Discuss the View That the Impact of Earthquake Hazards Depends Primarily on Human Factors.

In: Science

Submitted By xojesslaurenxo
Words 1153
Pages 5
Earthquakes are an example of seismic activity created by plate boundaries. They can be caused by the subduction of oceanic crust which is densest at 2.9 g/cm3 under continental crust which weighs 2.7g/m3 at destructive plate boundaries. Earthquakes can also occur along conservative plate boundaries such as that shared by the Pacific and North American plates which move at 5-9 cm/year and 2-3 cm/year respectively causing the 1994 Los Angeles earthquake along the San Andreas fault alongside which lies the San Gregorio and Hayward faults. Earthquakes have different impacts dependent on the location of their foci, the point at which they originate from underground, the presence of land in the surrounding areas, but also the human factors such as land use, population density and the use of earthquake proofing technologies to limit earthquake impacts.
The Boxing Day tsunami in 2004 was created due to an earthquake along the 3 plate junction where the Philippine, Pacific and Eurasian plates all meet. The 15-20 m slip along a 1600km slip plane created an earthquake measures at 9.1 on the logarithmic Richter scale making it one of the most intense earthquakes in history. It caused a tsunami wave which resulted in the deaths of 180000 people according to a UN report, though other sources suggested it reached 300000. The Kobe earthquake which devastated the port of Osaka Bay resulted in 6300 deaths and 35000 serious injuries. This earthquake measured 7.1 on the Richter scale meaning that it was less powerful as each step up the scale is a 10 fold increase in power and a 30 fold increase in intensity . The impacts in terms of death were vastly different as a result of the lower reading on the scale and therefore it can be argued that natural factors such as the origin of the earthquake and its force are important factors in determining the impact of earthquakes.
Further,…...

Similar Documents

Tetonic Hazards - Haiti Earthquake

...Tectonic Hazards: Earthquakes Earthquakes are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault. This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves that make the ground shake. When two blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a little. They don't just slide smoothly; the rocks catch on each other. The rocks are still pushing against each other, but not moving. After a while, the rocks break because of all the pressure that's built up. When the rocks break, the earthquake occurs. During the earthquake and afterward, the plates or blocks of rock start moving, and they continue to move until they get stuck again. The spot underground where the rock breaks is called the focus of the earthquake. The place right above the focus (on top of the ground) is called the epicentre of the earthquake.  Haiti Earthquake: What? A 7.0 magnitude earthquake When?12th January 2010 at 16.53 local time (21.53 GMT). Where?The earthquake occurred 18.457°N, 72.533°W. The focus of the earthquake was 13km (8.1 miles) below the surface of the earth. The short term effects of the Haiti earthquake are· Buildings being destroyed, roads and docks. Making it difficult to get aid to the people who need it. Example food, clean drinking water, clothes, cooking utensils, temporally shelters and most importantly drugs and medicines. · Without clean drinking water and dead bodies rotting in the hot sun the risk of life threatening......

Words: 502 - Pages: 3

Earthquake Hazard

...The city I chose for my hazard analysis is Los Angeles CA and the hazard that is the highest risk to the city is an earthquake. L.A. is the second largest city in the United States; it encompasses over 498 square miles and is surrounded by mountains and ocean. L.A. is a very urban environment, its high concentration of infrastructure makes it vulnerable to earthquakes, but at the same time it also gives it the resources it needs to respond to earthquakes or any other hazards. L.A. has had a few large scale earthquakes in the last decades and some geological experts predict it will suffer a major quake in the near future. How it has responded to those disasters in the past is what has laid the foundation as to how the city will deal with future earthquakes or other hazards and attempt to minimize their impact on the city. Los Angeles lies around 60 miles from the San Andreas Fault. This fault line is one the most active fault lines in the world and as such is capable of producing severe earthquakes. And even though Los Angeles doesn’t lie directly underneath it like the city of San Francisco, the fault line does pose a great danger to the city. But even more of a threat to the city is the many unknown smaller fault lines that run beneath it. With a population of over 4 million people, a large size earth quake would cause substantial damage and injure or kill a large number of people. L.A. has had around six major earthquakes that were 6.0 or stronger in the last hundred......

Words: 1223 - Pages: 5

Discuss the Impact of Human Activities on the Diversity of Plants and Animals

...Discuss the impact of human activities on the diversity of plants and animals The greater the number of alleles all members of a species possess, the greater the genetic diversity and the greater the genetic diversity the greater the chance of survival. This is due to the fact that larger gene pools results in a wider range of characteristics, and the wider the range of characteristics the greater the probability that a species will possess a characteristic that will aid its survival in an environment. There is no doubt that human activities have had an impact on the diversity of plants and animal, for example the over hunting/poaching of animals has had a very negative effect on diversity. Over hunting can or has led to extinction of many species, like the tiger for instance which has been vastly reduced over the century and one of the contributing factors is poaching. When a significant number of a species is wiped out by poaching, the result is that the gene pool is reduced dramatically, and the species must repopulate itself with the alleles available, the genetic diversity is reduced, similarly to the genetic bottleneck effect although the reason for mass species reduction is not due to natural causes. So although poaching can lead to reduced diversity in one species, it can potentially increase in another. The reason being over hunting can lead to a trophic cascade, where the number of a top predator is increased/decreased – decreased in this case - from the food......

Words: 656 - Pages: 3

Discuss the Statement: the Extent to Which Earthquakes Present a Hazard Depends on Where They Are Experienced.

...Geography 40 mark EQ question Discuss the statement: The extent to which earthquakes present a hazard depends on where they are experienced. (40 marks) A Hazard is best defined as a situation that’s ‘a potential source of harm or adverse health effect on a person or persons’. An earthquake is a tectonic event which can be a huge hazard to people- particularly effecting areas of the earth around convergent, divergent and transform plate boundaries: in both MEDC’s and LEDC’s with equally force. Hazards earthquakes cause can be divided into two sub-categories: primary and secondary effects. Primary effects are the problems that are of direct result of the seismic waves, including effects such as liquefaction, tsunamis and landslides. Primary effects then lead to secondary effects; floods, fires, disease and even malnourishment. However a number of factors can dictate whether these effects present a hazard to people or not- location, whether in a MEDC or LEDC, can dictate the severity of the hazard. To start, I want to highlight the difference in the primary effects of an earthquake. Comparing the factors like death and injuries- or social effects- and then the environmental effects in looking at the destruction of infrastructure experienced in varying parts of the world. To highlight this difference of place: using an EQ in a LEDC and one in a MEDC. So looking at deaths and injuries we can see as an overall trend there tends to be more deaths caused form the initial...

Words: 1447 - Pages: 6

“Human Response to Volcanic Hazards Is the Same Everywhere” Discuss This Statement

...“Human Response to Volcanic Hazards is the Same Everywhere” Discuss this statement Each year, there are approximately 60 volcanic eruptions across the globe. It is extremely difficult to predict the exact location, ferocity or timing of a volcanic hazard, therefore risks are imminent and potentially dangerous. A volcanic hazard comes from tectonic plates (large rigid blocks of the earth’s surface which appear to move as a unit) colliding with each other or moving apart, disrupting the ground beneath us, allowing magma to rise up through the crust. Hazards are events, natural or man made, that affects human life, property or activity. A response is the methods that humans take to reduce future risks, or prevent damage during in a hazard. Evacuation plans are in place in both MEDCs and LEDCs, however a lack of education about hazards and human resistance to government advice can have implications on responses. Evacuation plans can be put into place in order to respond to hazards. One such example is used in the Bay of Napoli, Italy where the volcano Vesuvius is active. There are 3 zones; Red, yellow and blue. The red zone is subject to the most danger, including pyroclastic flows, gases, landslides and ash. There is a population of just under 550mila living in this zone, therefore if an eruption is highly anticipated, then the entire area will be evacuated as soon as possible. The yellow zone will most likely be affected by only pyroclastic particles, such as ash, and it......

Words: 1078 - Pages: 5

‘the Hazards Presented by Volcanic and Seismic Events Have the Greatest Impact on the World Poorest People.’ to What Extent Do You Agree with This View?

...AQA A2 Geography Updating Unit 3 Plate tectonics and associated hazards David Redfern Professor David Petley November 2012 Programme 9.45am Registration and coffee 10.00am: Requirements of the specification • Plate Tectonics theory and the evidence used to support it • Volcanic events: impact and management • Seismic events: impact and management • Case studies – depth and detail 11.00am: Morning break 11.15am Keynote speaker: Professor David Petley (University of Durham). The Christchurch Earthquake sequence: managing the aftermath of a series of unexpected seismic events. 12.30pm Lunch 1.30 pm Assessment strategies • Structured questions – their nature and demands • Exemplar answers of the above, and the marking thereof • Synoptic essays – what type of essays can be set • Exemplar answers of the above, and the marking thereof 3.15pm: Associated skills activities • Exemplars of materials that can be used to reinforce skills • Attitudes and values exercises 3.45pm: Day ends Plate Tectonics and Associated Hazards Things to learn • The structure of the earth. You should know the meaning of the following terms: core, crust (continental and oceanic), mantle, lithosphere, asthenosphere. Thermal convection currents operating within the asthenosphere and sea-floor spreading • Features of constructive (divergent) margins. You should be able to describe and know the......

Words: 33130 - Pages: 133

Discuss the View That the Impact of Earthquake Hazards Depends Primarily on Human Factors

...Earthquakes are an example of seismic activity created by plate boundaries. They can be caused by the subduction of oceanic crust which is densest at 2.9 g/cm3 under continental crust which weighs 2.7g/m3 at destructive plate boundaries. Earthquakes can also occur along conservative plate boundaries such as that shared by the Pacific and North American plates which move at 5-9 cm/year and 2-3 cm/year respectively causing the 1994 Los Angeles earthquake along the San Andreas fault alongside which lies the San Gregorio and Hayward faults. Earthquakes have different impacts dependent on the location of their foci, the point at which they originate from underground, the presence of land in the surrounding areas, but also the human factors such as land use, population density and the use of earthquake proofing technologies to limit earthquake impacts. The Boxing Day tsunami in 2004 was created due to an earthquake along the 3 plate junction where the Philippine, Pacific and Eurasian plates all meet. The 15-20 m slip along a 1600km slip plane created an earthquake measures at 9.1 on the logarithmic Richter scale making it one of the most intense earthquakes in history. It caused a tsunami wave which resulted in the deaths of 180000 people according to a UN report, though other sources suggested it reached 300000. The Kobe earthquake which devastated the port of Osaka Bay resulted in 6300 deaths and 35000 serious injuries. This earthquake measured 7.1 on the Richter scale meaning......

Words: 1153 - Pages: 5

Hazards

...“Discuss the view that the impact of earthquake hazards depends primarily on human factors (40)”.  I agree to some extent about the statement above and that human factors can affect the impact of an earthquake hazard. A hazard is an object or process that has the potential to cause harm. Ground shaking, ground displacement and flooding are some of the hazards that are produced during an earthquake. In relation to the question above the type and severity of the impact can be affected by physical factors (such as the magnitude and frequency of the quake) as well as human factors (population density and education). I will be discussing the question using the following case studies, Sichuan, Indonesia and L’Aquila. On the 12th May 2008 an earthquake occurred at 2:28pm in Sichuan because the pressure resulting from the Indian plate colliding with the Eurasian was sent along the Longmenshan fault line that runs through Sichuan. The earthquake lasted 120 seconds and reached 7.9 on the Richter scale, one of the deadliest to strike China in recent years and its effects were felt as far away as Taiwan, Thailand and Bangladesh. Although the area has a long history of tectonic activity, it seems it was not prepared for an event of this magnitude. With a population consisting of 87.26m people the death toll stood at nearly 70 thousand along with 374,000 people injured and 5m left homeless. Making this Chinas worst earthquake since 1976 when 240,000 people were killed in Tangshan.......

Words: 1399 - Pages: 6

Discuss the View That the Impact of Earthquake Hazards Depends Primarily on Human Factors

...“Discuss the view that the impact of earthquake hazards depends primarily on human factors (40)”.  I agree to some extent about the statement above and that human factors can affect the impact of an earthquake hazard. A hazard is an object or process that has the potential to cause harm. Ground shaking, ground displacement and flooding are some of the hazards that are produced during an earthquake. In relation to the question above the type and severity of the impact can be affected by physical factors (such as the magnitude and frequency of the quake) as well as human factors (population density and education). I will be discussing the question using the following case studies, Sichuan, Indonesia and L’Aquila. On the 12th May 2008 an earthquake occurred at 2:28pm in Sichuan because the pressure resulting from the Indian plate colliding with the Eurasian was sent along the Longmenshan fault line that runs through Sichuan. The earthquake lasted 120 seconds and reached 7.9 on the Richter scale, one of the deadliest to strike China in recent years and its effects were felt as far away as Taiwan, Thailand and Bangladesh. Although the area has a long history of tectonic activity, it seems it was not prepared for an event of this magnitude. With a population consisting of 87.26m people the death toll stood at nearly 70 thousand along with 374,000 people injured and 5m left homeless. Making this Chinas worst earthquake since 1976 when 240,000 people were killed in Tangshan.......

Words: 1399 - Pages: 6

Discuss the View That the Impact of Earthquakes Depends Primarily on Human Factors

...Discuss the view that the impact of earthquakes depends primarily on human factors: Earthquakes are caused by movement of tectonic plates that covering the earth’s surface. They occur at all plate boundaries; destructive, constructive and conservative, but the most intense tend to occur at subduction zones and conservative faults, such as the San Andres Fault in California. Every seismic event will be unique, and there are many factors influencing the extent to which it will have an impact on the environment and the populace. In many situations, both physical factors, related to the nature of the event and the topography of the area, and human factors, linked to demography and land use, have an influence on the effects of a hazard. When evaluating the impacts of an earthquake, the demography of an area will almost certainly have a large influence. Clearly, a very densely populated area will be more likely to have a higher death toll or a wider radius of influence than an event occurring in a more sparsely populated area, due to the simple fact that there are more people in the same amount of space to be affected. However it is not just this statistical fact that leads to a more people being affected. In many LEDC’s, the highest population density occurs in slum areas and shanty towns. The people living in these areas are ill equipped to cope with the effects of an earthquake due to a combination of factors, mostly centred around the conditions in which they live. The same is......

Words: 1736 - Pages: 7

Tectonics Human Factors

...Describe the view that the impact of earthquakes depend primarily on human factores Earthquakes are caused by the movement of tectonic plates and fault lines covering the earths surface. They occur at all three plate boundries (distructive, constructive andconservative) although most earthquakes occuralong the edge of the oceanic plates and fault lines such as the San Andreas fault line situated in California USA. There is always a variation of factors that can influence how the seismic event will impact, both human and physical factors and both influence the outcome of the event. The main physical feature to impact the size and damage of the seismic event is the magnitude of the earthquake. However, this factor can be dealt with to a certain extent by the management and preparation for the event such as evacuation programmes and earthquake proof buildings. Other factors such as the location of the earthquakes epicentre. The depth of the earthquake impacts the strength of the seismic waves at the surface. A deeper focus means the waves will have less energy at the epicenter, so the risk of damage due to ground movement is reduced. The geographical landscape in which the earthquake occurs will also influence the impacts. If the epicenter is located in a rural area where it is a less densely populated area, the impacts are dramatically lessened. However, if the epicenter is located in close proximity to a city center during midday when there is a dense population or in a......

Words: 1345 - Pages: 6

Discuss the View That the Income of Volcanic Hazards Depends Primarily on Human Factors

...A volcanic hazard refers to any potential dangerous volcanic process from primary hazards; such as lava flows, pyroclastic flows, ash falls or volcanic gases and also secondary hazards; including lahars and volcanic landslides. There are around 1500 potentially active volcanoes worldwide and therefore in my opinion, every volcanic eruption is unique and influences the hazards that are produced from it which will impact upon the environment, the economy and the population of an area. Although it can be argued that physical factors; like the magnitude, cause and give the greatest input into the initial impact, the human factors also have an influence on the effects a hazard can have, for instance the land use and demography. The vulnerability of LEDC’s (Low economically developed countries) has a large effect upon the response and recovery to a volcanic eruption. The Nevada Del Ruiz volcano erupted in 1985 and left devastating impacts as a result of the demography; such as the densely populated areas surrounding. The pyroclastic flows and melting glaciers that created lahars killed 22,000 people and 150,000 animals due the speeds of the hazards travelling at 50km per hour; mostly suffocating those that died. However as well as this there were many long term impacts that had a huge influence due to the destruction of basic needs and services that the LEDC’s primarily relied heavily on; the whole destruction cost the government $7.7 million. Therefore international aid (the......

Words: 1406 - Pages: 6

Hazard City: Earthquake Hazard

...GLG111 Lab 5 Exercise: Thank you, Ms. Leona Graham (mayor), for the opportunity to provide an assessment report for Hazard City. This report will provide an assessment on structural damage of an Intensity IX earthquake, and emergency housing needs. It will also identify actions homeowners can use to help prevent future structural damages, and give more information on possible effects of an Intensity IX earthquake. The assessment report will identify danger of a failing dam, and provide further understanding of the elements which will include an emergency plan. The table that follows is an assessment of the number of people needing emergency housing due to an Intensity IX earthquake. ResidentialNeighborhood | Percentage of HomesUninhabitable | Number of People Needing EmergencyHousing | Downtown | 70% | 70% of 1946= 1362 | Hickory Estates | 8% | 8% of 6412= 513 | Ralston | 8% | 8% of 640= 51 | Riverside | 90% | 90% of 438= 394 | Walnut Heights | 2% | 2% of 2457= 49 | Riverside is a mobile home community that is built on foundation consisting of sandy terrains which result in potential flooding. The mobile home community is located in the valley of the Palouse River. The population of this mobile home community is 438 residents. Due to mobile homes being entirely built of light-weight metal construction or a combination of a wood and steel frame structure, they are subject to greater damage from equivalent amounts of shaking than to......

Words: 1126 - Pages: 5

Discuss the View That Poverty Is the Real Killer in Earthquake Disasters (40 Marks)

...To discuss this statement, there is first a need to understand what is meant by the key words in it such as poverty and disaster. First of all, poverty is where people’s basic needs for food, clothing and shelter aren’t being met. There are usually two types of poverty. One of those is absolute poverty which is when people cannot obtain adequate resources to support a minimum level of physical health. This tends to be seen earning less than 2dollars a day by the World Health Organisation (WHO). There is also relative poverty and this occurs when people don't enjoy a certain minimum level of living standards and this is determined by the government (which is enjoyed by the majority of the population). This can vary between countries. Also, a disaster is something which causes very distressing or ruinous effects which disrupt functions of an organisation, society or system. What constitutes a disaster is the societies inability to cope rather than the event itself. There are a number of things besides poverty that can accentuate the effects of an earthquake such as the structure of the buildings, the population density, the education of the people but also more physical factors such as magnitude and the time of day when the earthquake hits. Poverty by itself can completely change the effects that the earthquake can have. If the money isn’t available to pay for preparation, monitoring, education about such problems and recovery, then does a country really have a chance......

Words: 1744 - Pages: 7

‘Discuss the View That the Impact of Volcanic Hazards Depends Primarily on Human Factors.’

...To discuss this view there is a need to understand what a hazard is and what are the volcanic hazards. A hazard is something that causes danger or risk. In the case of volcanic activity it is an event which can cause risks to human life or the surrounding environment. There are specific hazards which occur with volcanic eruptions such as pyroclastic flows, lava flows and the gas emissions from the volcano however there are also secondary hazards that can occur such as lahars, landslides and tsunamis. These are all natural however, the impacts can be worsened by human activity. The impact on humans depends on the amount of human activity surrounding the volcano and the human activity which occurs within the greatest risk area. Around the world, volcanic events can vary in both size and frequency this can be down to the type of plate boundary that the volcanoes lie on but also the type of lava that is known to that volcano. It can be argued that the volcanic hazards depend on the physical factors rather than human factors. For example the eruption that occurred in Iceland in 2010. There were 2 phases which had distinct physical differences and this then affected human activity in a number of different ways. Eyjafjallajökull’s first eruption occurred on the 20th March 2010 and it lasted 6 weeks. It didn't gain much interest from world wide media due to the fact there wasn't any explosive events which affected other parts of the world. This was down to the fact the lava that......

Words: 2113 - Pages: 9