Discuss and Critically Evaluate the Arguments Put Forward by the Specific Ingredients Perspective and the Common Factors Perspective, Regarding the Mechanism and Effectiveness of Counselling and Psychotherapy.

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Discuss and critically evaluate the arguments put forward by the specific ingredients perspective and the common factors perspective, regarding the mechanism and effectiveness of counselling and psychotherapy.
Since its development during the 19th century more than three hundred and fifty distinct popular counselling and psychotherapy strands have emerged into the modern counselling field (Sparks, Duncan & Field, 2008). The years prior to psychotherapy’s birth were dominated by psychoanalytic and psychodynamic approaches and its practice was largely restricted to physicians (Miller, Hubble, Chow & Seidel, 2013). Psychotherapy’s arrival was not unnoticed from opposing schools of thought who were quick to question its scientific basis. Traditionally Eysenck (1952) not only challenged psychotherapy’s efficacy but also argued that it was “potentially harmful” (Miller, Hubble, Chow & Seidel, 2013:88). However, supporters of psychotherapy refuted Eysenck’s (1952) view and debate surrounding the fields worth began to accumulate. As a result psychotherapy research for the next few decades would focus on determining whether therapy was effective (House & Loewenthal, 2009). Subsequently, a plethora of studies that demonstrated its efficacy emerged (Smith Miller & Glass, 1980; Lambert & Bergin, 1994; Ahn & Wampold, 2001). So much so, that early studies revealed the treated population fared much better in comparison to their untreated counterparts (Sparks, Duncan & Miller, 2008:1; Asay & Lambert, 1999). The finding that psychotherapy is effective was further supported by “more abstract” mathematical summaries of empirical data (Asay & Lambert, 1999:24) Meta-analysis is just that a mathematical technique that is frequently used to produce estimates of the size of any treatment effects (Asay & Lambert, 1999:24). In applying…...

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