Free Essay

Ethical Behavior on Managers

In: Business and Management

Submitted By hagos
Words 4261
Pages 18
Table of Contents

Executive Summary

The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the Smart Metering (SM) implementation Program with a particular focus on the scope elements, organization and approach to deliver on time and on budget.
The smart metering (SM) Program mission is to successfully install a safe, reliable, and cost-efficient smart meter solution for greater operational efficiency, customer reliability and, energy efficiency.

Smart Metering System: it consisting of Smart meters – two-way communications-enabled meters that capture the amount of power consumed when it occurred – plus metering telecommunications and an Automated Data Collection System.

Program Delivery Scope: The scope consisting of overall activities and services including project management and controls such as inspection and quality control; revenue meter deployment; customer complaint handling; administration and contract management; information and data coordination, stakeholder engagement and community communications.
Organizational Structure:
An organizational structure has been designed to facilitate delivery of the smart metering (SM) Program. The considered key units are
1. Meter Deployment Office which is responsible for delivering the entire smart meter installation; it is liable to organize and coordinate deployment teams, crews and technicians in the service centers.
2. Meter and Customer Data Coordination Office which is responsible to organize every meter change related data and send to the Regional billing system.
3. Inspection and Quality Control office is responsible to handle all inconsistencies associated with the meter deployment activities including safety, installation quality, meter functionality etc.
4. Administration, finance, logistics and contract management work stream which is responsible for over all personnel and material resource management. It is liable to prepare and settle all payments associated with the project deployment activities. It is also accountable to arrange all material and human resources requirement for the project implementation during the implementation period and will manage the entire contractual themes.
5. Service Center Smart Meter Deployment work stream coordinates and executes the activities necessary for field installation and logistics required to complete the deployment of the SM Program.
6. IT and communication infrastructure deployment office which is responsible for the entire IT and communication infrastructures deployment. It is in charge of matters like cyber and physical security, communication quality and meter data management systems. It also is liable for all interface and integration issues with the existing corporate systems. (Seen only in phase II).
Deployment Strategy:
Project deployment strategies have been developed. Comprehensive deployment approach includes identification of requirements leveraging a combined field force of EEPCo’s staff, contracted staff, and representatives from Metals and Engineering Corporation (METEC) throughout EEPCo’s service territory. The planned timeline, from May 2012 through June 2013, requires a strategy that logically dividing the deployment territory into operational areas of deployment crews and meter supply to maximize installation throughput. The revenue meter deployment team is located at each customer service center to organize crew members of 58 individuals which are paired to form 29 groups at each service center.29 of each paired group will be led by two field supervisors. Centralized support will be provided by the Meter Deployment office. Customer Complaint handling team which aims to enable customer satisfaction and minimize customer impacts will be arranged at each customer service centers.
Safety considerations are also at the forefront of planning and are integrated into:
1. operation of equipment such as placement of equipment and
2. meter installers training program
Budget Requirement:
The smart metering deployment budget indicates that cost for the entire deployment including 2,000,000 revenue meters replacement is estimated at 7,151,246,452.

1. Overview
1.1. Introduction
The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the Smart Metering Program (SM) with a particular focus on the scope elements, organization, and approach developed to ensure that the SM Program is delivered on time and on budget.
1.2. Objectives
The SM Program aims to successfully install a safe, reliable, and cost-efficient smart metering solution and other key infrastructure upgrades, to deliver operational efficiencies, enhance reliability for customers, provide customers with tools to use energy more efficiently.
Specific objectives are as follows:
1) Provide Operational Efficiencies (Avoid Manual Operations):
2) Enhance Customer Experience:
 Service Improvements: Provide customers with more up-to-date and informative bills, enable better outage communication and faster outage restoration times, and the option of timely information to help them use electricity more efficiently;
 Tools for Conservation and Energy Efficiency: Achieve energy and capacity savings by providing customers with tools, such as timely feedback and time-of-use rates, which provide direct control of energy use.
2. Program Requirements
The elements of the SM Program required are as follows:
• Replacement of approximately 2 million meters with smart meters;
• Deployment of telecommunication systems required to transmit metering data;
• Implementation of supporting infrastructure for time-of-use rates.
• Deployment of field devices and information technology in support of energy theft detection;
2.2. Program Scope
2.2.1. Scope of Deployment
The Deployment team will work closely with Metals and Engineering (METEC’s) representatives to deploy smart meters. The meter deployment scope includes:
• Installing meters.
• Managing hardware inventory to implement deployment activities and transition to stores
• Planning, scheduling and completion of complex meter installs and ‘unable to complete’ meter installs.
• Planning, scheduling and installation of network hardware infrastructure according to network design requirements.

2.3. Smart Metering System
Smart metering is comprised of digital smart meters, metering telecommunications, automated data collection systems and advanced theft detection analytical tools.
2.3.1. Smart Digital Meters
Smart digital meters are capable of two-way communications, with the ability to measure the incoming and outgoing flow of electricity from a specific location such as a customer’s home or business. The two-way communication capability enables smart meters to provide usage data to both customers and EEPCo. Smart meters will capture and store usage reads on an hourly basis and transmit these back to EEPCo during short intervals at prescheduled times during the day.
2.3.2. Metering Telecommunications:
Consisting of two parts – the Field Area Network (localized to meters in the field) and the Wide Area Network connections – this communications infrastructure provides the physical devices required to enable two-way transmission of data between smart meters and the corporate data management center.
2.3.3. Automated Data Collection System:
Software applications are designed to aggregate meter usage and event data from smart meters and manage the Field Area Network communications infrastructure.
In addition to Smart Metering, the Program includes requirements that support smart metering, including implementation of new software applications, changes to existing information systems, enhanced data warehouse and analytics capabilities, and all the activities that will help EEPCo to adapt to the new technologies and systems. Specific elements include:
• Meter Data Management System: A software application that stores, validates, edits and analyses meter reading data for integration into other EEPCo’s operational systems such as customer billing, load forecasting, outage management, etc.
• Interfaces and Integration: This systems integration work involves modifying existing applications to handle the enhanced automated meter reading information, and building interfaces between new and existing applications to support EEPCo end-to-end business processes.
• Corporate makeover: The major element of corporate makeover involves rollout of training and knowledge management programs, employee engagement to facilitate cultural change, and effective transition to overall operations for ongoing work.

2.3.4. Advanced Theft Detection
Today, EEPCo does not have the measurement devices and analytical tools to quickly and accurately identify where theft of electricity is occurring. A comprehensive theft detection solution, based on electricity balancing analysis, will be implemented as part of the SM Program.
• Distribution Transformer Area Meters: New meters (different from those to be installed at customer homes or businesses) will be installed at key points (especially at distribution transformers secondary loop) of distribution grid to measure electricity supplied to localized areas.
• Theft Analytics: A suite of software tools to analyze measurement data captured from distribution system meters and smart meters.
2.3.5. Time-of-Use Rates:
• Time-of-use rate in SM Program is design and implementation of time-of-use rates to encourage customers, where possible, to shift their energy usage to off-peak periods. The new Smart Metering System (through its ability to capture hourly usage data) working in conjunction with the Meter Data Management System, helps enable the introduction of time-of-use rates.
3. Project Delivery Activities
Included in the scope of the SM Program are the overall program delivery activities and services which ensure all of the technical aspects of the SM Program are successfully implemented, and accepted by EEPCo’s customers and stakeholders. These activities include:
• Project Management and Controls: Management and reporting on the delivery of all aspects of the SM Program, including scope, schedule, budget, quality, issues resolution, environment management, and transition to operations.
• Contract Management: Management of contractual commitments and any contract issues that may arise.
• Community information exchanges: Strategic communications, community engagement, customer communications, employee engagement, and media support if any.
• Security, Privacy and Safety: Governance and compliance for all the physical security, cyber security, data privacy, and employee safety aspects of the SM Program.

3.1. Program phases
SM Program scope is divided into two phases (phase I through II). Each phase will have one or more planned cutover dates when functionality is placed into service. After the cutover date, ongoing works will step forward. More detail activities on the content of each phase is as provided below.
Phase I: Mass Meter Deployment
In this phase the following core activities are to be executed
• Smart meters and supporting metering infrastructure will be deployed to EEPCo’s residential, commercial and industrial customers by June 2013.
• The project office will be able to issue/close work orders for meter deployment.
• The project office will manage old meters and its gathering.
• Smart Metering program will be able to communicate with, support, maintain, and troubleshoot meters and associate elements.
• Customer service representatives of the project office will have visibility to determine whether customer has a smart meter or traditional meter.
• The project office will be able to respond to calls from customers/work units regarding meter deployment.
• Preparation of meter change report of newly installed smart meters for billing purpose.
Phase II: Meter Data Management System Deployment
• The core activity in this phase is deployment of Meter Data Management System infrastructure and development of related software application packages.
• Advanced telecommunication devices and infrastructure will be deployed to support advanced smart grid and customer applications.
• Putting in place tamper flag notification, with a basic process to handle tamper flags.
• Implementing the full theft detection solution involving deployment of equipment (transformer area meters/distribution system meters), advance analytical software, topology models etc…
• EEPCo will be able to identify potential theft through advanced analytics and will be able to confirm and quantify theft using advanced tools.

4. Project Organizational Structure
The SM Project is organized, managed, and executed through a structure based on sets of defined functionality. Proposed organizational chart for the smart metering (SM) project office is as provided in the Figure below. Figure 1: Smart Metering Project Office Organizational Chart

4.1. Project Office
The Project Deployment Office takes an integrated management team approach to deliver the SM activities. This team is responsible for delivering the SM activities on schedule and within budget.
4.2. Technical Support Team
In order to provide centralized support and effectively manage its many activities, the project office is setting up and operating a Deployment Support Team. The Team provides end-to-end project management for all operational aspects of deployment, including:
• Execution of the deployment plans and schedules;
• Definition, design, maintenance and implementation of deployment processes, tools and training materials;
• Scheduling, tracking and management of all deployment activities;
• Deployment exceptions management including installation and work order exceptions management.
4.3. Smart Meter Deployment Office
The Smart Meter Deployment Office is responsible for developing and executing the processes and procedures for the implementation and ongoing monitoring of the SM Project. Specific activities of the Deployment office include management of the following:
• Risks and issues;
• Resourcing;
• Issues within or across field crews;
• Tradeoffs among scope/schedule/budget etc…
The Deployment work stream is responsible for the deployment of revenue meters and associated infrastructure. The Service Center Smart Meter Deployment Team will report through Team Leader on a day-to-day basis.
4.4. Meter and Customer Data Coordination Office
The meter and customer data coordination work stream collaborates with operating service centers. The work streams collects and consolidates meter and customer data and provides data communications to the responsible EEPCo’s operating group as part of deployment completion.
4.5. Inspection and Quality Control Office
The work stream in this office is responsible to control and verify for the correctness of meter installation, meter functional quality, data aggregation quality, data accuracy, and operational safety. It is also liable to investigate all problems and findings associated with meter deployment activities.
4.6. Administration, Logistics, Finance and Contract Management Office
This work stream is responsible for over all personnel and material resource management. It is liable to prepare and settle all payments associated with the project deployment activities. It is also accountable to arrange all material and human resources requirement for the project implementation during the implementation period and will manage the entire contractual themes.
4.7. Information Communication Infrastructure Deployment Office
This work stream is responsible for the entire IT and communication infrastructures deployment. It is in charge of matters like cyber and physical security, communication quality and meter data management systems. It also is liable for all interface and integration issues with the existing corporate systems.
4.8. Service Center Smart Meter Deployment Team
The Service Center Smart Meter Deployment work stream coordinates and executes the activities necessary for field installation and logistics required to complete the deployment of the SM Program, including managing the deployment of the following:
• Smart meters for eligible customers.
• Data aggregation, consolidating meter reading and all relevance data in the field.
• Customer experience and communications regarding deployment.
The Meter Deployment crew will report through Field Deployment Supervisors on a day-to-day basis.
5. Project Implementation Approach
5.1. Deployment Approach
Smart meter deployment is being implemented using a combined field force of EEPCo’s staff, and contracted staff strategically deployed throughout EEPCo’s service territory. The smart meter and network solution is being deployed across the country in geographic regions. The planned timeline of the deployment schedule, which spans October 2011 through June 2012, requires a strategy that logically divides the deployment territory into a number of operational areas, where deployment crews and meter inventory will be regionalized to speed up and maximize installation throughput and introduce efficiencies to control travel time and costs. Regional inventory and materials management will be co-located within operation service centers where deployment crews will be based during deployment in a specific area. These facilities that receive, issue, and manage inventory will provide secure control, management and storage of SM Program inventory as well as the recovery and management of the old replaced meters. Old meters will be processed for environmentally responsible recycling consistent with national policy.

5.2. Communications
Communications, to both employees and customers, is critical to facilitating the meter installations. A comprehensive internal and customer deployment communications strategy, tactics and execution process are being developed. The intent is to enable customer satisfaction and minimize customer impacts as well as provide timely status and information.

5.3. Safety
In order to minimize safety risk to employees, consumers and the public, the Safety requirements are the basis.
Safety will be considered as a key priority throughout the development of the smart metering. Through the Program, safety is embedded in each and every aspect. Operation of equipment includes safety considerations such as placement of equipment, operation of equipment etc…

6. Project Schedule

7. Project Expenditure
Inputs Description Sub Account Main Account
Personnel Costs 64,552,162
• Salary 53,890,000
• Wage 720,000
• Allowance 4,500,000
• Overtime 4,602,162
• Uniform 840,000
Transportation Expense 7,560,000
Training Expense 8,478,000
Tools and Installation Equipments 2,980,000
• Expendable equipment 160,000
• Non-expendable equipment 2,820,000
Materials and Supplies 6,811,850,000.00
Office equipments 608,000
General Operating Expenses 441,800
5% Contingency 254,776,490
Grand Total 7,151,246,452.00

8. Project Staffing
No Work List Grade Quantity Remark
1 Manager, Smart Metering Project 20 1 Secretary II 12 1 Subtotal 2
2 Team Leader, Technical Support 17 1 Electrical Engineer II 16 1 Electrical Engineer I 13 1 Dist. Engineer Technician III 14 4 Subtotal 7
3 Head, Inspection and quality control office 17 1 Dist. Operation and Construction Electrical Engineer II 15 2 Dist. Engineer Technician II 11 4 Subtotal 7
3.1 Inspection and quality control crew Dist. Engineer Technician III 14 1 Customer Care Technician III 11 4 Subtotal 5 Subtotal (Inspection and quality control office) 12
4 Head, Revenue Meter Deployment Office 18 1 Distribution Operation and Construction Electrical Engineer III 17 1 Distribution Operation and Construction Electrical Engineer II 15 1 Distribution Engineer Technician III 14 5 Customer Care Technician III 11 2 Subtotal 10
4.1 Team Leader, Service Center Revenue Meter Deployment Team 15 1 For A/A/Regions 1*32 = 32 Energy Meter Technician II 96 2 For A/A/Regions 2*32 = 64 Subtotal 3 Subtotal (32 A/A/R/Customer Service Centers) 96
4.1.1 Regional Large Power Consumers Revenue Meter Deployment Crew Crew Leader 1 1 *Energy Meter Technician II 8 8
4.1.2 Service Center Revenue Meter Deployment Crew Crew Leader 13 2 For A/A/Regions 2*32 = 64 Energy Meter Technician II 96 58 For A/A/Regions For one CSCenters 58 EMT II is required-58*32=1856

Energy Meter Technician I 96 4 For A/A/R for each region 32 EMT I is required-32*4 =128 Subtotal 96 Subtotal (4 A/A/Regions & 32 A/A/R/Customer Service Centers) 2084
4.1.3 Crew Leader, Service Center Meter Data Checking and Compiling Crew Crew Leader 96 1 For A/A Regions 1*32 =38 Energy Meter Technician II 96 3 For A/A Regions 3*32 =96 Subtotal 4 Subtotal (32 A/A/R/Customer Service Centers) 128
4.1.4 Service Center Customer Compliant Handling Crew Complaint Officer 96 1 Energy Meter Technician II 96 2 Subtotal 3 Subtotal (32 A/A/R/Customer Service Centers) 96 For A/A Regions 3*32 =114 Subtotal (Revenue Meter Deployment Office) 2404
5 Head, Logistics, Finance, Contract Management and Administration Office 17 1 secretary I 10 1 Supply and logistics officer II 14 1 Administrative Assistant II 14 1 Accountant III 15 1 Subtotal 5
5.1 Team Leader, Supply and Logistic Case 15 1 Supply and logistics officer II 15 1 Supply and logistics officer I 13 2 Office Performer II 7 4 Office Performer I 6 4 Subtotal 12
5.2 Case Team Leader, Finance 15 1 Accountant III 14 1 Accountant II 12 3 Cashier 10 1 Subtotal 6

5.3 Case Team Leader, Administration and Services Case Team 15 1 Administrative Officer II 14 1 Administrative Assistant II 12 2 Subtotal 4 Subtotal ( Logistics, Contract Finance and Administration Office) 27
6 Head, Meter and Customer Data Coordination Office 17 1 Customer Service Officer I 13 1 Regional Customer Data Coordination Officer 13 4 I for each regional office Computer Operator II 12 32 1 Computer Operator II for I Customer Service Center Subtotal 38
7 Head, IT and Communication Infrastructure Deployment Office 18 1 IT Expert 15 1 PLC Expert 15 1 Hardware Engineer 15 1 Software Engineer 15 1 Information Security Specialist 15 1 Utility System Designer 15 1 Reliability Analyst 15 1 Subtotal 8 Grand Total 2508


Basic Assumptions

I. Salary Expense
1. Salary
Description Monthly Salary Top-up Qty Total Annual Expense Manager, Smart Metering Project 7000 2000 1 90,000
Head, Smart Metering Deployment Office 4500 1500 1 60,000
Head, Inspection and Quality Control Office 4500 1500 1 60,000
Head, Finance, Administration and Contract Management Office 4500 1500 1 60,000
Head, Customer and Meter Data Coordination Office 4500 1500 1 60,000
Head, Information Communication Infrastructure Deployment Team 4500 1500 1 60,000
Team Leader, Technical Support 4500 1500 1 60,000
Team Leader, Service Center Smart Meter Deployment Team 3500 1300 38 1,824,000
Case Team leader, Supply and Logistic Case 3500 1000 1 45,000
Case Team leader, Finance Case 3500 1000 1 45,000
Case Team leader, Administration and Services Case 3500 1000 1 45,000
Electrical Engineer II 3000 1 30,000
Electrical Engineer I 3000 1 30,000
Distribution Operation and Construction Electrical Engineer II 3000 3 90,000
Distribution Operation and Construction Electrical Engineer III 3500 1 35,000
Distribution Engineer Technician III 3000 9 270,000
Distribution Engineer Technician II 1400 4 56,000
Customer Care Technician III 1800 6 108,000
Energy Meter Technician II 2000 2112 42,240,000
Energy Meter Technician I 1600 144 2,304,000
Service Center Smart Meter Deployment Crew Leader 3000 76 2,280,000
Service Center Meter Data checking and Compiling Crew Leader 3000 76 2,280,000
Complaint Officer 2500 38 950,000
Supply and Logistic Officer II 2000 2 40,000
Administrative Assistant II 1800 1 18,000
Accountant III 2500 2 50,000
Supply and Logistic Officer I 2000 2 40,000
Office Performer II 1000 4 40,000
Office Performer I 800 4 32,000
Accountant II 1800 1 18,000
Cashier 1400 1 14,000
Administrative Officer II 2200 1 22,000
Administrative Assistant II 1800 1 18,000
Customer service Officer I 2000 1 20,000
Computer Operator 1800 12 216,000
IT Expert (Phase II) 4000 1 40,000
Power Line Communication Expert 4000 1 40,000
Hardware Engineer 4000 1 40,000
Software Engineer 4000 1 40,000
Information Security Specialist 4000 1 40,000
Utility System Designer 4000 1 40,000
Reliability Analyst 4000 1 40,000
Total 53,890,000

1. Wage
Total Kwh meter to be installed in 90 days 800,000
Total number of days for Kwh meter installation 90
Meters to be installed in one day 8889
Number of meters to be installed per center/per day 287
Total number of Laborers required per Center/per day 5
Laborers expected wage amount per day in Birr 50
Total Wage 720,000

2. Allowance

Number of trips per annum 30
Average number of staff in a single trip 100
Average day of stay 10
Average Daily allowance 150
Total cost (allowance) 4,500,000

3. Overtime

Number of overtime hours per annum 750
Average number of staff engaged in overtime hours 172
Average overtime factor 2.2
Average Salary 3000
Total cost (allowance)

II. Transportation Facility
Transportation facilities
Number of vehicles required (Isuzu) 64
Number of vehicles required (Pick-up) 6
Rent of one vehicle per day 1200
Total Cost of Vehicle Rent 4,320,000
Total Vehicle Rent Cost 4,320,000
fuel required in a week (lit) 80
Grease required in a month (kg) 3 oil required in a month (lit) 3 cost of fuel per litter 20 cost of grease per Kg 100
Cost of oil per litter 200
Total number of weeks considered 30
Total Cost ( fuel) 1,920,000.00
Total Cost ( grease) 102,300.00
Total Cost ( oil) 204,600.00
Sub-Total 2,226,900.00
Grand Total 6,546,900.00

III. Training Requirement
Number of employees to be trained 2100
Accommodations per trainee (Birr)/day 130
Allowance for trainer per hour (Birr) 80
Number trainers 20
Number training days 30
Training hours/day 6
Total Training cost 8,478,000

IV. Installation Equipments/Tools Requirement
Installation Equipments/Tools
Expendable equipment 160,000
Non-Expendable equipment
Toolkits per group 2
Cost of Toolkit 30,000
Total cost for non-expendable equipments/tools 2,820,000
Total Cost (Tools) 2,980,000

V. Materials and Supplies
Materials and Supplies (Energy Meter) Unit Cost Qty Total
Single phase automatic energy meter 2500 1,616,400 4,041,000,000.00
Three phase (home) 4250 279,000 1,185,750,000.00
Three phase (LV Industrial) 11300 98,000 1,107,400,000.00
Three phase (MV Industrial) 24500 6,600 161,700,000.00
Data concentrators 5400 30,000 162,000,000
Transformer Area Meters 1800 30,000 54,000,000
Control Station Hardware, Software and expertise - - 100,000,000
Total 6,811,850,000.00

VI. Office Equipments
Office Equipments
Description Unit Qty Unit price Total price
Table with chair set 20 12,000 240,000
Printer each 2 35,000 70,000
Fax Machine each 1 60,000 60,000
Photocopier each 1 70,000 70,000
Desktop Computers each 9 9,000 81,000
Laptop computers each 2 13,000 26,000 shelf each 4 15,000 60,000
Document Binder each 1 1,000 1,000
Total cost (Office Equipment) 608,000

VII. General Operating Expenses
General Operating Expenses
Fax 25,000
Telephone 36,000
Stationary 70,000
Internet 6,000 water expenses 1,200 electricity expenses 3,600 office rent 300,000
Total 441,800…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ethical Behavior

...Ethical behavior is a necessary condition for effective leadership. Why? Ethical behavior is the first and foremost precondition for an effective and impactful leadership. A modus operandi based on the high and lofty principles adopted by strong leaders is the hallmark of a successful team effort. The ability to bring out the best amongst a group of people, inspiring them to achieve growth, produce and go above and beyond their abilities to perform wonders is usually orchestrated by an ethics-driven leadership. We often hear about one’s skills to lead from the front or lead by example. Such leadership behaviors are only possible if the golden rules of ethics are strictly adhered to. An ethical leadership encourages living the values of institutional beliefs. It helps in developing brand loyalty, productivity and a healthy work environment. Over the past several years, I’ve been lucky enough to experience and thrive under a leadership that knows, respects and honors the virtues of ethical behavior. It would have been hard for us, as employees of Chevy Chase Bank, to endure the stress and strain of merger with Capital One Bank, were we not blessed with effective leadership. Our leadership’s ‘business as usual’ approach helped us to keep move and wade through the murky and muddy waters of the corporate rigmarole. Almost a year and a half after the merger, looking back, one can safely say that the ethical behavior demonstrated by our leadership is what helped us keep......

Words: 253 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ethical Behavior

...Effect of Unethical Behavior Article Analysis Beatrice Arnold ACC/291 February 4, 2013 James Covert Unethical Practices and Behavior The business environment can be a cause for unethical practices and behavior in accounting. An example of this can be management instructing an employee to record a transaction in an incorrect manner. It can be as simple as a company whose clients sign a contract on December 1, 2012 for the year. Then reporting the revenue for the whole year in December instead of just reporting the month of December as would be the requirement of accounting principles (Kendra, 2013). Another cause for unethical practices or behaviors can be greed. Some people will do anything, including breaking the law to get extra money. An accountant has an opportunity to “cook the books” (Xaxx, 2013) that can allow they to take a little or a lot. This is very tempting as no one seems to get hurt in the process. At times ignorance of the tax law or regulations about insider trading can be easily misunderstood by inexperienced accountants, which could cause unethical behavior without even realizing it. The role of an accountant is to use information the company provides to gather useful information about the company’s economic affairs. This can be difficult if there is a conflict of interests. If the accounting firm hired to perform a profit and loss audit finds that the information it has to report will be damaging to their client the accounting firm’s......

Words: 763 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Ethical Behavior

...Effect of Unethical Behavior Article Analysis Potential acts leading to unethical practices and behavioral in accounting are evident. These acts are in violation of the Sarbares Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). The Sarbanes Oxley Law was approved as a consequence of lots of corporate scams, this corporates intend to provide fake statements for potential investors, Recent articles write and posted on numerous websites are reviewing how to identify potential factors leading to unethical behavior or practices. But the most recent and trustful article is called “Becoming a More Relational Firm in the Post-Sarbans-Oxley Era”. As expressed by the article, the effects of SOX Law has influenced fiscal reports in a lot of ways. The law has required that impartial companies must audit the fiscal reports in which positions of the auditors must be rotated frequently, to ensure that scam cannot be made by the same auditor from year to year, and it’s apply in different sections: * Section 303: This section needs senior management to approve the accuracy and dependability of fiscal reports, meaning that the fiscal reports must be sign for the CEO or CFO of the organization they need to certify that they analize the reports and assure that the reports are accurate. The executives will be held accountable for any mistakes or irregularities by signing authentic records being aware that they will be held responsible for any intend to commit fraud * Section 302: Management needs to......

Words: 472 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ethical Behavior

...Essay: “Ethical behavior in the workplace.” Student’s Name Institution Course Date   Ethical Behaviors in the Workplace Technology Ethics is a philosophy that has a duty of keeping and also upholding various fundamental and important issues within an organization. A work place is that place that employees interact with other employees. As a workplace is a social site, there must be ethics governing people behavior is such a place. The rules of ethics are very important when it comes to career building. The ethics and code of conduct involve all the personal choices that people engage in that can either make or break their relationships. Maintaining good ethics will help maintain respect for the people around you and also your profession. There are the different policies that have been put in place to regulate the employees conduct in different organizations. As an expert and a professional it is important to know the things that one should do. The essay will discuss what ethical behavior is, how it is affecting the workplace, what controls can be put in place to reduce negative ethical behavior and the benefits that result from having an environment where the employees follow ethics in the work place (Bliss, 2004). The essay will narrow down to an ethical deviance in the work place and will base its arguments in the technology areas that involve the use of computers and the upcoming changes in technology. The......

Words: 2378 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Walmarts Ethical Behavior

...df ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm Case Study on Wal-Marts Ethical Behavior 4/20/2010 Mariko Landis | In 1962 the first Wal-Mart store was opened by Sam Walton. In 1984 the first three Sam’s Clubs were opened. Wal-Mart has expanded operating 2640 discount stores, 2396 supercenters, 670 Sam’s Clubs, and 435 naborhood markets in the United States. Today the family of Sam Walton has a combined fortune estimated at $ 90 billion. With Wal-Marts low prices 84 percent of people have shopped at Wal-Mart in 2007. In addition they have 1000s of stores throughout the world making them the largest grocery store chain in 2002. It became the first retail store to be number one on the Fortune 500 List in 2005, with sales over 300 billion. With Wal-Mart being the world’s largest retailer as well as the largest employer, and being named “most admired company in America” in 2003 and 2004, [ (Ferell 293-294) ] why are people asking, “Is Wal-Mart good for America?” [ (Smith) ] In the past Wal-Mart has struggled to manage relationships with supplier stakeholders, employees, company leaders, and environmental stakeholders well trying to maintain their low prices. While Wal-Mart saves the average family an estimated $2329 a year, there are concerns about the treatment of employees, and suppliers. [ (Ferell 304) ] Due to various ethical issues surrounding Wal-Mart in regards to the company’s behavior in the U.S. and globally, Wal-Mart established The Global Ethics Office on...

Words: 415 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ethical Behavior

...Grantham University This essay is a discussion of ethics, ethical responsibility, along with stakeholders and their impact on decision making within an organization. The essay explains the importance of ethical responsibility. There are detailed examples of ethical and unethical behavior within an organization. The essay is a compilation of works by several authors. The explanation of the authors’ belief of ethical behavior was studied to complete this essay. Ethical responsibility is important in the business world. Businesses have a responsibility of being honest with employees so they can make informed decisions about career choices; a responsibility to respect customers, and a responsibility to invest in the community that the business depends upon. The biggest organizations can be destroyed; whether by a company or by one person within a company (Sims, 2003). According to Sims common ethical problems include accounting practices that hide fraud and theft from employees as well as investors. These types of violations will lead to criminal charges, loss of consumer confidence, and employee respect. In order to maintain an ethically responsible company, clear moral standards must be set from the onset of the company (Sims, 2003). The company should create and enforce a code of conduct that ensures that customers are treated fairly by employees. Sims explained that to avoid even the appearance of unethical behavior the organization should be as transparent as......

Words: 885 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethical Behaviors

...clinical in nature, they encompass the whole patient experience. The ethical self assessment is an assessment of my own ethical decision making process. The American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) has developed a set of questions designed to identify individuals' ethical decision making. "The American College of Healthcare Executives firmly believes that healthcare executives have an ethical responsibility to use a systematic, deliberative and thoughtful approach to decision making when making a promise to a person or a group" (Nelson & Hofmann, 2010, p. 294). The purpose of doing the self assessment was to identify some areas of strength and some areas of weakness. By identifying these, I can make the patient experience better. The insights that I gained by completing the self assessment included not only my own morals and beliefs but also those of the organization that work for and my profession of nursing. Sometimes it is difficult to balance all three. My ethical decision can be based on the situation at that given time and may not be the same the next time because each situation can be different. As nurses, we are guided by our professional code of ethics. When I was conducting research on ethics, I found on the American Nurses Association (ANA), website they are advertising the year 2015, as the Year of Ethics. The ANA, is holding an Ethics Symposium that discusses ethical competencies and resilience. The Code of Ethics for nurses "is......

Words: 1078 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Whistle-Blowing: Ethical Behavior

...Whistle-Blowing: Ethical Behavior Q 1. What recommendations for action would you make to the senior management to improve the productivity and atmosphere in company? 1. Appoint an ethically strong leader. 2. Appoint a leader who is professionally competent. 3. The leader should: - Manifest honesty - Pay attention to all stakeholders - Shows justice - Respect others - Serves others - Builds a trusting community. The company has falling business and people fear losing job. Mutual trust will reassure employs and improve productivity. 4. The company should: - Have a formal ethics policy, which should be implemented - Unethical conduct should be punished - Situations where unethical conduct is likely should be supervised - Avoid a competitive environment amongst employees - Avoid assigning difficult goals one after the other Q 2. Discuss the ethics of the new manager’s behaviour. 1. The manager’s ethics can be called “ethical egoism” i.e. his actions were for his personal benefit. Going on a holiday at the expense of a tenderer is grossly unethical. This act is against all ethical principles. It is against ethical principles of rights, justice, virtue and the utilitarian theory. Its consequences are not beneficial for anybody other than the manager himself. 2. The second unethical act of the manager was to go on inspection of a machine for which he was technically not qualified and then deciding to purchase a machine without appropriate......

Words: 462 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Ethical Behavior

...Ethical Behavior Page 1 Ethical Behavior Jeffrey Wiese II XACC/291 07/26/2015 Rashad Abdullah Ethical Behavior Page 2 President George W. Bush signed the Sarbanes Oxley Act into law on July 30, 2002. This law set new and enhanced standards for public companies and the boards, management and accounting firms. The Sarbanes Oxley Act also brought about considerable changes to the financial reporting and auditing practices of public companies. The act holds top executives for these companies personally responsible for the financial data and its timeliness, with non-compliance having criminal consequences. There are several ways to measure the effectiveness of SOX because effectiveness can mean different things to different people depending on their opinions on what will mean the law is actually working. The first and easiest way one might determine effectiveness is by the amount of fraud that companies have done that have actually been recovered. This determinate will never actually have a true answer because what company will openly admit that yes......

Words: 469 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Investment Banking Ethical Behavior

...Investment Banking Ethical Behavior Would you entrust your money to someone you thought was unethical? Would you risk heavy fines and possible jail time for skimming funds from a client? People who work in finance are placed in a fiduciary position of trust; first, by their employers, but more importantly, by members of the general public, over whose assets they are given control. Their daily business is directly working with other people's money, or doing other things that affect the public's investment decisions, and if they are unethical people, their clients, and the public, are at high risk for being cheated. Finance workers are entitled to reasonable fees for their services, but they are not entitled to engage in investment activity solely to generate more commissions for self, or engage in any other self-dealing while they are doing their jobs on behalf of their clients. Given the many scandals of recent years, many companies have done their best to publicize their codes of ethics, and to acknowledge their responsibility to the public. These firms know that public confidence in their finance people matters a great deal, and unethical behavior on the part of a firm means that people will stay away from that firm, and they may stay away from all the others as well. That is why ethics are not merely relevant. On the contrary, they're vital to the existence of the industry. Good ethical behavior is not an optional. While researching the ethical behavior of the......

Words: 1184 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ethical Behavior

...It doesn’t matter if a person is an officer of the law or just an average Joe; everyone at one period of time goes through ethical/moral dilemmas. The decisions you make during these dilemmas not only make you who you are as a person but speak for your character as well. Those who work in the criminal justice system face these dilemmas just as much as any other job. Even though they are obliged to follow a strict set of rules and guidelines everyday. In their daily jobs whether they are making an arrest, prosecuting a case, or running a prison they are faced with decisions that may put their ethics/morals into question. In these decisions they must first decide on what is the right thing to do and if the right thing to do is within their code of ethics. However they also need to look into what their options are if they go with the opposite decision. Looking at four different case studies I will analyze the moral/ethical dilemma, their options, the best solution, and why the best solution is ethically the correct one. Parole Board Robert, who is chair of the parole board, first needs to access the types of criminals that are being housed in his prison. At first glance of reviewing his prison’s “risk assessment” he doesn’t like what he sees. Within his conscience he believes that the risk assessment is too high and too many prisons are likely to reoffend causing the recidivism rate to increase. However knowing that if he doesn’t come up with a solution then they will soon...

Words: 2548 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Ethical Behavior

... Ethical Behavior In this chapter we look at the ethical behavior when it comes to business management. Ethics is defined as the code of moral principles that sets standards of good or bad, or right or wrong, in one’s conduct. You learn how ethical dilemmas complicate the workplace and how high ethical standards can be maintained. Social responsibilities and governance plays a part in ethical behavior as well. Ethical behavior is that which is accepted as “good” or “right” as opposed to “bad” or “wrong”. For the reason an action is not illegal does not necessarily make it ethical in a given situation. Values vary, so that brings up the question, “What is ethical behavior? Honestly it can be answered in many ways by different people for the reason of different values.Values help determine individuals behavior. Terminal values are preferences about desired ends, such as the goals one strives to achieve in life. Instrumental values are preferences regarding the means for accomplishing these ends. Among the instrumental values held important by managers are honesty, ambition,courage, imagination,and self discipline. The value pattern for any one person is very enduring, but terminal and instrumental values vary from one person to the next. This variation is a reason why people respond quite differently to situations and their ethical challenges. The utilitarian, individualism, moral-rights, and justice views offer alternative ways of thinking about ethical......

Words: 790 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethical Behavior Consult

...ETHICAL BEHAVIOR CONSTRUCT: MEASUREMENT AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS Branko BUČAR, Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana Mateja DRNOVŠEK, Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana Address all correspondence to: Branko Bučar University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics Kardeljeva ploščad 17, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia Email: ABSTRACT The primary concern of the article is to validate the scale of ethical behavior construct developed in previous research. We examined the internal consistency of the modified Newstrom and Ruch’s (1975) scale for the measurement of the ethical behavior construct. We based this study on the model by Akaah and Lund (1994) about the influence of personal and organizational values on ethical behavior in the entrepreneurial context. We concluded that the six-dimensional construct of ethical behavior cannot be supported in the same way as proposed by Akaah and Lund (1994) and proposed several modifications to the measurement scale. KONSTRUKT ETIČNEGA OBNAŠANJA: MERJENJE IN PRAKTIČNE POSLEDICE Glavni namen tega članka je preveriti meritveno lestvico konstrukta etičnega obnašanja, ki je bila razvita v prejšnjih študijah. Proučili smo notranjo konsistentnost spremenjene meritvene lestvice, ki sta jo originalno razvila Newstrom in Ruch (1975). Študijo smo zasnovali na Akaah in Lundovem (1994) modelu vplivov osebnih in organizacijskih vrednot na etično obnašanje, pri čemer smo model preučili v...

Words: 2913 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Ethical Behavior

...| 2012 | | 2/1 Jonathan Murdock | [ethical behavior issues within an organization] | This page is about ethical behavior within organization and professional following the protocol of said said organizations. | Being able to claim you are a professional at something gives you a lot of creditability. That same creditability that people looks for when they want to your expert opinion on how to do or begin something. For example, say a child needs help with homework, instead of running to another sibling that’s still attending school, s/he runs to the parent who the child believes has more creditability than prankster of a sibling that s/he doesn’t trust. Now apply the same role to two adults. People who can claim to be professionals can play the part of “parent”. While the people seeking advice for a project is the “children”. I use this analogy so people can see the good and the potential risk a code of professional conduct code establishes and eliminates. I will get to the associated risks later, for now we get to the benefits. The benefits of setting a conduct that will keep the creditability of the association extremely high. By following the strict guidelines, only people that have been in the field for some time. Members of the AMA must abide by the Principles of Medical Ethics and comply with the laws of the “American Medical Association and the Rules of the AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs.” (AMA 2012) The potential risks of not having......

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Gender Difference in Manager Behavior

...Difference in Manager Behavior In this case study there is a debate about how there may be a difference in the way a women and men handle their duties as a manager. Does it make a difference in the gender of the person? This is a case that is discussed and studied from a psychological stand point. In the case they looked at different aspects of the way either gender may handle certain thing the same or different. Some of the points that were looked at were: • Organizing • Leadership • Communication • Opportunity • Power • Numbers Organizing |Women |Men | |A type of manager that wants to be included in a project when she|The type of manager that wants to be in command and makes the | |is putting together a team. Not trying to come off as the one in |rules. He gives the orders and they are followed out by the | |charge, but a team player. Involved in all aspects of the |employees to complete assignments. May tell employees what is | |assignments. |needed, but not participating. | Leadership |Women |Men | |The type of manager that doesn’t offer an incentive, but offer |The type of......

Words: 796 - Pages: 4