Debt Ceilings

In: Business and Management

Submitted By nsam197
Words 849
Pages 4
Nicholas Messina

What are some of the different types of barriers to entry that give rise to monopoly power? Give an example of each. Should government let monopolists exist or not? What are the benefits of monopoly market structure and what are those shortcomings related to monopoly? What is your opinion? (At least two pages and write down the answers to each question asked)
In a perfectly competitive market, there are many firms, none of which is large in size. In contrast, in a monopolistic market there is only one firm, which is large in size. This one firm provides all of the market's supply. Some conditions that determine a monopolistic market is the fact there is only one firm competing and has entire control over supply of product with no close substitutes. The second is that there must be a high barrier to entry to explain why other firms have not yet entered the market.
What are some of the different types of barriers to entry that give rise to monopoly power?
Barriers to entry are defined as legal, technological, or market forces that may discourage or prevent potential competitors from entering a market. There are many different types of barriers that include government barriers, control of a physical resource, technological advancements, and large start-up costs. Governments may erect barriers that prohibits or severely limits new competitors. This is done in many cities and states that may allow a household to only use one certain energy, water or trash company to serve them. Also before the government started regulating restrictions on competitions, monopolies such as AT&T controlled the entire telephone service industry as well as Standard Oil Company controlled every aspect of the oil industry from refineries to transportation. Around the world, many governments still impose restrictions to control and limit what they think are key…...

Similar Documents

Us Debt

...The US Debt and Deficit The US Debt and Deficit are one of the most widely discussed and often misunderstood items of national interest of the United States. As we know almost every action and decision we make has a tax consequence. Someone who isn't aware of the tax laws or concepts doesn't really consider tax when making a decision. Also they aren't aware of how their decisions they may affect their income. There are different types of income that receive different types of taxes. Some incomes are not taxed at all while others are taxed at a very high or low rate. The definition of Tax is money that is paid by citizens and residents to federal, state, and local governments. The money that is collected from those taxes help fund services provided by the government. Taxes are the main sources of the government’s revenue. Types of taxes include income tax, payroll tax, corporate tax, excessive duty tax, sales tax, and property tax. The amount collected for each type are; 5.65 percent in payroll tax, 27.2 billion in sales tax, 9.8 billion in corporate tax, 50.4 billion in income tax and 8.9 billion in property tax. These are paid on a federal level and state or local governments as well. All money is considered Taxable income which is money obtained through wages, self-employment, and from other things like the sale of property. The majority of people pay their income taxes by having money withheld from their paychecks. The amount of income tax a person has to pay varies......

Words: 966 - Pages: 4

Glass Ceiling

...last decade, the corporate "glass ceiling" still appears to be an obstacle to their advancement into senior leadership. We have done a qualitative research on the factors that are responsible for glass ceiling and the factors that help women find a way to get around the glass ceiling. We have followed an exploratory research design approach wherein we have used interview as the basis to get down to the factors. Background of the Problem Historically, India has been a male-dominated society. But in the past few decades, certain changes in our society have widened the arena for women. Be it managerial roles in corporate world, academics, politics, women are increasingly becoming more visible. Globalization has also helped bring concepts such as gender diversity in leadership roles. As opportunities for women have increased so now women are entering professions which were previously seen as the domain of men in the corporate world .But there are invisible and artificial barriers that impede women from advancing to senior leadership positions which is popularly known as “Glass Ceiling” .Glass ceiling describes the barriers that women face in the workplace. The word "ceiling" suggests that women are blocked from advancing in their careers due to many factors, and the term "glass" is used because the ceiling is not always discernible. Although many women hold management positions, few have made the breakthrough to top-level positions. Glass ceiling has been extensively......

Words: 692 - Pages: 3


...Debt Maxed Out was a very informational movie to me especially because I learn things about debt that will help me. My family has problems with debt and credit card using so I wish by watching this movie I may help them with those problems. Some of the things that I heard and saw on this movie, I never knew about. Maxed Out gave me an advantage over most college students who are prone and vulnerable to credit cards and debt. College Students usually are the most vulnerable to credit cards and debt. When you go to school on your first day you see many stands with credit card companies or banks who are offering to take you in to their company. They don’t do it because they want to help but because they know that they can get money from student. When you are in college you may not have a lot of money and so you get a credit card and use it because you think it won’t hurt you. Therefore they get the student with the interest which they can not pay because if they had extra money then they wouldn't have had to use the credit card. Credit card companies also have another type of people that they target and maybe more than college students which is people who have already filed for bankruptcy. They go after people who have filled for bankruptcy because once you file for it once then you can’t do it again. Of course the reason most people are bankrupt in the fist place is because of debt with credit cards or loans. So then they already no that they get addicted......

Words: 615 - Pages: 3

Glass Ceiling

...grabs a drink. At that time, society considered this an acceptable way of life. Not everyone lived in this fashion but it remains the hallmark description of the time period. Men were programmed to get a job and provide for his family while the wife stayed home caring for the children and making sure her husband was satisfied. From experience to television shows people embraced this environment until women began challenging these traditional values. Today, women have traveled a long way to get where they are in the workplace. However, many of the historical customs continue and hinder women’s success. Due to these customs and competitive business environments a glass ceiling has been constructed above women in the workplace. In this thesis we will explore the cause of such discrimination from the glass ceiling from a feminist perspective starting in the 40’s up till today. The beginning of women entering the workplace is arguably when women began challenging their roles as a housewife when there was a shortage of workers during WWII. Since, so many men were overseas women claimed their position and realized they were capable of so much more than cooking or becoming a secretary. In fact, “World War II can be usefully viewed as providing an “exogenous” shock to female labor supply. As men were mobilized to serve in the war, women increased their labor force participation markedly. In 1940, only 28% of women over age 15 participated in the labor force. By 1945 this figure......

Words: 2217 - Pages: 9

Glass Ceiling

...Glass Ceiling Effect Leslie S. White Concorde Career College Table of Contents References Aguilar, L. (May 22, 2013). Merely Cracking the Glass Ceiling is Not Enough: Corporate America Needs More than Just A Few Women in Leadership. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved from Herzlinger, R. (April 2, 2013). Has the Glass Ceiling Been Shattered for Women Leading Major Companies? Huffington Post Business. Retrieved from Fedor¸L. (March 26, 2013). Minnesota women still struggling to break the corporate glass ceiling. (Fedor¸L, 2013)The Minnesota Post. Retrieved from  Hamilton, N. (August 12, 2013). Even the Top of Corporate America Has a Glass Ceiling. Gawker. Retrieved from Women in business (July 21, 2005). The conundrum of the glass ceiling: Why are women so persistently absent from top corporate jobs? Special report: The Economist. Retrieved from Civil Rights Monitor. (1995). Glass Ceiling Commission Issues Report: Discrimination Still Deprived Women and Minorities of Opportunities. The leadership Conference. Volume 8 no. 1.......

Words: 453 - Pages: 2

The Debt Ceiling Crisis of 2011

...In May of 2011, the United States reached its debt ceiling cap which could have caused major issues to the American government and economy. The debt ceiling cap is the amount of money the government can legally borrow to pay off its debts owed to the public including U.S. bonds and government trust funds such as Medicare and Social Security. The first debt ceiling limit was set in 1917 at $11.5 billion and has been raised 74 times since 1962. Ten of those times have been since 2001. If the debt ceiling wasn’t raised U.S. Treasury would not have the authority to borrow any more money which is a problem because the government borrows to make up the difference between what it spends and what it takes in. That means the government would have to pick and chose who to pay and who to put off paying and this puts the country in the perception of being in default (Sahadi, 2011). To avoid going into default in May, Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner took extraordinary measures and was able to bring the total debt down enough to allow the government to continue borrowing until August 2, 2011. Although disaster was briefly postponed, the debt ceiling debate deadline was looming and sparked a significant conflict between Republicans and Democrats in Congress and the President. Republicans did not want to raise the debt ceiling without making significant spending cuts and used the urgency of the situation as leverage to try and negotiate to get what they wanted (Sahadi, 2011). The......

Words: 2468 - Pages: 10

The Glass Ceiling

...the Glass Ceiling : Treatment for Women Kevin Jiang Dallas Baptist University April 20, 2013 MANA 6320-01 SP8 Business Ethics the Glass Ceiling : Treatment for Women Introduction The world can not be totally fair everywhere. The glass ceiling which is a situation in which progress, especially promotion, appears to be possible but restrictions or discrimination create a barrier that prevents it is an unfair phenomenon. Diplomas, background and sex all can lead to the glass ceiling. The most common situation is discriminatory different sexual actor. It is very common for women to face to the glass ceiling in business place. Reason for women to be treated by the glass ceiling History 1. It is a man-control world for a long time. 2. Women did not go to work for a long time until recent time. Social Problem 1. In public opinion, women can not do management as well as men. It will effect the employers’ decision. 2. Women have more family duties such as taking care of children. C. Abilities and Sexual Characteristics 1. For the physical reason, women may not adapt to the intensive work. 2. For mental reason, women will measure the problem more emotionally. What Women Can Do A. ......

Words: 502 - Pages: 3

Price Ceiling

...Price ceilings are government mandated maximum selling prices in order to make items more attainable. It can have a negative effect on the economy if not regulated to keep up with a changing market and tends to throttle a free market system. In a perfect market, prices will balance themselves. Ceiling price on bread lead to long lines, high costs in lost work hours, and binding prices for sellers. As an individual is required to wait in line for an hour, there is an hour of work cut into total revenue for the business or firm. Suppliers are guaranteed a loss in the benefit of selling a certain buyer within the period. If the business hires more employees to reduce wait time, they may not be able to achieve maximization of profits due to pay out excess payroll without sufficient benefit from increased staffing. Labor expenses must be within a balanced budget in order to maintain financial stability. This is the textbook example of actions corresponding to a true market, which in practice is fictional in the real world. If the supplier manages to lessen lost time in producing a profit, they can successfully reach a point of beneficial profit maximization. Dealing with profit maximization, an individual can reach it only by entering the market while marginal costs are greater than average revenue; creating a larger total surplus. Profit will be dependent on total revenue, which is the amount of money generated from a product minus the total cost; the amount of money......

Words: 586 - Pages: 3

Glass Ceiling

...for top management positions and are unable to attain them. In a recent study almost three-fourths of women and two-thirds of men believe that an invisible barrier (a glass ceiling) prevents women from attaining top management positions. In this report we have tried to find out the barriers causing women advancement in organizational top levels referred to as “Glass Ceiling.” We have conducted our research among some of the top level organizations which are United International University (UIU), MERCANTILE BANK Limited (MBL), Islamic Bank Limited (IBL), and Mutual Trust Bank Limited (MTBL). Without their support we couldn’t have completed this report. Here we have conducted research about some of the factors which correspondents have identified as the major factors. The main intention of this report was to find out the actual barriers (if there is any) causing women to stand back in line, although they are well qualified to move up in the line. Based on the responses of the participants\correspondents we have tried to put up this report. 1. Introduction In this era of globalization women are close to dominating every field of work they are in. They are equally capable of carrying out any work they are assigned with. But due to the term “Glass Ceiling” women are somewhat left behind. “Glass Ceiling” refers to invisible barriers that impede the career advancement of women. It also refers to situations where the advancement of a qualified person within the......

Words: 13830 - Pages: 56

Glass Ceiling

...The Glass Ceiling July 11, 2011 Overview The glass ceiling still exists despite the fact that the year is now 2011. Ray B. Williams and Lisa Martin wrote an article for Psychology Today about “Why Hasn’t The Glass Ceiling Been Broken?” They discuss that while progress has been made it has been incremental. Even though researchers can show evidence that women executes do a better job then their male counterparts, there are still many women excluded from the highest positions in the corporate world. That for women to break through the leadership at the top has to make the first move. In addition, Amy Masike wrote an article fro The Economist about “The conundrum of the glass ceiling” also stating that women are missing from the corporate hierarchy. She touches on the stereotype that has been assigned to women in the workplace and how difficult it is to get those stereotypes changed. It was not so long ago that women did not even have the right to vote. Today women are allowed in nearly every field of competition and their rights, at least on paper, are equal to men’s rights. In 1986, the Wall Street Journal made popular the term “glass ceiling” which described the invisible barriers that women have to face as they approach the top of the corporate hierarchy. This glass ceiling has even branched out into “glass elevators” and “glass escalators”. This ceiling enables a woman to move ahead in the working world, but only so far, and no farther. Hence, the new......

Words: 1710 - Pages: 7

The Glass Ceiling

...Stefanie da Silva April 4, 2014 BUS 410 – Maher Research Paper ------------------------------------------------- The Glass Ceiling: An Ongoing Problem and Its Solutions The Wall Street Journal coined the term “glass ceiling” about twenty-five years ago. The glass ceiling refers to invisible barriers that prevent women and minorities from reaching the top of the corporate ladder. Traditionally, throughout the United States and the world, men instead of females have held the vast majority of leadership positions. It has been found that the higher the position, in both private and public sectors, the less likely a women would hold it. For example, a study shows that women hold just 2% of positions on the board of directors of large companies in the United States of America and Britain. A second study, conducted in 1995, found that 95% of all top management positions were held by males; a staggering number considering women accounted for 45.7% of American jobs during that year. Additionally, of the Fortune 1000 companies recognized in 2003, only seventeen are led by women CEOS. So the main question at hand here is why do women lag so far behind men in moving up the managerial ladder? More women are in the workforce than ever due to the Civil Rights Act barring sexual discrimination in the workplace. However, very few of those women actually hold top leadership positions. Women’s development programs exist to help females move up in the ranks of corporate America,......

Words: 2488 - Pages: 10

The Glass Ceiling

...“The Glass Ceiling” The glass ceiling is an invisible, but real barrier that prevents people, often women and minorities from achieving further success. I think that the glass ceiling may be more of a form of sexism. The expression is often used to describe the sexist attitudes that many women run into in the work environment. The term “glass ceiling” originated from the Wall Street Journal in 1986 and was then used in the title of an article by A.M. Morrison and others that was published in 1987 (“The Glass Ceiling”, 2009). The glass ceiling has yet to be broken, but as of now, it is scratched at the most. There are some women who succeed in breaking the glass ceiling of professional advancement, but unfortunately, they can face an increased risk of sexual harassment from coworkers and subordinates. Sexual harassment in the workplace in relation to the glass ceiling boils down to power. Some men may find the general growth of women in higher occupations not only disconcerting, but also threatening. Sexual harassment can be a way for these men to reassert their dominance and feel falsely secure. Even when breaking the glass ceiling, women have to earn legitimacy in organizations that favor and reward stereotypical masculine values and practices. In other words, they have to work harder than men to prove their worth. One case that may have cracked the glass ceiling was Petruska v. Gannon University. Petruska sues the university administration claiming that she was demoted...

Words: 358 - Pages: 2


...Debt Ceiling Crisis This essay is intended to provide a breakdown of the debate concerning the debt ceiling. As the house debates, the debts increases and the issue continues to become complicated. The nation is in a crisis along with complex issues. President Obama along with the rest of the house is at odds deciding if the debt ceiling should be raised. The debate on Capitol Hill has been going on for few months now, as the August 2, deadline nears. The democratic and Republican Party both agree it is imperative that the ceiling needs to be raised but the issues surrounding the debt separates congress. The current debt ceiling stands at 14 trillion dollars and continues to grow. This debate has divided the nation’s citizens as well. It is not just a situation of more money to spend, if the ceiling is not raised the money would have to come from social security and Medicare. The Democratic Party supports raising the debt ceiling. The democrats know that if the ceiling is not passed there would be a dramatic downward spiral in the nation’s economy. This act would cut social security and Medicare. The democrats acknowledge the monies borrowed must be repaid but not at the expense of taking away from the elderly. “Understand - raising the debt ceiling does not allow Congress to spend more money. It simply gives our country the ability to pay the bills that Congress has already racked up. In the past, raising the debt ceiling was routine. Since the 1950s, Congress has......

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Glass Ceiling

...Glass Ceiling The glass ceiling is encountered by women in the workforce every day. Women face a barrier separating them from advancing in the work place and gaining equal pay as men. “Yellen punches through 'glass ceiling' at Fed,” describes the monumental advance and breakthrough of the glass ceiling for Janet Yellen, now the first woman to ever lead the Federal Reserve. She has made great strides throughout her life, “Yellen served as president of the San Francisco Federal Reserve Bank. She also had served a stint on the Fed's board in the 1990s and was a top economic adviser to President Bill Clinton”(Ferraro). She is working to show other woman that it is possible to climb to the top. The glass ceiling is an invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from advancing into top management positions(Kinicki 32). It is a serious issue in the work force because there needs to be diversity and fairness for all employees. Women are often deterred from trying to obtain top-management positions in fear that they will be denied for not being male. Yellen stated that “I don't feel that I've faced discrimination. I've had every chance to succeed and more, and I think that's what all women should have." She is lucky to have every opportunity arise in her life and has been able to push forward through the glass ceiling for herself. She is the proof to all other women that is it possible and that they cannot give up in fear of being discriminated against. Women deserve the......

Words: 271 - Pages: 2

Glass Ceiling

...Causes There are varying reasons why the glass ceiling exists in our society. One chief reason is that leadership has stereotypical views concerning males and females in leadership positions. Males are viewed has being tough and strict, while women are considered more nurturing and caring. Being a tough or very strict leader in the workplace is accepted more by society. While a women’s leadership style, if not identical to her male counterpart, may be viewed as ineffective and soft. In some organizations the “good old boy” network is still widespread so women and minorities do not get the opportunity to advance even if they are more qualified than their competition. Unfortunately, this barrier that hinders advancement is sometimes imposed on women by their own doing. Meaning, some women choose not to work as hard as their male counterparts because they choose their families over their career. For that reason they may not work the long hours, volunteer as much, or take on extra work loads as men often do to climb the corporate ladder. There is a website that discusses an interview with Lillian Vernon, of Lillian Vernon Corporation, and it quotes her saying “many people who dream about their own businesses and don’t have one, are not prepared to work that hard—to think about their job while they’re getting dressed, showering, waiting for somebody— to think of every minute as an opportunity (”. Another woman by the name of Theresa Metty, senior VP at......

Words: 1244 - Pages: 5