Free Essay

England

In: Historical Events

Submitted By hnkinder
Words 3480
Pages 14
Social Stratification
Classes and Castes. Class is the primary way in which people approach social stratification. The upper class (the landed gentry, the titled nobility, and members of the royal family) has roughly the same social position it has had since the nineteenth century, when the middle classes began to compete successfully with the landed interests for influence. However, the upper class lost official political influence (and credibility) in the twentieth century. The major change in England's social identity structure has been the shrinking number of workers in manufacturing and the increasing number of people who work in service industries. White-collar and other service workers have replaced blue-collar workers as England's economic backbone. Consequently, the middle class has increased in size and wealth, and home ownership has increased, while union membership has declined dramatically, along with the size of the traditional industrial working class.
Most workers expect unemployment at some point in their careers, especially the unskilled and uneducated. In 1983, only 5 percent of non-manual workers were unemployed. In contrast, skilled manual workers experienced 12 percent and semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers 23 percent unemployment, and manual workers combined accounted for 84 percent of the unemployed.
England is becoming a society of the included and the excluded. There has been a sharp rise in long-term unemployment. The nature of work in a fluid economy does not support long-term employment for low-skilled and moderately skilled workers, and this is reflected in the rise in part-time (24.7 percent of the 1999 workforce), and multiple-job workers. Homelessness has become a fact of English life, with 102,410 families in England accepted as homeless in 1997 alone.
The richest class has increased its share of the national income and national assets. In 1995, the wealthiest 10 percent of the population owned half the assets controlled by households. In 1997 the income of the top 20 percent of households was four times that of the bottom 20 percent. Meanwhile, those earning less than half of the median doubled between 1979 and 1998, reaching 10 percent.
Ethnic minorities have not fared well in the new economic environment. For all minority men, unemployment was 17 percent in the period 1986–1988, for example, compared with 10 percent for whites. Ten years on, in the period 1997–1998, unemployment rates of Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, and blacks were more than three times those for whites. Indians, on the other hand, have faired better, currently occupying a central position in the middle class as entrepreneurs and in the professions, enjoying chances of employment more comparable to whites.
Symbols of Social Stratification. Many of the traditional symbols of social difference have undergone change. Clothing and other consumer goods historically were indicators of class, but are now more ambiguous. Most consumer goods are widely available, and the clothing and fashion industries recycle styles so quickly that rank and clothing do not always correspond. Education, which used to be a clear way to divide people into classes, has also lost some of its defining power. Private primary and secondary schools increased their share of school age children through 1990, and higher education has expanded the number of places available to those who want postsecondary training; by the mid 1990s more than 30 percent of students age eighteen were attending a university. Oxford and Cambridge have been accepting students from an increasingly broad socioeconomic spectrum, and students now have many more universities to choose from. Accent also has become a less reliable class signifier.

Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/England.html#ixzz2vZUiCqgP
Gender Roles and Statuses
Division of Labor by Gender. Gender roles assign homemaking, other domestic activities, and most unpaid labor to women. A man's sense of self is defined chiefly in terms of the paid work he can obtain. The impact of these constructions of gender is now much different than before, but is still felt in English society.
The Relative Status of Women and Men. Although there is no equal rights amendment, in recent decades there has been a more noticeable commitment to equality of opportunity for men and women through bodies such as the Equal Opportunity Commission and laws such as the Abortion Act of 1967 and the 1969 Divorce Act. The rate of women's (especially married women's) participation in the workforce increased in the late twentieth century, as did the nature of that participation. In 1971, only 57 percent of women of working age were economically active, but in 1998 that figure was 72 percent, whereas men's participation declined from 91 percent to 84 percent. Despite their importance in the workforce, women earn only 80 percent of what men do. Women have been confined to lower-status work, are more likely to work part-time, and are under-represented in elite jobs. However, some women have obtained high-status, formerly male-dominated work, and the status of female-dominated work has risen. Women's increasing participation in political life and their progress in religious roles in society—the rise of women MPs in the 1990s and the Church of England's agreement to ordain women priests in 1994—may be an indication of this.
Women have probably made the least progress in the social sphere. They were the victims in 70 percent of cases of domestic violence in 1998, and women still perform most unpaid work, such as running households and raising children. Gender roles among particular subgroups, however, diverge from this picture. Some Muslim and Jewish women are more involved in the domestic sphere, and Afro-Caribbean community women are more likely to be employed and have a higher status than Afro-Caribbean men.

Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/England.html#ixzz2vZV0tzcU

Marriage, Family, and Kinship
Marriage. Among many members of the South Asian and Jewish communities, arranged marriages as a means of cementing family alliances are the norm. Most inhabitants, however, decide independently whom to marry, often choosing to cohabit with the partner before marriage. Social position, social aspirations, and informal social control drive the choice of a marriage partner. Thus, marriages across class lines are not common, especially among unskilled workers and the professional and managerial classes. Marriages across ethnic lines also are not common. As a reason for marriage, economic security is prominent, but so is the desire for sexual and social companionship. In 1997, about half the population over age sixteen was married. While marriage between a man and a woman remains the primary model for long-term relationships, it is not the only one. Same-sex unions and so-called blended families are increasingly common, and experimentation with forms of quasi-polygamy has taken place.
Domestic Unit. The basic domestic unit is a household headed by a married couple—a model that accounted for 59 percent of the households in 1998. Close to 73 percent of inhabitants live in a family headed by a couple (though not necessarily a married couple). It is uncommon for couples to live with the kin of either partner. Current gender roles dictate that men are the primary breadwinners and women are responsible for household management. Who actually controls the household on a daily basis, however, varies by household. Single-parent, usually female-headed households are on the rise, accounting for 9 percent of all households in 1998. The extended family is a visible and important social institution in the South Asian, Asian, Afro-Caribbean, and Jewish communities and still plays a role in the majority population. People living alone represented 28 percent of households in 1998.
Inheritance. Children rarely depend on inherited wealth to become independent and usually inherit movable property rather than real estate. When real estate is involved, it often consists of a home and the attached land, not agricultural land. Most people follow the principle of equal division of inherited wealth among offspring, with some favoritism toward biological offspring in blended families.

People envision themselves as part of a set of interconnected families, the size of which varies with marital status and family traditions. Most people include three to four generations of people in their kin group. Those who are married count the same number of generations of the spouse's family as part of their family. Kin groups do not have prominent status in society formally or informally. Notions of kinship involve a network of individuals who enter into kin relationships. The individual is not subsumed by the kin structure.

Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/England.html#ixzz2vZVE6kxp
Secular Celebrations
New Year's Eve and Day (31 December, 1 January), celebrate the beginning of the new year. April Fool's Day (1 April), is a day on which people play practical jokes on one another. The sovereign's birthday is celebrated in June. Guy Fawkes's Day (5 November) commemorates the foiling of a 1605 Catholic plot to blow up the houses of Parliament and is an occasion for fireworks and revelry. Remembrance Day (11 November) celebrates the contributions of war veterans to defending the freedom of the nation.

Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/Cr-Ga/England.html#ixzz2vZVUY4wc

-------------------------------------------------
Sport and leisure[edit]
Main article: Sport in England

Celebrations at Trafalgar Square after England's 2003 Rugby World Cup victory.
There are many sports which have been codified by the English, and then spread worldwide, including badminton, cricket, croquet, football, field hockey,lawn tennis, rugby league, rugby union, table tennis and thoroughbred horse racing. In the late 18th century, the English game of rounders was transported to the American Colonies, where it evolved into baseball. Association football, cricket, rugby union and rugby league are considered to be the national sports of England.
England, and other countries in the United Kingdom, compete as a separate nations in some international sporting events, especially in football, cricket, rugby league and rugby union. The England cricket team actually represents England and Wales.[7] However, in the Olympic Games, England competes as part of the Great Britain team. English supporters are now more likely to carry the Cross of Saint George flag than the British Union Flag.[8]
Football maintains a consistent popularity across the country and is often indicative of trends across wider culture in England, such as in clothing and music. Different sports directly represent the different social classes within England. Rugby league, for instance, was traditionally associated with the old mill towns of north-west England, whereas cricket and rugby union have their origins in the private schools of the 18th and 19th centuries respectively.
Tennis is also a major sport, with one of the sport's most internationally prestigious tournaments being held at Wimbledon. www.england.org.za The most popular sports in modern-day England are:

• Rugby
• Cricket
• Football

Significantly, football and cricket both have their roots in England and are now two of the most popular, successful and lucrative sports in the entire world. Sports that are played on an individual basis and feature highly in England include:

• Tennis
• Golf
• Athletics
• Motor sport
• Horse racing

England has various bank holidays, public holidays, traditional holidays and national events scattered across its calendar. Some date back hundreds of years, while others are more recent. Some are fun and festive, encouraging the locals to dress up and join in the festivities, while yet others are more sombre. These include (where the following dates are mentioned, they apply to 2011):

JANUARY
1 January - New Year’s Day
1 January - The New Year's Day Parade London (over 10 000 performers travel around London offering impressive dancing, acrobatics, cheerleading and musical acts)
5 January - Twelfth Night (Christian)
6 January - Epiphany (Christian)
12 January - Plough Monday (the start of the new farming year)
15 – 17 January - Straw Bear Festival at Whittlesey

FEBRUARY
2 February - Candlemas Day (Christian)
3 February - Chinese New Year
14 February - St Valentine's Day (a Christian festival associated with love and romance)

MARCH
Pancake Day (a Christian carnival on the eve of Ash Wednesday to start Lent, which is a time of fasting and devotions)
5 March – St Piran’s Day Cornwall
8 March - The Great Spitalfields Pancake Race
9 March - Ash Wednesday (the start of lent)
14 March - Commonwealth Day

APRIL
1 April – April Fool’s Day (traditionally the day of practical jokes and trickery)
3 April – Mothers’ Day
3 April - Simnel Sunday
17 April - Palm Sunday (Christian)
21 April - Maundy Thursday (Christian)
21 April – The Queen’s birthday
22 April - Good Friday (Christian)
23 April – St George’s Day (a church festival)
24 April - Easter Sunday (Christian)
25 April - Easter Monday (Christian)
25 April - Hop Monday
30 April – 2 May – Rochester Sweeps Festival

MAY
1 May - May Day
2 May - Early May Bank Holiday
30 April - 2 May - Rochester Sweeps Festival
24 May – Empire Day
29 May – Oak Apple Day (the birthday of Charles II)
30 May – Spring Bank Holiday
30 May – Cheese Rolling (in Gloucestershire)

JUNE
2 June - Ascension Day (Christian)
2 June – Coronation Day: Gun Salute
12 June – Pentecost / Whitsuntide (Christian)
19 June – Fathers’ Day

JULY
5 July - Tynwald Day (the national holiday of the Isle of Man)
15 July - St. Swithun's Day
TBC - Swan Upping (a census of swans on the River Thames)

AUGUST
1 August - Lammas Day
1 August - Yorkshire Day
26 – 28 August - Reading Festival
27 – 29 August - The Glenn Miller Festival (the largest jazz, swing and Jive festival in the United Kingdom)
28 – 29 August - Notting Hill Carnival
29 August - Late Summer Bank Holiday

SEPTEMBER
4 September – 8 November - Blackpool Illuminations
5 September - The Great River Race, London
TBC - Heritage Open Days (free entry to several National Trust properties)

OCTOBER
11 October - Apple Day
11 October - Trafalgar Day
17 October - Punky Night (children sing through the streets and at residential doors)
31 October - Halloween

NOVEMBER
1 November - All Saints Day (Christian)
1 November - London to Brighton Veteran Car Run
2 November - All Souls Day (Christian)
5 November - Guy Fawkes
5 November - Lewes Bonfire Night
11 November – Armistice Day
13 November - Remembrance Sunday
14 November - The Prince of Wales' birthday
20 November - Stir-up Sunday (last Sunday of the Christian Church Year)
27 November - Advent Sunday (Christian)
-------------------------------------------------

-Atleast in England, a guy or a girl can initiate the date/relationship.. doesn't matter

-The payment depends on how formal/serious the 'date' is...
If you are on a 'date' such as.. a nice dinner, or a movie at the cinema... the guy will most likely pay to be nice.

-The dates are as formal as you make them. You could be going to a nice restaurant and have an expensive dinner. or you could just hang out at his place and watch a cheap movie. This will most likely depend on who you date.

-------------------------------------------------
Holidays in United Kingdom in 2014
Change Year | Change Holidays | Change Country

Top of Form
Change country:
Bottom of Form

Weekday | Date | Holiday name | Holiday type | Where it is observed | | | | | | Wednesday | Jan 1 | New Year's Day | Bank holiday | | Thursday | Jan 2 | 2nd January | Local holiday | Scotland | Monday | Jan 6 | Epiphany | Christian | | Tuesday | Jan 7 | Orthodox Christmas Day | Orthodox | | Tuesday | Jan 14 | Prophet's Birthday | Muslim | | Tuesday | Jan 14 | Orthodox New Year | Orthodox | | Thursday | Jan 16 | Tu B'Shevat (Arbor Day) | Jewish holiday | | Saturday | Jan 25 | Burns' Night | Local observance | Scotland | Friday | Jan 31 | Chinese New Year | Observance | | Friday | Feb 14 | Valentine's Day | Observance | | Saturday | Mar 1 | St. David's Day | Local holiday | Wales | Tuesday | Mar 4 | Carnival/Shrove Tuesday | Christian | | Wednesday | Mar 5 | Carnival/Ash Wednesday | Christian | | Sunday | Mar 16 | Purim | Jewish holiday | | Monday | Mar 17 | St Patricks Day | Local holiday | Northern Ireland | Thursday | Mar 20 | March equinox | Season | | Sunday | Mar 30 | Daylight Saving Time starts | Clock change/Daylight Saving Time | | Sunday | Mar 30 | Mothering Sunday | Observance | | Sunday | Apr 13 | Palm Sunday | Christian | | Tuesday | Apr 15 | First day of Passover | Jewish holiday | | Thursday | Apr 17 | Maundy Thursday | Christian | | Friday | Apr 18 | Orthodox Good Friday | Orthodox | | Friday | Apr 18 | Good Friday | Public holiday | | Saturday | Apr 19 | Holy Saturday | Christian | | Saturday | Apr 19 | Orthodox Holy Saturday | Orthodox | | Sunday | Apr 20 | Orthodox Easter | Orthodox | | Sunday | Apr 20 | Easter Sunday | Bank holiday | | Monday | Apr 21 | Orthodox Easter Monday | Orthodox | | Monday | Apr 21 | Easter Monday | Common Local holidays | ENG, NIR, WAL | Tuesday | Apr 22 | Last day of Passover | Jewish holiday | | Wednesday | Apr 23 | St. George's Day | Local holiday | England | Wednesday | Apr 23 | Shakespeare Day | Observance | | Monday | Apr 28 | Yom HaShoah | Jewish holiday | | Monday | May 5 | Early May Bank Holiday | Bank holiday | | Tuesday | May 6 | Yom HaAtzmaut | Jewish holiday | | Sunday | May 18 | Lag B'Omer | Jewish holiday | | Monday | May 26 | Spring Bank Holiday | Bank holiday | | Tuesday | May 27 | Isra and Mi'raj | Muslim | | Thursday | May 29 | Ascension Day | Christian | | Wednesday | Jun 4 | Shavuot | Jewish holiday | | Sunday | Jun 8 | Pentecost | Christian | | Monday | Jun 9 | Whit Monday | Christian | | Sunday | Jun 15 | Trinity Sunday | Christian | | Sunday | Jun 15 | Father's Day | Observance | | Thursday | Jun 19 | Corpus Christi | Christian | | Saturday | Jun 21 | June Solstice | Season | | Sunday | Jun 29 | Ramadan begins | Muslim | | Saturday | Jul 12 | Orangemen's Day | Local holiday | Northern Ireland | Monday | Jul 14 | Orangemen's Day observed | Local holiday | Northern Ireland | Thursday | Jul 24 | Laylat al-Qadr (Night of Destiny) | Muslim | | Tuesday | Jul 29 | Eid-al-Fitr | Muslim | | Monday | Aug 4 | Summer Bank Holiday | Local holiday | Scotland | Tuesday | Aug 5 | Tisha B'Av | Jewish holiday | | Friday | Aug 15 | Assumption of Mary | Christian | | Monday | Aug 25 | Summer Bank Holiday | Common Local holidays | ENG, NIR, WAL | Tuesday | Sep 23 | September equinox | Season | | Thursday | Sep 25 | Rosh Hashana | Jewish holiday | | Saturday | Oct 4 | Feast of St Francis of Assisi | Christian | | Saturday | Oct 4 | Yom Kippur | Jewish holiday | | Sunday | Oct 5 | Eid-al-Adha | Muslim | | Thursday | Oct 9 | First day of Sukkot | Jewish holiday | | Wednesday | Oct 15 | Last day of Sukkot | Jewish holiday | | Thursday | Oct 16 | Shmini Atzeret/Simchat Torah | Jewish holiday | | Thursday | Oct 23 | Diwali/Deepavali | Observance | | Saturday | Oct 25 | Muharram/Islamic New Year | Muslim | | Sunday | Oct 26 | Daylight Saving Time ends | Clock change/Daylight Saving Time | | Friday | Oct 31 | Halloween | Observance | | Saturday | Nov 1 | All Saints' Day | Christian | | Sunday | Nov 2 | All Souls' Day | Christian | | Wednesday | Nov 5 | Guy Fawkes Day | Observance | | Sunday | Nov 9 | Remembrance Sunday | Observance | | Sunday | Nov 30 | First Sunday of Advent | Observance | | Sunday | Nov 30 | St Andrew's Day | Local holiday | Scotland | Monday | Dec 1 | St Andrew's Day observed | Local holiday | Scotland | Monday | Dec 8 | Feast of the Immaculate Conception | Christian | | Wednesday | Dec 17 | First Day of Hanukkah | Jewish holiday | | Sunday | Dec 21 | December Solstice | Season | | Wednesday | Dec 24 | Last day of Hanukkah | Jewish holiday | | Wednesday | Dec 24 | Christmas Eve | Observance | | Thursday | Dec 25 | Christmas Day | Public holiday | | Friday | Dec 26 | Boxing Day | Bank holiday | | Wednesday | Dec 31 | New Year's Eve | Observance | | The UK family: In statistics http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7071611.stm | Families are changing shape and facing up to new lifestyle challenges. The facts and figures below give an idea of what the typical UK family looks like in the early 21st century.WHAT IS A 'TYPICAL' FAMILY?There were 17.1 million families in the UK in 2006 - up from 16.5 million in 1996.Most were still headed by a married couple (71%), although the proportion of cohabiting couple families had increased to 14%, from 9% 10 years earlier.Although two children remains the most common family size, the average number of children per family in the UK has dropped - from 2.0 in 1971 to 1.8.
WHERE FAMILIES LIVEMore young people are living at home for longer. In 2006, 58% of men and 39% of women aged 20-24 in England still lived at home with their parents.There is a larger than average concentration of single people living in London, whereas married couples and families tend to be concentrated in the centre of the country and around the outskirts of major cities, according to research by Professor Danny Dorling of Sheffield University.His map is based on data drawn from the 85 constituencies used for the European parliamentary elections in 1999, each containing roughly half a million people over the age of 18 in a similar geographical area.The areas are categorised, for example as predominantly single, where the number of people living on their own is the most unusually large group compared with the national average.Figures were not available for Northern Ireland.
WORK-LIFE BALANCEIn most families with dependent children, the father is still the main wage earner and the mother often works part-time.According to the BBC/ICM poll, 33% of women still do the bulk of household chores, but 35% of respondents said both parents shared childcare duties.
SPENDING HABITSThe average family income is £32,779 before tax.According to ONS figures, an average household - made up of 3.9 people - spends £601.20 a week, compared with a couple's average spend of £527.30. In other words, the household spends £155.60 per head, compared with a couple's spend of £263.60 per head. | | |

http://resources.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/family.html

http://projectbritain.com/food/index.htm…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Monarchy in England

...to a Limited Monarchy in England JUNE 15, 1215 THE MAGNACARTA ISSUED IN ENGLAND The Magna Carta set in motion the future limitations on the English monarchy. Passed by barons, it attempted to limit the power of English kings by forcing to accept that they were bound by law, by protecting many rights of the English citizens, preventing unlawful imprisonment (habeus corpus), and more. This was the first instance of the citizenry limiting the power of the monarch. NOVEMBER 13, 1295 THE RISE OF THE MODEL PARLIAMENT The Magna Carta set in motion the future limitations on the English monarchy. Passed by barons, it attempted to limit the power of English kings by forcing to accept that they were bound by law, by protecting many rights of the English citizens, preventing unlawful imprisonment (habeus corpus), and more. This was the first instance of the citizenry limiting the power of the monarch. NOVEMBER 1, 1534 FIRST ACT OF SIPREMACY PASSED IN Henry VIII separated England from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. It severed any ties that England had with the powerful outside authority that was the pope. The English government was now managed in both a political and religious aspect by the same figure, the king, and this would have significant repercussions for the final development of a limited monarchy. NOVEMBER 17, 1558 ELIZABETH 1 CROWNED QUEEN OF ENGLAND The ascent of Queen Elizabeth to the throne, and her subsequent rule over England marks a time at which......

Words: 494 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

England Project

... Flag: The Flag of England Anthem: The Full version of the British National Anthem: ‘God Save The Queen’. 1. God save our gracious Queen, Long live our noble Queen, God save the Queen! Send her victorious, Happy and glorious, Long to reign over us; God save the Queen! 2. O Lord our God arise, Scatter her enemies And make them fall; Confound their politics, Frustrate their knavish tricks, On Thee our hopes we fix, God save us all! 3. Thy choicest gifts in store On her be pleased to pour; Long may she reign; May she defend our laws, And ever give us cause To sing with heart and voice, God save the Queen! 4. Not in this land alone, But be God's mercies known, From shore to shore! Lord make the nations see, That men should brothers be, And form one family, The wide world over. 5. From every latent foe, From the assassins blow, God save the Queen! O'er her thine arm extend, For Britain's sake defend, Our mother, prince, and friend, God save the Queen! National animal: Lion National flower: Rose National tree: Oak tree Currency: Pound (rate £1 = R11.13) Leader of country: David William Donald Cameron was born on 9 October 1966 and is the current Prime Minister of England. He is aged 43. David was narrowly elected PM in 2010 after A first candidacy for Parliament at Stafford in 1997 ended in defeat, but Cameron was elected in 2001 as the Member of Parliament for the Oxfordshire......

Words: 733 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

History of England

...The England national football team is the joint oldest in the world; it was formed at the same time as Scotland. A representative match between England and Scotland was played on 5 March 1870, having been organised by the Football Association. A return fixture was organised by representatives of Scottish football teams on 30 November 1872. This match, played at Hamilton Crescent in Scotland, is viewed as the first official international football match because the two teams were independently selected and operated, rather than being the work of a single football association.[3] Over the next forty years, England played exclusively with the other three Home Nations—Scotland, Wales and Ireland—in the British Home Championship. To begin with, England had no permanent home stadium. They joined FIFA in 1906 and played their first ever games against countries other than the Home Nations on a tour of Central Europe in 1908. Wembley Stadium was opened in 1923 and became their home ground. The relationship between England and FIFA became strained and this resulted in their departure from FIFA in 1928, before rejoining in 1946. As a result, they did not compete in a World Cup until 1950, in which they were beaten in a 1–0 defeat by the United States, failing to get past the first round in one of the most embarrassing defeats in team history.[4] Their first ever defeat on home soil to a non-UK team was a 0–2 loss to the Republic of Ireland on 21 September 1949 at Goodison Park. A 6–3...

Words: 381 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Elizabethan England

... COSTUME AND FASHION SOURCE BOOKS Elizabethan England Kathy Elgin Copyright © 2009 Bailey Publishing Associates Ltd Produced for Chelsea House by Bailey Publishing Associates Ltd, 11a Woodlands, Hove BN3 6TJ, England Project Manager: Patience Coster Text Designer: Jane Hawkins Picture Research: Shelley Noronha Artist: Deirdre Clancy Steer All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact: Chelsea House, an imprint of Infobase Publishers, 132 West 31st Street, New York, NY 10001. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Elgin, Kathy. Elizabethan England / Kathy Elgin. p. cm. — (Costume source books) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-60413-379-0 1. Clothing and dress—England—History—16th century—Juvenile literature. 2. England—Social life and customs—16th century— Juvenile literature. I. Title. II. Series. GT734.E44 2009 391.00942'09031—dc22 2008047258 Chelsea House books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Department in New York on (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755. You can find Chelsea House on the World Wide Web at: http://www.chelseahouse.com. Printed and bound in Hong......

Words: 16999 - Pages: 68

Premium Essay

Bank of England Target 2.0

...'Using the information on the BOE website and other knowledge, discuss what the Bank of England should do to the base rate of interest in order to hit the inflation target of 2.0% on the CPI'. The Bank of England’s Monetary Policy Committee has responsibility for managing monetary policy. Two ways in which it can do so is through the use of quantitative easing or by adjusting bank interest rates. Currently the bank rate is at 0.5% and has been since 2009, quantitative easing is set to £375 billion, inflation is at 2.7% where as the Bank of England’s target rate at 2.0%. In order to achieve the target rate of inflation (2.0%), the Bank of England should maintain the current base rate of 0.5% or in other words a continued loosening of the monetary policy - a low interest rate, the money supply is allowed to grow and a weak exchange rate. Through my extensive research I would make this recommendation to the Bank of England based on a number of reasons of which I shall outline. It is predicting that consumer spending per household will rise by just 1.8% in the period between now and 2018, having fallen 7.1% since 2003. However, in the short term consumer spending is forecasted to fall from 230790.96 in 2013 down to 230547.75 in 2014. Decreases in consumer spending indicate that we will need to lower interest rates to see growth in consumer spending as it is being held back fragile confidence and households are more determined to save more. If interest rates are lowered investment......

Words: 928 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

England

...capita: $55309.09 CD World region: Europe Capital city: London Currency: The currency of England is the pound sterling. Paper money comes in £5, £10, £20 and £50 denominations, although £50s can be difficult to change because fakes circulate. (Other currencies are rarely accepted.) 12:00pm in Ottawa is 5:00pm in England. England’s has a maritime temperature climate it is mild with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C (32 °F) in winter and not much higher than 32 °C (90 °F) in summer. The weather is damp relatively frequently and is changeable. The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast, while July is normally the warmest month. Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream. England’s labour force is relatively small. Only 1.4% of England is occupied by agriculture the other 98.6 percent is split up into, Industry which is 18.4% and the most occupied of England’s labour Services which is 80.4% of England’s work force. The England form of Government is a constitutional monarchy, which combines a monarch head of state with a parliamentary system. While many consider the England form of government a democracy, which it is in practice, the Queen of England has many titular roles and is officially the head of state, although in......

Words: 1424 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Review of This Is England

...RReview of ‘This is England’ ‘This Is England’ is a movie directed by Shane Meadows. The film takes place in the summer of 1983 in England. Margaret Thatcher rules the country and problems such as poverty and unemployment is affecting England. The plot takes place during the Falkland wars (The war where the main character of the movie, Shaun lost his father) He lives alone with his mother in what we would call poverty or the working class. They don’t have much money so he has to wear pants that are way too big for him. He gets bullied in school for his clothes and doesn’t seem to have any friends. On his way home from school, Shaun meets a group of skinheads, led by a guy named Woody. They let him join their group and soon Shaun looks like the rest of the group, his head gets shaved, he gets doctor Martens shoes and jeans with red braces and of course a Ben Sherman shirt. The group lives on the edge of the law and runs around destroying houses and smoking a lot of hash. Shaun finds a punk girl named Smell and he falls in love with her. The group soon changes a lot when the racist skinhead named Combo is released from prison. He returns the group. He tells the group about his ideas and ends up dividing the group. He made Shaun stay using manipulation; saying that he needed to fight back for his dead father. Combo becomes a bit of a father figure for Shaun and Shaun thinks it cool to be a part of the ‘big boys’. The group sees themselves as nationalist and not racists. The......

Words: 759 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Research England

...Project aims and Objectives This proposal is aimed at providing ways of developing the Major three ‘three’ places which stands of Inspired facilities, Iconic Facilities, and the Protecting Playing Field representing Sports England. The objectives are to be achieved through various strategies depending on each place and the through the market research. The following methods are to be used to develop the above objectives(McLeish, 2011, pg44-65) 1. Event management 2. Opinion pieces 3. Feature articles 4. Journalist briefing 5. Email newsletters 6. Press release 7. Press conference 8. Interviews and editorial contributions Project Deliverables Its mandatory for a company to follow basic rules and techniques of supplier as a way of evaluating better plans for holding an event in a recommended place. The project is to deliver services according to the required specifications in the tender as required by the company(Mcginn, 2008, pp. 110-115). a) Inspired Facilities This involves the availability and the ease of individual as being part of the local community activities and being part of the volunteer groups as a way of improving and developing of clubs, and at the same time modify the non supporting events int o modern sporting facilities(Matthews, 1996, pp. 35-50). b) Iconic Facilities This was developed dependimg on the basis of the London 2012 inspiratioal extract extract as a way of improving the local upcoming teams from the...

Words: 5699 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

New England vs , Chesapeake

...Restrictions in Europe’s. New England of which wanted to separate from the angelican church. The angelican church in was way had a very slow reformation thus making the moderate puritans. New Connecticut or the blue state laws was actually founded again by puritans full with ambition and energy to make the state. A state threats these puritans also known to be separatist. Rhode island an exception was also founded for the religious reasons. Founded by a brave man roger wiliams having the same will for the freedom of worship. Chesapeake own purpose is of course had a whole different purpose likewise in a more economical perspective. This region by far had very greedy and shallow minded ideals in economics. Jamestown was founded was by the greed for gold itself. Many in a cruel and terrible way went through a starving time. The use of indentured servant was a ideal by using people as slaves or the pre slaves having no use of cooperation but instead deadlines for food. Many of these indentured servants came to America with very slim chance . Now they are in debt for this thus feeds the region with money in a shallow closed minded way. Both colonies had that purpose to gain freedom they want however from an colonial puritan to contrast to a aristocrats view, we see very different more or less the ying and yang. Climate wise there were very distinct differences in development between new England and Chesapeake. Climate I new England is cold and non fertile for......

Words: 757 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

England and Japan

...“England and Japan” England and Japan both, which are island nations, have a lot of difficult obstacles, which they must over come to be stable and successful nations. Both shares a rich and vibrant history but on opposite ends of the planet. They both import and export a wide variety of items from different industries. Each island nation has its own special geographic features that are unique to their own nation. England and Japan that they are on two separates sides of the world makes them vastly different in history, geographic features and exports. England, which is an island country that makes up the lower third of the United Kingdom, has geographic features that range from grass plains to mountains. Towards the south of the island you will find more of grasslands, farms, flatlands, and a hilly environment. Then if you more north of island you’ll find a rockier, mountainous environment where you find a bit less wildlife because this area is considered tundra due to the lack of rainfall in this area. While if you take a look at Japan it also is an island country but it doesn’t range in geographic features as widely as England. Japan is really limited to about two major geographic features. These features are a mostly mountain, which makes up about 70% of Japan’s land. The other major feature would be plains, which are far, and few between. Japans has a lot of different imports and exports because like England they are a island nation which lacks some resources......

Words: 811 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Sport in England

...Sport in England 1. Introduction 3 2. History of Sport in England 3 2.1. Development of Sport in England 3 2.2. Traditions 3 2.2.1. The Royal Shrovetide Football 3 2.2.2. Cooper's Hill Cheese-Rolling and Wake 3 2.2.3. The Boat Race 3 3. Pub Sports 3 3.1. History 3 3.2. Bowls 3 3.3. Skittles 3 3.4. Darts 3 3.5. Cue Sports 3 3.5.1. History 3 3.5.2. 8-Ball 3 3.5.3. Snooker 3 4. England and the Olympic Games 3 4.1. Olympic Triumphs of England/ Great Britain 3 4.2. Olympic Games on English Ground 3 4.2.1. 1908 Summer Olympics in London 3 4.2.2. 1948 Summer Olympics in London 3 4.2.3. London 2012 3 5. Golf 3 5.1. History 3 5.2. Famous English Golf Players 3 5.3. Golf in England Today 3 6. Tennis 3 6.1. History 3 6.2. Great English Tennis Players 3 6.3. Tennis in the English Society Today 3 7. Cricket 3 7.1. History of Cricket 3 7.2. Rules 3 7.3. Cricket Idols 3 8. Rugby 3 8.1. History 3 8.2. The Six Nation Championship 3 8.3. Rugby in England Today 3 9. Football 3 9.1. History 3 9.2. English Football Today 3 9.3. Famous English Football Stadiums 3 9.4. Famous English Football Players 3 9.4.1. Sir Bobby Charlton 3 9.4.2. Sir Geoff Hurst 3 9.4.3. Heroes in the Recent Past 3 10. Conclusion 3 11. References 3 1. Introduction The following paper deals with sport in England. Because of the wide range of this topic, this paper will just go into some interesting subjects of English sport....

Words: 11400 - Pages: 46

Free Essay

England Attraction

...variety of restaurants and bars, Flamingo Land is suitable for just about everyone! Over 140 species live at the zoo, including red pandas and penguins, while the theme park has rides for the whole family; a perfect two-in-one day out. Durham Cathedral, in the city of Durham in northeast England is the greatest Norman building in England and perhaps even in Europe. It is cherished not only for its architecture but also for its incomparable setting. The foundation stone of Durham Cathedral was laid on August 12, 1093. Since that time, there have been major additions and reconstructions of some parts of the building, but the greater part of the structure remains true to the Norman design. In a nationwide BBC poll held in 2001 Durham Cathedral was voted England’s best-loved building. Lake District National Park is a must-visit destination for travellers to England. With 12 of the country's largest lakes and over 2,000 mi of rights of way waiting to be explored, there's little wonder the region continues to inspire with its magnificent views and scenery straight out of a painting. Other attractions are the park's many fells, including Scafell Pike (3,210 ft), the highest mountain in England, lovely little towns and villages such as Grasmere, as well as boat excursions across Lake Windermere and Ullswater. The London Eye Built to mark London's millennium celebrations in 2000, the London Eye is Europe's largest observation wheel. Its individual glass capsules offer the most......

Words: 432 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

This Is England

...The Good and the Bad Skins This is England is the story about the 12 year old boy Shaun (played by Thomas Turgoose). Shaun is desperately trying to fit in after the death of his father during the Falkland’s war. Shaun lives in the England together with his mother, at school he is bullied, but Shaun is soon to run in to the group of local skinheads. This group invites him in, in spite of the large age difference. Together the group hangs out and causes a number of harmless assaults. Until one day Combo a former member of the group returns from prison with new nationalistic ideologies and with these he splits op the group. One of the great things about this film is that not only does is tell us about the young confused Shaun growing up. It also illustrates the environment of England during the 80’ties with a more detailed view of the group of skinheads and the feeling of nationalism that were spreading. It describes the multiple consequences England was dealing with at the time. But at the same time manage to display both the positive and negative side of being a part of a group of skinheads. Also the film succeeds to portrait two highly different groups of skinheads, where one of the groups cares more about friendship and fun than the other. This is England is a very violent movie that contains lot of drama and aggressive scenes. But at the same time the film manage to become incredible hilarious which for instance is because of the language that is used, which......

Words: 742 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Nhs England

...residents of United Kingdom launched in July 1948, a principle that remains at its core. The aim of this essay is to examine the objectives of NHS, how it carries out its services and its external factors. The National Health Services is divided into four geographical regions, which are: * NHS England * NHS Wales * NHS Scotland and * NHS North Ireland. In this essay, my key focus is NHS England. It is a self-governing organization, with close contact to the government. Its main responsibility is to prioritize and set direction of the NHS to improve health care services for people of England. The NHS establishes enabling environment for health care services and staff to ensure highest quality of care through effective utilization of available resources with best outcomes for individuals within communities and society for now and future generations. NHS is structured into different sections to make-work more identifiable to whom to go to when need arises. There is the secretary of state for services (SSS) and the department of health (DH). The SSS is generally responsible of all the work while the DH is in charge of all the social and health care funding of England and the tactical leadership. The mission of NHS is good healthcare should be available to all, regardless of the wealth. With the expectation prescriptions, dental and optical services which are charged at low cost. “Health and high quality care for all, now and future generation” Vision......

Words: 2539 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

England War

...England at War King Henry the V gives this speech, The Feast of Crispian, which inspires his men and makes them stronger to go out into battle and fight for England. King Henry the V constantly speaks about the how the men will live greatly on this day and how it will be a holiday. The men will be remembered for this battle. The men in England will wish that they were fighting for England. This speech helps the men conquer their fear and helps them fight. King Henry the V gives this speech to inspire his men for the battle they will have. Henry talks about this day becoming the Feast of Crispian. The men that live through this day will be Henry’s brother and this day shall gentile his condition. They will be like brothers to the king if King Henry the V’s men live through this day. The people believed that God placed the kings on the throne; if they were brothers to the king, then they would be brothers with the man that God had placed on the throne. There will be a feast every year on this day and the men who live will feast with their neighbors and show their scars. The men will have betters lives after this day. They will be remembered for their heroic battle. Their names will be familiar in every household. This story the good man shall teach his son. Everyone will know what feats they accomplished on this day. From this day to the ending of the world, they will be remembered. Everyone will be forgotten but anyone who fights will be remembered. They......

Words: 467 - Pages: 2