Eleanor Gibson, a Developmental Psychologist at Cornell

In: Social Issues

Submitted By kitty11118
Words 349
Pages 2
1.Eleanor Gibson, a developmental psychologist at Cornell, showed that human babies do not have depth perception until the age they can crawl. She placed the babies on a visual cliff that simulated depth with a glass cover. Depth perception was indicated by the babies showing signs of fear/distress when “over the cliff”. Baby mountain goats, however, exhibited depth perception immediately at birth.

a. Relate these findings to biological and sociocultural evolution. Make sure you explain your answers.
➢ Biological: Mt. goats with depth perception at birth are more likely to survive in terrain and be able to reproduce, via natural selection over time; goats without this characteristic are selected out of population.
➢ Babies don’t need depth perception until they can crawl because they can't move on their own and parents would move them around. But once they learn how to crawl, those who have depth perception would survive and reproduce according to natural selection.
➢ Sociocultural: this is cognitive appraisal; depth perception is not influenced by the differences in culture, gender or personality. Nothing to do with sociocultural.
b. Why do these data tell us nothing about environmental determinism?
➢ Environmental determinism means the physical environment has a direct effect on human behavior, which in this case is to have depth perception. But we don’t know any information about the environment babies or goats grow up in, nothing about certain environmental exposures. c. Construct a hypothetical experiment and hypothetical results demonstrating that depth perception could be environmentally determined in humans but not mountain goats. Show that for a human, there is a critical period for environmental impacts on depth perception but not for mountain goats. Explain how/why your data…...

Similar Documents

Parker – Gibson

...INTER-UNIVERSITY CONSORTIUM TO IMPROVE THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION PARKER – GIBSON TEACHER’S PACKAGE Review Copy Do Not Reproduce P ROGRAM O N N EGOTIATION AT H ARVARD L AW S CHOOL AN INTER-UNIVERSITY CONSORTIUM TO IMPROVE THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION PARKER-GIBSON Teaching Notes Parker-Gibson is a two-party, single-issue negotiation for the purchase of a vacant lot. It is a refinement of an earlier simulation, Appleton-Baker. Overview The Parkers and Gibsons are neighbors. A vacant parcel of land, now owned by the Parkers, sits between their two house lots. The vacant parcel is smaller than the minimum required by zoning for a building lot, but potentially has value to abutters for "accessory uses" or simply as a buffer. The Parkers bought the land 15 years ago for $20,000 thinking that they might build a tennis court on it, but never went ahead with this project. The Parkers recently sold their house, but the purchasers are not very interested in buying the extra land. As a result, the Parkers have approached the Gibsons to see if they would like to acquire the parcel. As it happens, there is a large bargaining range in this case. The Parkers are moving out of state and will reluctantly sell the land for $15,000 to the purchaser of their home if the Gibsons aren't interested in buying the lot. Unbeknownst to the sellers, the Gibsons are very interested in purchasing the land to expand their house. They recently......

Words: 5889 - Pages: 24

Eleanor Roosevelt

...Eleanor Roosevelt's Journey of Change “We gain strength, and courage, and confidence by each experience in which we really stop to look fear in the face... we must do that which we think we cannot”(BrainyQuote) this quote was said by Eleanor Roosevelt during her husbands term. Eleanor greatly effected the United States politically, socially and economically. Eleanor Roosevelt made change politically by fighting for women's right to vote. Socially, Eleanor made women more excepted into everyday society wether it was in the work force or being equally judged by other citizens. Economically, she made changes because she helped women get equal labor laws and opened a furniture factory that employed many people. Lastly Eleanor Roosevelt set outstanding standards for future first ladies to meet. Eleanor Roosevelt was a women who fought for women's right to vote, women acceptance into everyday society, economically she made changes that greatly effected the women's work force and finally Eleanor set new standards for future first ladies. Equal rights for women were uncommon in the era of Eleanor Roosevelt. Eleanor fought strongly for women's voting rights. The Treaty of Versailles was passed by the House of Representatives. This took a great amount of work on Eleanor's part she joined various organizations such as the League of Women Voters, the Women's Trade Union League and the Women's Division of the Democratic State Committee. Belonging to these various organizations that......

Words: 1707 - Pages: 7

Developmental Psychology

...development can be defined as “the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behaviour that occur throughout the entire life span” (Sigelman & Rider, 2011). Lifespan development takes a scientific approach in its study of growth, change and stability as researchers use scientific methods to test their assumptions (Sigelman & Rider, 2011s). Previously child development was the focus of many theorists but within the last two decades lifespan development has begun to be studied empirically. Another justification for lifespan development is that it originates in other disciplines as well such as sociology and anthropology and this suggests that this field of lifespan development did not originate solely from developmental psychologists (Baltes, 1987). There are three relevant areas in lifespan development: physical development which looks at the ways in which the body’s makeup determines behaviour, cognitive development which looks at how growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a persons behaviour and lastly personality development which is the “study of stability and change in the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another over the lifespan” (Sigelman & Rider, 2011). Central to lifespan development is the concept of plasticity which refers to “within-person variability and designates the potential that individuals have for different forms of behaviour or development” (Baltes, 1987). The degree of......

Words: 1643 - Pages: 7

Developmental Psych

...ASSIGNMENT: |DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE |CHARACTERISTICS | |Prenatal Period |The hereditary endowment, which serves as the foundation for later development, is fixed, once and for | | |all, at this time. While favourable or unfavourable conditions both before and after birth will affect to| | |some extent the physical and psychological traits that make up this hereditary endowment. | | |Favorable conditions in the mother’s body can foster the development of hereditary potentials while | | |unfavourable conditions can stunt their development, even to the point of distorting the pattern of | | |future development. | | |At few if any other times in the life span are hereditary potentials so influenced by environmental | | |conditions as they are during the prenatal period. | | |The sex of the newly created individual is fixed at the time of conception and conditions within the | | ...

Words: 1798 - Pages: 8

Unit 5 Cornell Notes

...Matthew Carreno 11-29-13 Period 4 AP Psychology Unit 5 Cornell Notes What do our internal rhythms create? | Our internal biological rhythms create periodic physiological fluctuations | Specifically, What does the circadian rhythms regulate? | The circadian rhythm’s 24-hour cycle regulates our daily schedule of sleeping and waking, in part in response to light on the retina, triggering alterations in the level of sleep-inducing melatonin. | What are the sleep stages? | Another biological rhythm is the sleep stages. | What are the five steps of the sleep stages? | we descend into transitional Stage 1 sleep, often with the sensation of falling or floating. Stage 2 sleep (in which we spend the most time) follows about 20 minutes later, with its characteristic sleep spindles. Then follow Stages 3 and 4, together lasting about 30 minutes, with large, slow delta waves. All these stages are referred to as NREM sleep. Reversing course, we retrace our path, but with one difference: About an hour after falling asleep,we begin periods of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. | Where does dreaming most prominently occur? | Most dreaming occurs in this fifth stage (also known as paradoxical sleep) of internal arousal but outward paralysis. | Which stage shortens REM sleep length? | During a normal night’s sleep, periods of Stages 3 and 4 sleep shorten and REM sleep lengthens. | What are the harmful effects of sleep deprivation? | Sleep deprivation causes......

Words: 1362 - Pages: 6

Psychologists' Compare and Contrast

...Psychologists' Compare And Contrast – Jean Piaget & Sigmund Freud Similarities and differences Jean Piaget was a philosopher and developmental Swiss psychologist who is widely known for the epistemology studies relating children. Piaget’s theory of epistemology and cognitive development are both referred to as genetic epistemology.  Jean Piaget’s specific concern was on cognitive or intellectual development of a child and manner in which minds progress and process knowledge. Piaget’s fundamental thesis was based on the fact that children’s first grow theories of self-centric about the environment they are living in or about persons and objects in that environment. Secondly, children normally base the theories on the personal experiences that they go through while interacting with objects and persons in the environment. Thirdly, the child uses ‘Schemas’ in order to master or gain information regarding the environment. Lastly, sophistication of any child cognitive structure intensifies as a child develops as it did with a child’s schemas.  A child’s schema is a tool case of responses and actions to make things happen, initiating with rudimentary connections like grabbing or mouthing items and finally progress towards extremely sophisticated skills like scientific observation. Sigmund Freud, an Austrian neurologist, is the naissance father of the process of psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud’s main concerns were psychoanalysis which is a......

Words: 3158 - Pages: 13

Interview with Psychologists

...Interviews with famous psychologists. We asked famous psychologist Sigmund Freud, aged 56, on what he thought of dreams and he believes that they are a formation of repressed feelings, caused by the unconscious mind, which are expressed and released during sleep. Here are some of the questions that we asked him: Do you believe that dreams have some sort of meaning? No. I believe that we create dreams from suppressed thoughts, urges and impulses but overall they have no meaning. All dreams just let us empty our unconscious thoughts so that we can have a free mind. The content of the unconscious is most likely to be of disturbing or harmful images that are repressed for a reason. This shows that dreams have no meaning, it's just the unconscious mind working when we are most vulnerable. This is why when we awake, we have no recollection of our dream state, this is because the superego is working to repress these images from the conscious mind (ego). Are there any other explanations you think proves dreams have no meaning? Yes I do. I believe that there are so many repressed thoughts, feelings and urges that we have different ways of expressing them in the dream state. For example, when an individual is sleeping, if they propel their own wants and desires onto someone else in their dream then they are projecting, which means that they do not want to have these desires and wish it to be upon someone else. ...

Words: 403 - Pages: 2

Gibson Insurance

...Introduction Gibson Insurance Company is faced with a challenge that is critical to the long-run sustainability of the company: how to use costing systems to operate more efficiently. With the growing size of the company in the recent years, the current cost allocation system is no longer suitable to provide vital information for the management in making pricing decisions, compensating employees, and managing costs. Therefore, it is essential that a new cost allocation system must be implemented to better measure the costs and gain insights to guide managerial decisions which can affect the organization’s efficiency. By evaluating Gibson’s current business practices and product lines, the report will identify issues and provide a rationale to utilize a new cost allocation system in order to increase efficiency and profitability. Company Background Gibson Insurance sells two different types of financial products: annuities and life insurance. Annuities are typically financial contracts that offer a re-occurring payment plan. Annuities consist of tax-deferred investments; this means that investors can place their pre-tax dollar income into various financial tools in order to decrease their income. The main goal of tax-deferred investments is to lower an individual’s income for an overall tax savings. Another product is a life insurance in which the policy holders contribute a certain amount of money per year in order to pay a lump sum to any benefactors if the policy holder...

Words: 3326 - Pages: 14

Developmental Psychology

...Developmental Pyschology The scientific study of human development aims to understand and explain how humans change throughout their lifetime. In the beginning this approach aimed towards infants and children to study the mind so that education and learning could be more effective but it now includes aging, adult development, adolescence, and the whole lifespan; basically early life to death. It also includes scientific inquiry which means its recognizes humans of all societies and cultures who are in a constant rate of change and growth. The branches included are all the aspects of human growth, such as emotional, physical, social, intellectual and personality development. Charles Darwin was actually the first to be credited with conducting the first systematic study dealing with developmental psychology. This study of psychology also branches into sociology, education and health care because of its association, not only with the physical aspects, but with cognitive and social forms as well. Developmental psychology also plays an important role in numerous subjects such as anthropology, education, history, sociology and psychology. Those subjects apply to many careers pertaining to the study of human development. The three goals of developmental psychology are to describe, explain, and to optimize development. With developmental psychology comes tons of research. Majority of study begins with hypothesis. The goal of the research is to analyze the interested area and......

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Developmental Analysis

...Developmental Analysis Paper Tianna N. Johnson Liberty University December 7, 2014 ABSTRACT Human growth and development over a lifetime shows how a person evolves from birth to the time of death. Psychologists study the development of children teaching influencing their future. My childhood experiences influences my adulthood, but I have to show maturity. Does this mean that I do the same things I did as I child? What kind of growth did I show from elementary age to high school age? How much of my child will influence my decision-making as I move forward in my developmental stages? Does my spiritual have an impact on how I view myself? I have to take a step back into my past to view my challenges and obstacles. My challenges and obstacles will make or break me. I have to make a decision of what I choose to do with what I go through. Introduction Human growth and development affect daily lives and how a person will develop. My life brought great times and not so good times. With going through these different experiences, it brought about who I am today. I never thought as a child how my choices and experiences would influence my life, as I grew older. Childhood experiences have great influence on how a person grows mentally, physically and, unbelievably, spiritually. I believe that is true in my life due to the childhood experiences I had. A person does not realize how their childhood affected them until something actually occurs, as they grow older. Looking back......

Words: 2775 - Pages: 12

Eleanor Rigby

...Professor Wilson September 6, 2015 “Eleanor Rigby” This song was written for many purposes in my opinion. I can see numerous themes as I read through the lyrics. The first theme that I noticed is the literal meaning. I could evaluate this from the very first line of the song. It states, “ah look at all the lonely people” (Beatles). Literally, I interpret this as meaning that there are many lonely people in this world. People who have no one to share their lives with but also people who choose to keep all their feelings inside of them. These lonely people shelter themselves from others emotionally and won’t let anyone get the chance to know them. I have seen this quite often growing up. I feel as if The Beatles may have been referring to both of these types of people: physically alone and emotionally drawn people. I believe that there are more meanings to the lyrics in this song though. I can see this song referring to religion as well. This song states that, “Father McKenzie, writing the words of a sermon that no one will hear no one comes near” and “no one was saved” (Beatles). I feel as if a powerful message is said here to the religious listeners of this song. Do I think this song is attacking the religious values of some? That might possibly be the case, however, I can see the argument in an array of spectrums. Lastly, a theme that stood out to me is when the song stated, “wearing the face that she keeps in a jar by the door” (Beatles). I think that some......

Words: 425 - Pages: 2

Cornell Marketing

...CORNELL Prof. Michael Giebelhausen School of Hotel Administration Office: 607-255-8362 545 Statler Hall Cell: 217-689-1318 Ithaca, NY 14853-6902 E-mail: mdg234@cornell.edu HADM 2430: MARKETING MANAGEMENT FOR SERVICES Section 1: Mon Wed 11:40-12:55, 398 Statler Hall Section 2: Mon Wed 2:55-4:10, 196 Statler Hall Office Hours: Monday – Friday from 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., no appointment necessary Course Objectives / Outcomes The mission of this course is to provide you with an introduction to the business discipline of marketing (and services marketing in particular). Marketing, more than any other business activity, links companies to their customers. Even if you don’t pursue a career in marketing, it is useful for you to understand how marketing works. Upon successfully completing this course, you should be able to: 1) Speak the language – In your daily life, you have probably encountered many of the phenomena we will discuss in class. However, if you want to pursue a career in business, you need to be fluent in the terminology, frameworks, and models related to marketing and corporate social responsibility (see service learning project). 2) Apply the concepts learned in class – Knowing the terminology, framework, and models is important. It is more important, however, that you are able to combine and apply them across different contexts in order to make justifiable recommendations. 3) Critique current......

Words: 4865 - Pages: 20

Mel Gibson

...Young 1 Whitney Young Troy University Oct 3, 2014 Young 2 The Academy Award winner Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson also known as Mel Gibson, father of 8, has had many accomplishments. He played the lead role in the movie Braveheart, directed Passion of the Christ, and recently starred in a the box office hit, Expendables 3. He has had a lot of highs and lows of his career and has done everything from winning multiple awards to receiving DUI's followed by public outbursts. You did not hear much about him being a “bad boy” during the 80's or 90's, but in the last 15 years his behavior has gotten progressively worse. What could have caused this Oscar winner to have so many issues? [Gibson, 2014]. During a documentary, Mel Gibson announced that he was bipolar. He said, “I had really good highs, but some very low lows. I found out recently I'm manic depressive”. [ABC News, Marikar]. Mel Gibson has been accused of being a homophobic, racist, and misogynistic pig. While fans and critics may blame his behavior on substance abuse or accuse him of being a megalomaniac, he has been diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. The difference between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder is mania which Gibson suffers from. Mania is only found in bipolar I disorder. (Comer, p. 245). During his arrest for his DUI, he made remarks about Jews being responsible for all the wars in the world. He then came back and......

Words: 1186 - Pages: 5

Developmental Research

...Developmental Research Nakiya Reese PSY 104 October 17, 2011 Professor Rebecca Wilson Most theories fall within a board perceptive with each one focusing on a different part of development. The developmental theories offer different ways of thinking about human, growth, development, and learning. Many researchers use theories as a guide them in their observation and to generate new information, the theories are the platform for all research (Mossler, R.A. 2011). Theorists have researched and tested many theories on child development that have been discovered. This paper will show how three developmental theories gave insight on the similarities and differences of the developmental theories of child development. While there are many theoretical perspectives that try to explain the development of children; the theories provide an overall understanding as well as allows educated hypotheses about the different aspects of child development. Behavioral theories within child development allows the focus to be placed on how environmental interactions influences behavior, and in turn how these behaviors are reinforced and learned. Behaviorism accepts that learning happens through interactions that children have with their environment. The theory points out the study of measureable, observable behavior and it also, includes the way the environment controls a child’s behavior. Theorist John B, Watson and B.F. Skinner, theories are based off their belief that,......

Words: 1357 - Pages: 6

Gibson

...ABSTRACT Gibson Insurance Company (GIC) faces a challenge during the current year. GIC’s current cost allocation system must be revised to accommodate the implementation of a new management planning and performance management system. The goal is to better allocate GIC’s corporate support-service costs to the business lines and business units in a result of more precise pricing strategies, sales compensation and improved cost control. We have analyzed GIC’s situation based on the given information, and concluded with a solution to improve the old cost allocation system. The new cost allocation uses adjusted cost bases which better reflects to the actual usage for new and existing policies. More support-service costs are assigned to new policies than existing ones as it requires more resources for implementation. We have also provided recommendations to improve the new allocation approach. We suggested that GIC use step method and revised allocation bases to effectively control costs, measure performance and reflect actual costs.   INTRODUCTION GIC is an insurance company that offers two different kinds of financial products: annuities and life insurance. It has full ownership of two subsidiary companies: Compton Insurance Services and Midwest Mutual Insurance Company. Compton and Midwest both sell annuities and life insurance; however, the pricing strategies and the features of these products differ between the companies. Although its subsidiary companies are......

Words: 2148 - Pages: 9