology………..………………....……....004 Definitions…………………………………………………………...……………………..……008 • • • • • Culture…..……………………………………………………………....………………008 Race…………..………………………...……………….………………………………009 Ethnicity……………………...…..…………….………..……………………………...009 Multiculturalism and Diversity………………...……………………………..………...009 Culture-centered……………..……………….………….……….……………………..011 Historical and Sociopolitical Developments for Guidelines…………………...………………..011 Introduction to the Guidelines: Assumptions and Principles…………………………...….……015 Guideline #1: Psychologists are encouraged to recognize that, as cultural beings, they may hold attitudes and beliefs that can detrimentally influence their perceptions of and interactions with individuals who are ethnically and racially different from themselves. ……………..…………017 Guideline #2: Psychologists are encouraged to recognize the importance of multicultural sensitivity/responsiveness, knowledge, and understanding about ethnically and racially different individuals………………….…………………………………………………025 Guideline #3: As educators, psychologists are encouraged to employ the constructs of multiculturalism and diversity in psychological education. ……………………………...…….030 Guideline # 4: Culturally sensitive psychological researchers are encouraged to recognize the importance of conducting culture-centered......

Words: 24938 - Pages: 100

Premium Essay

Cultural Differences

...Cultural Differences Christina Bacon Psych/535 March 16, 2015 Cindy Ojeda Cultural Differences There are different cultures that come into people’s lives and into the United States every day. Different cultures is what makes the world an interesting place to live, whether it be a person’s gender identity or their cultural identity, people tend to judge others on their gender and their cultural identity. This essay will discuss the multicultural concepts on both gender identity and cultural identity and will talk about understanding the cultural differences. Gender identity (2015) defines gender identity as an inner sense of a person and whether or not they are male or female. This identity usually happens during early childhood and as a result of how the child’s parents raise them and the social influences that happen during puberty by the changes in hormones. When children reach their teen years they start to feel differently about themselves, teens ask themselves if they were actually supposed to be female instead of male and vice versa, and when others hear about it then that is where the differences come from. In the transgender culture they are accepted because other teens and young adults like them have gone through the same things, but in other cultures they are looked down on. In our culture we are called transgender or homosexual or heterosexual, etc. but in the world of the Native American they are called two-spirits. According to......

Words: 1382 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cultural Artifact Assignment

...February 20, 2015 Cultural Artifact Assignment Artifact: antique quilt from rural Appalachian village in West Virginia from 1890, currently on display in the Heritage Farm Museum of cultural artifacts in Huntington, West Virginia. Appalachian Quilts For this assignment I have decided to focus on quilts and their cultural and historic importance. One in particular caught my eye, which is a multi-colored antique quilt that I discovered while researching the Appalachian people of rural West Virginia. While there are many different cultural artifacts that are a part of the history of the Appalachian people, this is one that has deep roots in that often times quilts get passed down from generation to generation. It is a patchwork quilt that was first started by the grandmother of a coal miner, Leanne Thomas in 1890 who left the quilt unfinished in order for her children to add patches to it and then continue the tradition. The colors featured are cream and red. The prints used also feature yellow, blue, orange, purple, green, black, tan, and brown. It is hand-sewn with triangle pieces that are attached together with pieces of yarn. The quilt has an abstract geometric pattern that is made by altering the direction and placement of both blocks and rows. Each particular patch was said to signify an important event such as a birth or death that occurred, as well as to represent a member of the family. This specific quilt is unique because it was said to be one of the......

Words: 812 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cultural Assignment

...potential cultural differences and miscommunication, he knew that it could also be viewed as condescending, possibly insulting to Harold, Joseph and other fellow employees. Weighing out the pros and cons, Mark decided not to replicate their accents. Another reason contributing to Mark’s decision was that he felt there was already a mutual understanding that certain cultural communication differences were inevitable and that replicating their accents would strain this connection and potentially, their workplace relationship. After the debriefing by Harold and Joseph, Mark was allocated to work on a marketing campaign focused on the branding and promotion of a brand new product created by a sports drink company with several other employees. Mark was happily surprised that he was able to apply a lot of what he had previously learnt from his studies and gained further knowledge of marketing strategies used. Mark was due to finish work at 5:00pm. At 4:55pm, Mark was preparing to pack up and leave when he was approached by a fellow employee. He asked Mark “What you doing?” Mark kindly responded “Just getting ready to leave. Is that okay?” His colleague responded “You never leave before Harold. He will not like it”. Mark was not aware that it was customary for an employee to never leave before their boss. In contrary, Mark would always clock off on time when he was working at the department store in Australia. This can possibly be attributed to two factors: cross-cultural......

Words: 1823 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Cultural Diversity

...Cultural Diversity 1 Running head: Cultural Diversity Cultural Diversity In the autumn of 2006 the population of the United States exceeded 300 million people. Of those 300 million, approximately 98 million, or 33%, of them are a part of a minority group (Jarvis, 2008). This growing number can be attributed to the increase number of immigrants coming to the United States for the opportunity to have a better life for themselves and their families. It is predicted that by the year 2050 the statistic of 33% of people that belong to a minority group will rise to 50%. Of the current 33%, 14.4% of people are of Hispanic or Latin origin. This makes Hispanics and Latinos the largest minority group in the country. African Americans account for 12.8%, Asians for 4.3%, and other groups for 2.7% of the ethnic minority population (Potter & Perry, 2009). The data on the United States population verifies an important fact that must be implemented within the health care system: the statistics reflect the cultural diversity of potential clients. From previous experience, I can concur that approximately one-third of the patients I saw belonged to a minority group. Health care professionals are expected to provide individualized care to their clients. In doing so, we must be aware of what makes them an individual. A person’s culture is a huge part of that. In order to fulfill our duty, we need to familiarize ourselves with the practices and beliefs of different......

Words: 2026 - Pages: 9

Free Essay


...picture cards and ask him to arrange them as they are supposed to see them in the cards. 4. Lay them randomly on the floor and then arrange them by talking briefly on each picture starting from the one that comes first. COE: Visual Aim: 4. To help the child understand the life cycle of plants. 5. To identify the sequence of growth 6. To care for plants Age: 4years onward. Terminology Booklets The ability to imagine is a unique human experience and deserves to be nurtured and encouraged. Dr. Maria Montessori believed that the development of the child’s imagination and creativity are inborn powers within the child that develops as his mental capacities are established through his interaction with the environment. The cultural activities in a Montessori prepared environment helps to foster imaginative skills in the early years which make significant difference in a child’s future development. The children while being educated are encouraged to imagine. This freedom of mind helps them to connect the environment with their imaginations to construct meaningful ideas and pictures. It is like setting a butterfly free to roam from flower to flower from tree to bushes mapping the environment around for recognition. Imagination makes the brain work hard. As Jacqueline Harding writes,” When children imagine and pretend they break through an important mental barrier. The ability to be creative and imaginative allows the brain to make connections between one......

Words: 912 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY Culture is anything around us. It is the clothes we wear, the food we eat, the language we speak, the way we worship, where we live, the way we play, or the art we create. In general, beyond rituals, dances and dialects, culture is how we think, what we feel, how we relate to others even how we interpret behaviors can reveal how culture shape us. For example, what happen we see in aquarium? How we interpret our behavior can also reflect the culture. For example, what happen we see in an aquarium? Despite of whatever you think or image, your awareness about the movements of the fish is already shaped by culture. What is in your mind when you see a fish which move alone out of any group in the fish-society? There are two kinds of thought coming in your mind in this case base on the different culture. The first is independent psychological mode which is popular in American and European‘s society. Independent psychological mode means that individuals think about themselves as responsible for behavior. They will control their life by influencing other people. They just consider what important for them, which effect influence their decisions. They try to show what things they are different from each other. They want to emphasize individual achievements, personal responsibility and want to be a leader of a group or even a society, and even they also want to control environment. In other words, they want to make different, not anyone can like them. Another......

Words: 498 - Pages: 2