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宣 ・6
17・

浅 析 音 乐 在 广 告 传 播 中效 果影 响
陈 实

四川 省社 会 科 学 院 新 闻传 播 学 所 四川 成 都 6 0 7 ) 10 1
摘 要 :本 文拟 证 明 背景 音 乐对 电视 广 告 具 体 影 响 提 出 了观 众 对 广 告 的 消极 态度 、音 乐在 广 告 中的 必要 性 和对 广 告 的 记 忆 度 三 个 假设
通 过 问 卷调 查 的形 式对 结 果 研 究 ,得 出广 告 策 划 者 应 恰 当选 择 广 告 音 乐提 高受 众 对 产 品认 知度 的 结论 。

关键词 :音 乐;广告 ;效果分析
中 图分 类 号 :J2 .3
54

文 献 标 识 码 :A

苹果公 司近期为它的 3个新 产品投放了一 系列 电视广告 ,其 中的广
告歌虽是 由3个 不 出名 的乐 团 演唱 ,却 非常好 听 。美 国市 场研 究 中心
C m ee o p t捕捉 了从 2 0
07年 8月到 2 0
0 8年 1月 ,5个 月时间 ,搜索 引擎关
于这 3支广告歌 的关键字 ,加起 来共有 10万 次以上 的搜索 。

事实 上 , 许 多脍炙人 口的广告歌经 过传 唱 ,已经成为流行音乐 中不 可缺少 的一部
分 ,所宣传 的产 品也 随之深入人心 ,消费者潜意识 中已将 品牌形象 和音
乐 紧密联 系在一起 。然 而 ,随着 市场经济 的发展 ,企业投入 于电视广告
中的费用越来越 多 ,单位 时间中播放 的广告数量越来越 多 ,这使 电视观
众不得不接触越来越多 的广告 。所 以我们不得不思考几个 问题 ,电视广
告对观众真 的起 到了一定 的传播效果吗?受众会有厌倦心理 吗?而受众
对广告音乐 的感知认识是否敏感? 关于背景音乐效果分析的文献综述





、什 么是 背景 音 乐

对于背景音乐 ( akru d Mui) 的界定 ,P r
B cgon s c ak和 Y u g等认 为 on 和歌词的存在与否无关 ,只要是为了渲染气氛而使用的音乐都可 以认为
是广告背景音乐 。 ag和 S agn eg根据是 否现场表 演和歌词 的有无 Y n p nebr
等因素分 为前 景音乐 ( oerud Mui)和背 景音 乐。
Frgo n s c 另外 ,C ee hbt 和 M f 等认为为渲 染广 告气 氛而使 用没 有歌 词 的音乐 才算 作 背景 音 on i
乐。
但根据查 阅文献 ,我还是认为背景音乐 基于 P r Yon ak和 u g等观点 , 即无论有无歌词 ,凡是为了渲染气氛而使用的音乐都 统称背景音乐 ,主
要分为伴奏乐和广告歌曲 ( M Sn )两种类 型。
C og 2 音 乐 对 广 告 效 果 的 影 响


( )音乐的情绪效果

从情绪 反应理论方 面来 看 ,音乐 是与心 情 ( o mod)和情 绪 ( mo e — t n 同时相关 的。MalnsadP r 19 )将音乐 引发的情绪反应分 i) o cni n ak(9 1 为积极 的 ( o t e psi )情绪 反应 ( 括高兴 ,幸福 ,兴 奋 ,感 动 ,舒适 iv 包
等)和消极 的 ( ear )情绪反应 ( ngt e i 包括悲伤 ,焦躁 ,厌烦等)两种 。 Hanad H a g ( 9 9 通 过 因 子 分 析 提 出 了 “令 人 乐 观 的 ( p h n w n 19 ) u— ba) 、“ et ” 消极 ( eai ) ngt e ”, “ v 温暖 的 ( a l ” 等三 种音乐所 引发 的
W l1
T)
情绪反应 。 ( )音乐的信息记忆效果

音乐本身 的属性 如速度 和节奏 ,熟悉程度 ,合适程度等都 会直接影
响信息记忆 。HanadH ag认为音乐速度与节奏同记忆间存在着 倒 u h n w n 字型关系 ,即节奏和速度太快或太慢的音乐都不能最好地促进 消费者对

广告信息 的记忆 。部分学者认为与不太熟悉的音乐相 比,消费 者比较熟
悉的音乐对记忆和理解广告信息更为有效。H n 1 8 u t( 98)的实证研 究结
果表 明:使用音乐 的广告 比没有使用 音乐 的广 告更容易 被消费 者记忆 、 理 解 和 回想 。 ( ) 音 乐 的 态 度效 果

音乐可 以通过情绪反应这个媒介来影响消费者对广告 的态 度 ,也可
以直接影响广告态度 。Malnsn ak (9 1 cn i dP a r
19 )的研究发现 了音乐与广
告信息的合适程度对广告效果有直接的影响。另一方 面 ,关于音乐 和品

牌态度问的关系 ,大部分研究都认为音乐通过广告态度和信息记忆 这两
个媒介对品牌态度产生间接的影响 。 二 、音乐对电视广告的影响效果分析
1、 理 论 假 设

( )消费者对 电视广告的消极抵抗态度

面对大量的广告 ,而电视广告 的受众 常常会觉得厌 烦。每到广告 出 现时 ,许多人立刻转换频道 ,美国广告界称这种现象 “ A PN G 。因
Z PI ”
此 ,首先假设消费者对电视广告具有明显的消极 抵抗 态度。 ( )背景音乐在 电视广告 中的必要性

从心理学的角度来说 ,一种感觉引起另一种感觉 的心理活动被 称为
联觉 ,它是人的感觉的相互沟通 。 广告 中联觉 的运用能够 在有 限的时

万方数据

文 章 编 号 :1 0
0 6—0 6 ( 0 2)0
2X 21
1—0 0
0 0—0

间 里 充 分 调 动 观 众 的 各 种感 觉 器 官 ,扩展 画 面 内容 ,强 化 视 觉 冲 击 。 音

乐与音响具有高度的概括性 ,是广告 中不可缺少的声音元素 ,有 时甚 至
是唯一的声音元 素 ,在烘托背景 、勾勒意境上起着重要 的作用 。由此 可
见 ,音 乐 必然 成 为广 告 中不 可 或 缺 的组 成 部 分 。 ( )背景音乐与广告的记忆度关 系

人 的记 忆 中存 在 着 大 量 的 内隐 知 识 和 经 验 ,广 告 可 以 将 无 意 识 记 忆
的内容 调动起来 ,产生更多 的联想感受 ,加深消费者对广告品牌 的理解
和偏 好 ,它 的核 心 是 启 动 线 索 和 启 动 环 境 。 为 了 激 活 消 费 者 大 脑 中长 期
储存 的表象 ,广告创意应该确定启动线索 ,使消费者无意识记忆 。 2
、调 研 设 计

调研时间为 2 1
0 1年 7月 2 2
5~ 9日每 日傍晚 ,调查对象为年龄介于
1 8
8~ O岁问的成都市 区居 民,地点在成都浣花溪公 园内 ,共进行 了 10

份 问卷调查 ,获得有效 问卷 8
1份 ,然后对 调研结果研 究。问卷 内容共
分两个板块 ,分别涉及市民收看电视广告及对 广告背景音 乐感知的行为
基本特征 ,对南方黑芝麻糊 、孔府家酒 、百事 可乐这三个 广告的记忆特
征分析 ,一般被调查者 自己有明确的选择 。 3、结 果 分 析

( )消费者收看 电视广告的行为

在 被 调 查 的 8 位 消 费 者 中 ,8 % 会 收 看 电 视 广 告 。广 告 时 间 转 台


情况 ,有 4 % 的人转 台,有 4 % 的消 费者依 据广 告而决 定是 否转 台 ,

2 不转台的人仅有 9
%。由此 可以证实 本文 的理 论假设 1
,即消费者对 广
告 具有很 强的抵 抗心理 ,转 台 和根据广 告而决 定是 否转 台 的人 共 占了
9 % ,这个结果是非常显著的 。然而 ,当问及有吸引力的广告 的收看情

况 时 ,8 % 的被 调 查 者 回答 会 收 看 广 告 。


( )背景音乐对广告的影响

这个 问题 可 通 过 两 个 方 面 来 验 证 。首 先 很 多 消 费 者 会 由于 广 告 的插
播 而转 台 ,那么在转 台过程 中,广告音乐会对消费者是否愿意收看广告
有一定影 响,因此询 问 “
是否会因为一则广告的音乐 吸引人而收看该广
告 ” 的 数 据 表 明 ,6 .6 的人 回答 “ ”, 即会 因 为 一 则 广 告 的 音 乐
5 %

吸引人而收看广告 。另外 ,消费者在收看广告时 ,是否会 注意广告 的背
景 音 乐 呢 ?背 景 音 乐 对 广 告 的 产 品 是 否 有 影 响 呢 ? 6 % 的 被 调 查 者 认

为 ,没有音乐 的广告是不完整的 ;另外 ,5 %的被调查者 承认会 因广告

音乐而注意广告 的产品信息。 ( )记忆效果 的分析南方黑芝麻糊 :在被调 查者 中,有 6 .8

9 %的
人记得很久 以前播 出的南方黑芝麻糊 的广告 ,而其 中能 回忆起该 广告音
乐的人有 4 .6 。可见 ,南方黑芝麻糊 的广 告在消 费者的记忆 中还有
4 %
比较深 的印象 。更值得关注的是 ,有 2 %的消费者曾经购买过南方黑
.2
芝麻糊 ,其 中3 .9
5 %的人 在购买过程 中能想起该 广告音乐 。这也 说明
该广告音乐的使用效果非常好。

孔府家酒 :在调查 中 ,有 4 .1
9 %的消 费者记得孑 府家酒 的广 告音

乐—— 《 京人在纽约》 的主题曲 《

千万 次的问》
,其 中因为喜爱 其广
告 歌 曲 而 记 住该 广 告 的人 占 4 .2 。可 见 ,孔 府 家 酒 的广 告 歌 曲 为该
4 %
广告增色 不 少 。百 事 可 乐 :百 事 可 乐 的广 告 几 乎 人 人 都 看 过 ,有
8 . %。对它广告 的评价是这样 的:有 3 .3 的人认为音乐配合得好 ,
55
2 % 另 有 2 .7 的人 认 为 广 告 歌 曲好 听 。
4 % 三 、 结 语
虽然 经验 和数据都说 明了观众对于 电视广告的抵 触心理 ,但是一个
好 的广告还是可 以留住观众 的注意力的 。对于背景音 乐 ,已经成为 电视
广告中不可或缺的一部分 。在 为一个广告挑选背景音乐之前 ,策划者应
考虑选择恰 当的背景音乐 ,背景音乐不仅为电视广告营造了一个 良好 的
意境或氛围 ,恰 当使用背 景音乐可 以引发消费者对电视广告的关注 ,还
可以增进 对视觉 内容、广告乃至 品牌 的记忆。 ( 转 第 16页 )



16.文 史研 究

文中 “
以文明道” 之作基本 编选人 内,但像 “
不平则 鸣” 的代表 之作

康熙年 间,程朱理学所传盛广。出生传统儒学世家的张伯行亦 深受


送孟东野序》 则未入选 。再如有一些 “
鸣不平 ” 意味的作 品 ,如 《


程朱理学 的影 响。程朱理学是儒家学说发展 的极端 ,在文学上 的表现是

穷文》 毛颖 传》 柳 子厚墓志铭》 等亦未人选 。韩愈 的文章 中多应
、《
、《

淡化文学的艺术性 , 张文以传道 。在这 种极端 的道学思想 的控制下 ,


用体 ,如与友人 书信往来 、上表 、祭文碑志等。不 同与他人之作 ,韩愈

张伯行所编的韩文 自然会 以传达儒学和道统的作品为主。

的应用文往往融 入一定地艺术性 ,并以情感人 ,
把循循善诱 的说理与娓


.社会背景 ,受当时教 育制度 的驱 动。明清教 育,特别是 启蒙教

娓而谈相渗透 ,使 得文章理 中带情 ,亦极具儒家温柔 敦厚之 旨。如其被

育 ,基本上是以举业为中心的教育 。“
以古文为时文”
,就表现出有裨举

编入 《
文钞》 中的 《 于襄 阳书》 这封普通 的求荐信 ,韩愈并 不是 简


业是八大家选本在明清教 育中的核心功能 ,也是其文学教育作用得 以发

单 的请求被引荐 ,而是 从引荐者 与被引荐者相辅相成来谈 的。其文说 理

挥 的有效 中介 。因此八大家选 本在衍生过程 中的读本化是与这一角 色相

练达 ,言辞情深 ,足以让 人信 服。故吴楚材 等称此 书 “
通篇措词立 意 ,

适配 的必然结果 。固张伯行提 出, “
巧言丽辞 以为工者 ,非大 家也 ;钩

不 亢 不 卑 ,文 情 绝 妙 ”


章 棘句 以为奥者 ,非 大家也 ;取青妃 白 、骈 四俪六 以为华 者,非大 家

综上所述 ,张伯行在 选编 时 ,带有 一定 的个人 文学 理念 和审美倾

也;
繁称远引 、搜奇抉怪 以为博 者,非大家也 。 1他 眼里真正 的大家
”l

向 。他 的 主要 文 学 理 念 表 现在 重 道 、文 为道 辅 ,并 主 张 文 气 应 有 温 柔 敦

应该是 ,“
六经 四子而下 ,惟有周 、程 、张、朱五夫 子之 书可 以上 接尧

厚之风。他 的文学思想是对传统的儒家文论 的继承 ,体现一 定的儒家文

舜 、禹 、汤、文 、武 、周公 、孔 、曾、思 、孟之 心传 ,兼立德 、立言 、

论 思想 。

立功 ,以不朽 于万世者 ,夫 岂唐宋文人之所及也 哉? 1 晚明人看来
” 2在
极具程朱理学 思想 的茅钞本在张伯行的眼里看来还觉 得不 够正统 。在这

不同的文学理念是推动 文学发展繁 荣的重要原 因 ,
。倘若没有 不 同

种极端道学思想 的支 配下 ,张伯行所编的文选 就与此前 的八 大家选本大

的欣赏角度 ,清朝就不会 出现如此之多的八 大家文选 。前文通过 《
唐宋

异其趣。茅钞本 认为曾巩的成就最小 ,欧阳修的成就 最大。据万历七年

八大家文钞》 中对韩文编选所表现出的特 点而探析 出张伯行本人 的文学

初刻本所收的八大家篇数可知 ,曾文倒数第二 ,不足总篇 数的 7 ,欧


思想观念 ,而张伯行 的文学思想理念亦是与个体所处的时代背景 、人生

阳文最多 ,超出了总篇 数的2 %。而张伯行则完全背道而驰 :张选共 收


境 遇 、所 受 的 思 想教 育 息息 相 关 。

2 1篇 ,其 中曾文 18篇 ,占 4 % ,欧阳文 1 ,不 足7



9篇
%。两种选 本


.思想上 ,儒学 “
立言” 和程朱理学 的影 响。张伯行 的思想深受

对 比可 以看出 ,前者在晚明时期 以文学相 尚的历史语境 中,有意 突出八

传统儒家思想的熏陶 ,主张为 文应 该 “
立言 ”
。张 伯远所 选编 选韩 文,

大家选本 的文学性 ; 者在康乾时期 以载道 为主的历史语境 中,有意抵


大约皆为韩愈表达 自己的恢 复道统 ,宣扬儒家思想的作品。如其 在 《


消八大 家选本 的文学性 。

序》 中所言 ,“
夫惟古之圣 贤,本其 德而垂诸肓 ,以为 功于万世 。 张


综上所述 ,通过对张伯行编选韩愈散文所体现 出的选编特 点进行分

伯 远认 为,古代 的圣贤之人 ,把 自己的德行思想写 出言语流传 开来 ,是

析和研究 ,了解到张伯行在深受儒 家思想 和程 朱理学 的思想 的影 响下 ,

有功于千秋万代 。所 以张伯远在选韩文时 ,也有意识地把韩愈宣扬 道统

受当时教 育制度 的驱动 ,选编的 《
唐宋八大家文钞》体现 了重道 ,文为

的 作 品 编人 集 中 。

道辅 ,主张文气应温柔敦厚等文学思想。

( 接 第 17页)





李南.
影视声音艺术 [ ].
M 北京:
中国广播电视出版社 , 0 1: 4
20 1


注 解



{P d广告歌 曲好 听背后的品牌启示》 h p / w w e i h


, t : / w .m d c . t a

参考文献 :



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万方数据

浅析音乐在广告传播中效果影响
作者:
作者单位:
刊名:
英文刊名:
年,卷(期):

陈实
四川省社会科学院新闻传播学所,四川成都,610071
剑南文学:经典阅读
2012(1)

参考文献(4条)
1.Park C Whan;S M Young Consumer Response to Television Commercials:t he Impact of Involvement and Background
Music on Brand Attitude Formation 1986
2.Yalch R F;E R Spangenberg Effect s of Store Music on Shopping Behavior 1990(02)
3.李南 影视声音艺术 2001
4.杨英新;鲁忠义;姜敏 内隐记忆原理对广告活动的启示 2004(01)

引用本文格式:陈实 浅析音乐在广告传播中效果影响[期刊论文]-剑南文学:经典阅读 2012(1)…...

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...that invokes the different service operations and exposes this functionality as a new, single operation. The following figure shows the difference between these variants using the example of the DocumentService. On the left-hand side, a DocumentService is created in which the generateDocument operation contains the logic to combine several underlying services. Service consumers invoke this new operation of the composite service. In the right-hand side service consumers implement the composition logic. Service Consumer Service Consumer Service Consumer Service Consumer Composition Logic Composition Logic DocumentService Composition Logic Signing Service Email Service PDF Service CRM Service Signing Service Email Service PDF Service CRM Service [ 99 ] For More Information: www.packtpub.com/service-oriented-architecture-made-simple/book Classification of Services It pays off to create a new service that contains the composition logic in case multiple consumers require the same composition logic: • Changes to the composition logic can be applied more easily since it is implemented in a single location instead of in different service consumers. Similar business logic is reused in the service that implements the composition. • When you compose services into larger ones, the knowledge and complexity of how to combine these services and how they interact is hidden in a new service itself......

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