Energy Consumption

In: Science

Submitted By ariyanasdad
Words 320
Pages 2
ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Americans consume energy in multiple ways: heating and cooling our homes, lighting our offices, transporting ourselves from one place to another, powering factories, among many other aspects of our daily lives and work.
Sometimes energy consumption is obvious, as when we pump gas into a car. Many other times it is easy to forget that we are consuming energy. The fact of consumption is hidden by the ordinariness of turning on a switch, altering a thermostat, or cooking a meal. This everyday consumption, however, is massive: with only four per cent of the world's population, the U.S. consumes over a quarter of its energy.
When we consume energy, we affect the natural environment. This is true for virtually every kind of energy, although the kind and scale of impact varies greatly. Production of hydroelectric power involves damming rivers and thus harms fish runs. Windmills occupy huge amounts of open space. Even solar energy involves production of batteries and solar cells that have some impact. While all energy production has environmental consequences, the production and use of fossil fuels cause by far the most negative effects, at virtually every step of the way.
Extraction of these fuels, such as drilling for oil or mining coal, often destroys forests, mountains, coastlines, and other natural areas. When crude oil is transported by sea to refineries, leaks and spills can destroy marine life for huge areas. Refineries produce toxic byproducts and air pollution, often in low-income areas, as do many power plants. Gas stations contaminate land and produce fumes that harm the health of employees and customers.
Even before energy gets to the consumer, its extraction, production, and transportation has caused environmental harm. The final consumption of energy produced by fossil fuels has further…...

Similar Documents

Electric City Car – Energy Consumption Analysis

...degree of Bachelor of Science Electric  City  Car  –  Energy  consumption  analysis   Supervisor: Prof. Giuliano Cozzari, Prof. Andrea Festini Applicant: Zheng Hang 1. Introduction 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. General introduction about EV and the team project Speed and acceleration, all about an EV Basic concept in calculation 2. Energy consumption calculation in design phase 2.1. Weight and distribution effect 2.1.1. Weight and climbing 2.1.2. Weight and speed 2.1.3. Weight affect range, Balance and other important facts 2.2. Aerodynamic effect 2.2.1. Define of aerodynamic drag force 2.2.2. Other aerodynamic contributes 2.2.3. Effective of frontal area and coefficient of drag 2.3. Rolling resistance 2.3.1. Definition of rolling resistance 2.3.2. Combined analysis of aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance 2.3.3. Maximum power that can be transferred by the tires to the road 2.4. Transmission efficiency analysis 2.4.1. Structures about the transmission system available 2.4.2. Efficiency of the transmission system 3. Energy consumption calculation of EV 1 3.1. Calculation methodology overview and Target specification of our EV 3.2. Calculation and evaluation of the energy consumption 3.2.1. Required and available power 3.2.2. Motor output and acceleration 3.2.3. Acceleration time evaluation of our EV 3.3. Conclusion 4. Influence on energy output 4.1. Mileage capability analysis 4.1.1. Mileage......

Words: 16791 - Pages: 68

Consumption

...Land Deals: A ‘Green Revolution’ in Global Food and energy Markets? Introduction By Torkil Jønch Clausen In 1974, at the first World Food Summit, the then US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger stated that “no child will go to bed hungry within ten years”. Many years later, at the turn of millennium when millions of children still woke up hungry, the UN declared a Millennium Development Goal stating that the world would “reduce by half the number of people suffering from hunger by 2015”. At the time, they set the target at reducing the number of hungry people from 840 million to 240 million. Today, in 2012, nearly one billion people still suffer from hunger and malnourishment, in spite of the fact that food production has been steadily increasing on a per capita basis for decades, even at the peak of the food price crisis in 2008. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 1996) definition of food security states that “food security exists when all people at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. As the number of undernourished people has risen in parallel with an increase of food production per capita, it is clear that production alone is not the answer. Achieving food security is a complex challenge involving a host of factors. Two of the most critical are water and energy, both essential components to produce food.......

Words: 19153 - Pages: 77

Energy

...Energy Conservation 2 Energy conservation is the practice of decreasing the quantity of energy used while achieving a similar outcome of end use. This practice may result in increase human comfort, personal security, national security, environmental value, and financial capital. Energy conservation is a reduction or elimination of unnecessary energy use. There are many activities that people can do to conserve energy and help not only themselves, but also the environment and everyone around them. Conserving energy is important because most of our current energy sources are not renewable; meaning their existence on earth is finite. Nonliving factors that may contribute or be affected by energy consumption are sunlight, temperature, precipitation, water, and soil. Sunlight and temperature are both contributions to energy consumption. By using the sunlight and the temperature we can use other renewable resources for sources of light and energy instead of using the nonrenewable resources we currently use. Water and soil are affected by sunlight and temperature already. Living factors that may contribute or be affected by energy consumption are herbivores (animals that only eat plants), carnivores (Animals that feed on other animals or material of animal origin), and omnivores (Animals that feed on material of both plant and animal origin). When the plants are affected by energy consumption that means that there are less of them for the herbivores to eat......

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

Sustainable Consumption

...Dev. 18, 20–31 (2010) Published online 10 March 2009 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sd.394 Sustainable Consumption: Green Consumer Behaviour when Purchasing Products William Young1*, Kumju Hwang2, Seonaidh McDonald3 and Caroline J. Oates4 1 Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, UK 2 Department of Business Administration, College of Business Administration, Chonnam National University, South Korea 3 Aberdeen Business School, Robert Gordon University, UK 4 Management School, University of Sheffield, UK ABSTRACT The ‘attitude–behaviour gap’ or ‘values–action gap’ is where 30% of consumers report that they are very concerned about environmental issues but they are struggling to translate this into purchases. For example, the market share for ethical foods remains at 5 per cent of sales. This paper investigates the purchasing process for green consumers in relation to consumer technology products in the UK. Data were collected from 81 self-declared green consumers through in depth interviews on recent purchases of technology products. A green consumer purchasing model and success criteria for closing the gap between green consumers’ values and their behaviour are developed. The paper concludes that incentives and single issue labels (like the current energy rating label) would help consumers concentrate their limited efforts. More fundamentally, ‘being green’ needs time and space in......

Words: 7596 - Pages: 31

Energy Sources and Consumption Level

...2. Energy Sources and Consumption Level a) Fossil Fuel: Oil, Nature Gas and Coal Oil China is the second largest oil consumer and oil importer in the world.(EIA,2013) The demand of oil is driven by the rapidly growing economic and the large population. Oil consumption is also influenced by Chinese government’s energy polices, national oil companies and oil imports. In order to perform more efficiently the Chinese government has improved their policymaking and implementation capacity. Nation oil companies dominate the production of China’s oil. They also do oversea acquisition to meet the increasing demand of oil and develop more qualified technicians. China’s oil imports are increasing over years. It predicted that China will become the largest oil importers by 2013. Most of China’s oil fields are located onshore. They are more mature and the productions are approaching the peak of capacity. Now, China is more concentrated on developing fields which are located in new western interior provinces and offshore. Nature Gas The consumption of nature gas is rising very fast. In 2007, China became to be a net import of nature gas since the Chinese government promoted the consumption of nature gas to reduce the pollution from the use of coal.(EIA,2013) The major source of natural gas are from southwest of country and offshore fields such as Yellow Sea and South China Sea. Government encourages to developing more fields, pipelines and advanced technology to satisfy the......

Words: 582 - Pages: 3

Consumption

...made of plastic; inclusively we could probably recycle every object at our sight. In the article “Plague of Plastic Chokes the Seas” written by Kenneth R. Weiss, he discusses the rapid spread of trash pollution, specifically plastic, in our oceans. Weiss not only addresses the spread of pollution, but also the damaging consequences it has in our ecosystem. In the following paper, I will address the threats of plastic debris gyres throughout the oceans, the vast amount of synthetic nets threatening wildlife, the spills and toxic chemicals in plastic pellets, and our nation’s obsession in materialism. Unlike natural disasters, most environmental threats are caused by human beings. Human population increases yearly, and with it increases consumption and demand. The more and more humans consume the more affordable we want things to be and the easier it becomes to eliminate objects as they appear useless. The idea of useless objects and easy elimination has caused Americans to produce about 4.5 pounds of trash daily containing anything from food, glass, textiles, plastics, metals and etc. (Eitzen, Zinn, and Smith 89). While our cities have tried to make every household “go green”, it seems quite simple to throw away trash all in one container rather than those provided to us for special purposes (i.e. recycling bin, yard waste and hazardous containers). This trash that gets collected weekly, sometimes more often, ends up in gyres in the world’s oceans, taking centuries to break......

Words: 1137 - Pages: 5

Internet Consumption and Energy

...The Impact of the Internet on the Energy Industry Table of Contents Introduction The Internet and energy consumption Top Energy Consuming Countries Smart Energy and your Privacy The Energy Industry and the Internet Energy Industry Technology Made Possible by the Internet Smart Meters Smart Grids Smart Cities Managing Demand Market Size Projections Itron: A Smart Energy Industry Leader Consolidated Financial Data Analysts’ Projections Conclusion Introduction Like so many other industries, the energy industry has been impacted by the internet in a multitude of ways. We see the evolution and efficiency of the energy industry in response to new technology and free flow of ideas and information. A revolution in smart meters, grids, and even smart cities has begun. We will explore a variety of issues related to the energy industry and the internet. There are some common misconception about the impact of internet related energy consumption on the energy industry. Initially, some astronomical claims were being made about the amount of energy the internet actually requires. Equally misinformed projections unsettled consumers and environmental activists alike. The Internet and Energy Consumption When we think about the internet, generally we think of something that has aided humanity toward advancement. These days many companies have the option to “go green” or receive electronic notices instead of paper statements. Generally, this is...

Words: 4355 - Pages: 18

Green Consumption

...Similarities of Green Consumption in China and the U.S Green consumption has become a common practice among businesses around the world. The concept of green consumption is the manufacturing and selling of products that are environmentally friendly and sustainable for society and people. It also means recycling materials as well as being energy efficient. By practicing green consumption, companies are able to create products that can inflict less harm to the environment and to people. Green consumption alone cannot help improve the environment quickly. Green marketing helps to promote and reinforce the idea of sustainable products that green consumption is about. Everywhere around the world that practice green consumption has different ways of promoting it. In countries, such as United States and China, they share a common idea of what green consumption is, but practice and promote it differently. In China, their ultimate goal is to achieve sustainable consumption in choosing green products that are uncontaminated, good for public health and avoid pollution with the awareness of its people. China Origin The idea of green consumption was not immediately accepted in China. The United States started green consumption before China, so they have a better grasp and understanding on how to approach the problem on how to be environmentally sustainable. Over recent years, the concern of the environment rapidly has been increasing in China. The concept of green consumption has......

Words: 1616 - Pages: 7

Availability and Energy Consumption Analysis of Mobile Cloud Environments

...Availability and Energy Consumption Analysis of Mobile Cloud Environments Danilo Oliveira∗ , Jean Araujo∗† , Rubens Matos∗ and Paulo Maciel∗ ∗ Informatics † Academic Center, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil Unit of Garanhuns, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Garanhuns, Brazil {dmo4, jcta, rsmj, prmm}@cin.ufpe.br∗ , jean@uag.ufrpe.br† The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section II provides an overview about mobile clouds and the analytical modeling for availability evaluation. The methodology adopted is presented in detail in Section III. Section IV presents the models developed to represent a mobile cloud system. A case study is described in Section V, with the results obtained through model analysis. Section VI concludes the paper, presenting also some possible future works. II. BACKGROUND Abstract—Mobile cloud computing refers to abstraction of computational power to outside of the mobile device, processed in the “clouds”. This paper provides an availability and energy consumption study using hierarchical heterogeneous modeling. Different scenarios were analyzed considering wireless communication technologies, such as 3G and WiFi. The results shows that the 3G protocol causes a lower availability and is the greater responsible for the discharge of battery, but when is combined with WiFi protocol providing communication redundancy, we have the best results of availability and better results of uninterrupted operation time of......

Words: 5125 - Pages: 21

Corn Flakes Machine Energy Consumption

...First, the enterprises should be familiar with corn flakes machine power consumption. A workshop should be divided into several workshop departments or sub-processes. The electric quantity which these sub-processes demand can be decided accurately by the integer power measurement methods. Second, during CORN FLAKES MACHINE energy consumption, power consumption is also a cooperation method for indicating production operation. Therefore, in corn flakes machine operation, we should keep regular maintenance, reduce machine halting time and the maintenance cost and improve working efficiency. Finally, in corn flakes machine operation, we can adopt “peak shifting production”method, which is conducive to improve economic benefits of enterprises. Besides, we should also pay attention to corn flakes machine hardware consumption, keep good maintenance, reduce wear rate of accessories and maintenance cost. This is also one good method of controlling corn flakes machine energy consumption. Nowadays, to purchase corn flakes machines, the customers not only pay attention to prices, but also make decisions by corn flakes machine quality and brand. And with the market economy development, the customers will look at corn flakes machine quality and brand as the first element in consumption. It is reported that, in corn flakes machine choice, more than 50% of customers value whether the corn flakes machine manufacturers are professional and have complete range of goods. The......

Words: 395 - Pages: 2

Consumption

...for this trend in the light of theories of consumption. 
 Effects of the 2008 financial turmoil hit the economic climate hard causing a shift in the behaviour of consumers as they decreased consumption and increased their savings rate. This is mainly due to erosion of confidence and high levels of uncertainty about expected future income. Consumers adapting to this change follow the assumption that they’re forward looking, they seek to maximise their utility from consumption over their lifetime and they’re prudent. The explanation of consumer behaviour is highlighted mainly by the Modern Lifecycle Model and concreted by the Certainty Equivalent Life Cycle Permanent Income Model (CE-LC-PI). There are a few additional factors that may have caused this rise in savings rate including debt reduction causing a decline in available credit and real wealth and changes in investment risk. The Life Cycle Model under Certainty (LCM), as stated by Modigliani and Brumberg (1954) suggests that individuals plan their consumption and savings behaviour over their lifetime in order to maximise their utility. Under the CE-LC-PI, households base their current spending decisions on their permanent incomes (the incomes they expect to receive on average over their entire lifetime). This model, unlike the LCM includes shocks and assumes consumers are forward-looking and want to smooth consumption under a perfect capital market. Under the LCM, the consumption profile is perfectly flat as long as......

Words: 1076 - Pages: 5

Marriott Csr Plan Water & Energy Consumption

...**** Sustainability Plan for Water & Energy Consumption for Marriott Introduction You are to write this assignment from the point of view of the company’s new CSR Manager so you should use this section to introduce yourself to company executives and stakeholders and that this document is the company’s approved 2017 CSR Plan. Let’s assume that I am another company executive, an insider, and will be receiving your plan. You will want to write this in a professional way, directed to insiders that know the company well, in a manner that is very convincing and compels us all to work together towards our goals. Marriott Hotels Use this area to talk about your global hospitality or tourism company’s mission, vision, goals, purpose, values or credo which will provide the strategic foundation for our CSR plan. Provide any additional background information about the organization that you think important to the CSR plan that will be pertinent to our understanding of why you selected each of your methods below. You do not need to repeat background information about the company that insiders likely already know, such as how big the company is, or what countries it operates in, unless you want to use that to make a specific point. For example if it’s a large, worldwide company taking on a large, worldwide cause, you might want to state that congruence as a reason for your strategy. This will be the SAME company that you profiled in your Case Study assignment but this......

Words: 2833 - Pages: 12

Energy

... “Energyconservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption. Energyconservation can be achieved through increased efficient energy use, inconjunction with decreased energy consumption and/or reduced consumption fromconventional energy sources” ("Energy conservation," 2011). The twotypes of energy are renewable and nonrenewable. Renewable energy sources areconstantly renewed or restored and include wind (wind power), water(hydropower), sun (solar), vegetation (biomass), and internal heat of the earth(geothermal). On the other hand, nonrenewable energy sources are naturalresources that cannot be replenished. Fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coalare the most commonly used types of non-renewable energy. However,non-renewable energy sources are being depleted at a rapid rate. In fact, (dueto this depletion) there may not be enough non-renewable energy sources forfuture generations. Additionally, (in this paper) I will discuss methods toconserve energy, save money, and help the environment as well. Because fossil fuels (such as oil,gas, and coal) are the most commonly used types of non-renewable energy, I willfocus on these types of non-renewable energy sources. “World energy consumptionhas increased every year since 1982, with most of the increase occurring indeveloping countries” (Berg, & Hager, 2007). “Additional energy demands inhighly developed nations may be met by increasing the energy efficiency ofthings like appliances, automobiles, and home......

Words: 1558 - Pages: 7

Consumption

...West Coast Forum Research Work Group Sustainable Consumption & the Sharing Economy Summary of Research Findings and Gap Analysis Topic: How state and local governments are promoting sustainable consumption and engagement in the sharing economy RESEARCH QUESTION(S) • What is the state of knowledge about sustainable consumption? How is this defined or framed? What are the emerging trends? What potential roles can municipal and state governments play? • What barriers have been identified and how might these be overcome? • What strategies, techniques and policies are effective at promoting sustainable consumption through reusing, renting, repairing, and sharing products and materials? • What GHG reduction benefits can be achieved through these activities? • What strategies, techniques, policies and innovative approaches have not yet been tried but have been proposed that are considered to have greatest potential? Note: This research summary builds on the findings of a previous literature review “Changing Consumer Behavior” presented at the 2012 annual Forum meeting. Many of the issues and key findings related to sustainable consumption are addressed there. Sustainable consumption is a rich and nuanced topic for which extensive literature exists. While not the primary focus of this review, the concepts around sustainable consumption provide a context for exploring specific activities of individual consumers such as......

Words: 5133 - Pages: 21

Energy

...Energy Fletcher Hinton Environmental Science Dr. Sandra Flemming April 6, 2012 Abstract This paper will discuss energy use and how it is conversed to do what it needs for the population using it. This paper will give an explanation on how energy use is dictated or regulated by law according to the energy policy act of (2005). Energy use is a major problem the world has today, resources are becoming scarce because of our consumption level is more than can be replenished in the amount of time we need it. The law of conservation of energy states that the quantity of energy stored in a system will be constant throughout time. (Law of conservation of energy, n/d) Since energy is stored it is constant it cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted into other forms of energy like solar energy, needs the sun to produce and harvest its energy. There are other forms of energy that can be used for our consumption and they are; fossil fuel: oil, natural gas, and coal, nuclear energy, Solar energy, Wind power, Water (hydro) power, Bioconversion (biofuel). Although, they can help produce energy there are pros and cons to using them for energy consumption. The fossil fuels for one are the most widely used source of energy used because of its reliable resources that can be converted. The con is it will run out because our consumption is more than the resource can produce. Nuclear energy produces 1/6 of the worlds electricity and it doesn`t produce......

Words: 571 - Pages: 3