Free Essay

Expensive Cancer Drugs: a Comparison Between the United States and the United Kingdom

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ahouse01
Words 802
Pages 4
Research Assignment Article: Expensive Cancer Drugs: A Comparison between the United States and the United Kingdom.

The article that I will do an overview on is entitled: Expensive Cancer Drugs: A Comparison between the United States and the United Kingdom. The article compared the United Kingdom’s and the United States experience with cancer drugs and how expensive they can be due to medical technologies. This article also discusses the differences between the two countries access to new cancer drugs and their cancer outcomes. Most think that the wealthy can buy their way to new medical technologies and treatments but is this true? This article breaks down how it is possible for the wealthy and the low income population can to receive cancer drugs in both the United Kingdom and in the United States. The United Kingdom’s National Health Service (NHS) is funded by a general taxation system with a budget that is set every 3 years by government. This service is offered to the citizens of the United Kingdom can receive healthcare regardless of financial status. NHS is the main care provider for the majority of the population. When it comes to the least restrictive pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement the United Kingdom has it. The surprising thing abut the NHS I found was almost all cancer drugs become free at the point of service using taxpayers money allocated to them by the government for the resident’s needs. Not all drugs are offered free. The Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) was established to help consider cost effectiveness of drugs in order to help the NHS decide what health technologies should be funded. NICE recommended that NHS pay full cost for cancer drugs such as Herceptin for breast cancer and Sutent for renal cancer which is more than 20,000 pounds per patient. For people in the United Kingdom that prefer to use a private market instead of NHS can often get expensive cancer drugs at a lower prices than a person in the U.S can get it for. The drug is paid for by private insurance or out of pocket. Oncology drugs are now the best-selling class of drug, having surpassed lipid regulators. Last year, oncologic drugs had annual sales in the United States of $19.2 billion, according to figures from IMS Health (Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania). Sales have increased more than 4-fold in the past 10 years, from less than $5 billion in 1998 to the current level ( In the United Kingdom, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) has established a maximum threshold of £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). This means that the cost of a patient's drug treatment should not exceed this amount, which is equivalent to about $55,000, for a year of healthy survival. The threshold works on a cost-effectiveness principle — the greater the benefit of a drug, the more money allotted for the drug ( In the United States access to licensed expensive cancer drugs differ from the United Kingdom because the U.S has multiple payers who use different standards and processes to determine whether expensive cancer drugs should be purchased and reimbursed. The United Kingdom only has the NHS and a small private market. Because of the wide variety of payers in the U.S it makes it difficult to characterize the access and financing of expensive cancer drugs for American patients. Medicare in the U.S is known more for the access to and financing of cancer drugs than most other payers. Some medications for cancer can cost as much as $10,000 a month and Medicare will pay for these drugs if doctors see few other possibilities for severely ill patients. One thing is for sure spending on expensive cancer drugs takes a toll of the young the old no matter where they live. For insured patients the percentage of costs are lowered. At the end of the article there was not enough information about either country to determine what percentage of cancer patients at treated with expensive cancer drugs, thus direct comparison between these two countries is not possible. It seemed that the United Kingdom’s data showed a more positive way to cover the drugs high prices but in the U.S Medicare beneficiaries, the cost is not driven by cost sharing whereas it is in the United Kingdom.

Ruth R. Faden, Kalipso Chalkidou, John Appleby, Hugh R. Waters and Jonathon P. Leider, 2009. Expensive Cancer Drugs: A Comparison between the United States and the United Kingdom. Vol. 87, No. 4. Published by: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of Milbank Memorial Fund
Nick Mulcahy, 2009. Time to Consider Cost in Evaluating Cancer Drugs in United States? From Medscape Medical News. Retrieved from…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Drug Legalization in the United States

...Drug Legalization in the United States Kristie Hurley Ashford University Abstract This paper will explore four websites and one online newspaper addressing the subject of drug trafficking in the United States and why legalization is a profitable alternative. The various ways drugs are bought into the country, information on how and why drug trafficking has increased in the United States, statistics on the number of people that are addicts, and the problems related to foreign countries on this issue. The reasons why illicit drugs should be legalized and what the income from the taxation from them could do to better our health care reform and our economy. Keywords: drug trafficking, economy, legalization Drug Legalization in the United States Illegal drugs are exports and deported out if our country everyday by different groups such as high profile criminal gangs or groups such as the cartel. Law enforcement has yet found a suitable way in controlling the war on drugs and have in past years, up until now, have made and passed bills and policies within the government that has made it worse. The legalization of illicit drugs, such as marijuana, would dramatically save, if not make our country more money. The Department of Justice reports the trafficking of drugs has increased in the United States (2012). Criminal groups from other countries, such as Mexican, Cuban, and Asian, including the groups in our country, grow, manufacturer, and distribute marijuana and......

Words: 1558 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Drug Trafficking in the United States

...Drug Trafficking in the United States Bethany Chrisco ENG 122: English Composition II Mary Harmon December 10, 2012 Drug Trafficking in the United States “The war on drugs has become the longest most deadly war the United States has ever faced.”(Wright, 2011) The United States has been fighting drug trafficking since the 1900’s and the main dilemma is how to exactly stop it. Some people believe that making drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, LSD, and methamphetamine legal in the United States would put a stop to drug trafficking, but this is just going to do nothing but make things worse for the people of the United States and cause the drug war to begin in our own country. It is believed by some that making drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, LSD, and methamphetamine legal in the United States will stop drug trafficking from other countries and help the United States in other ways. People believe that making drugs legal in the United States that it would reduce the prison population which will save the government money, it will make money for our country because the government can tax the drugs, reduce the chances of drug overdoses because the drugs will be more pure and the amount sold will not be deathly, help cancer and glaucoma patients, and stop trafficking and smuggling from other countries. This all may be true in some ways but making these drugs legal would just cause more problems within the United States and for our people. These problems......

Words: 2196 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

A Comparison of the United States and Canada Healthcare Systems

...A Comparison of the United States and Canada Healthcare Systems The United States is the only industrially advanced nation with over 15 percent of its population uninsured for health care services.(1) This aspect of American health policy has earned us a reputation of "backwardness"; for both Western Europe and Canada have systems of universal entitlement to health care (Torrance, 1984). A comparison of the American healthcare system to the Canadian health care system reveals the difference is cost, government involvement, philosophical attitude, and overall health of the citizens. In regards to economics, the American system practically doubles the cost of Canada per-capita bus yet does not yield the healthiest citizens, which clearly indicate there is room for change to improve or reform the U.S. healthcare system. This reform starts with the exchange of dialogue between the two countries policy makers and healthcare experts by identifying and implementing changes that are improvements of specific healthcare needs. Neither model is perfect but there are lessons that can be shared that could possibility lead to a more efficient healthcare system for both the United States and Canada. The United States and Canada are culturally similar therefore it is a realistic possibility that Americans could adopt a huge portion of the Canadian model and be successful with it. One of the main differences between the two separate healthcare systems is the huge gap in cost when...

Words: 865 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Drugs in United States

...populated in today’s society, and little do the abusers know but Methamphetamine is a killer drug. This illegal drug is being passed around on the streets today, and harming everyone it is available to (Volkow). People are able to produce this drug themselves, but it is very well (remove well) dangerous. Anyone that has this drug in his or her possession is susceptible to try it. Meth maybe used for many different reasons; once someone uses it they (remove they) then he may will (Remove will) want to use it again, and he may becoming become (Remove becoming) addicted. Whether meth is used to feel good or to stay awake, you (Do not write in the second person you.) will have (Change verb to present tense.) side effects. The addiction to this drug is so strong that it affects the mind more when one tries to quit. Being exposed many ways to make meth, it can be for basically anyone. Meth is basically for anyone because there are many ways to make meth being exposed. (Reword this sentence.) While a person is able to generate the drug, there are countless dangers that they may not be aware of. Anyone making meth or anyone that is around it can will (remove will) be affected. Meth abuse kills its abusers, and it also destroys families and communities. (Need to include internal documentation.) Methamphetamine is a highly addictive drug that affects the brain and central nervous system. This drug has elevated possibilities for widespread abuse. Whether meth is smoked, snorted, or......

Words: 2634 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Drug Trafficing Marijuana in the United States

...Drug Trafficking Marijuana in the United States Oct 22, 2011 Drug Trafficking Marijuana in the United States Drug trafficking is a very big problem in the United States and has been for a long time. Drug trafficking is one of the most profitable illegal businesses that many people have become wealthy doing and continue to do to this present day. When you hear drug trafficking, most people don't really know what it means, or know what to think about it. The most common term that is usually affiliated with drug trafficking is drug dealing or "pushing drugs" on the street. Drug trafficking organizations typically have members from both the US and abroad. Drug law enforcement agencies face an enormous challenge in protecting the country's borders. The difficulty in measuring the amount of cannabis worldwide was evident in the most recent United Nations’ World Drug Report in which the organization estimated that it ranged between 200,000 and 641,800 hectares ( World Drug Report 2010). Each year, according to the U.S. Customs Service, 60 million people enter the United States on more than 675,000 commercial and private flights. Another 6 million come by sea and 370 million by land. In addition, 116 million vehicles cross the land borders with Canada and Mexico. More than 90,000 merchant and passenger ships dock at U.S. ports. These ships carry more than 9 million shipping containers and 400 million tons of cargo. Another 157,000 smaller vessels visit our many coastal towns....

Words: 729 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

United States Centric-Views Comparison

...Unites States-Centric Views Comparison Mark D. Pacheco Axia College University of Phoenix Unites States-Centric Views Comparison The table comparisons show distinctive characteristics synonymous with the categories of descriptors identified for both individuals listed as Christian Americans and or Muslim Arab Americans. It is uniquely and formally identical in some categories as well as substantially different in other categories, yet still; some characteristics are open for discussion as to their identification to both parties involved. Based on results of independent surveys taken which was not scientific, substantiated or verified by any governmental agency of the United States, or Christian or Muslim Arab American groups or societies. The results are taken from ordinary American citizens not associated with either group of individuals, nor affiliated in any religious capacity, nationality, race, color, or ethnic background as identified as Christian American and Muslim Arab American. In this survey, one could say this is wholly independent and un-biased in the results given. Popular to contrary belief, most Americans give their opinions on subjects based on a few characteristics enveloped primarily with their up-bringing, moral and ethical values instilled in early childhood, their personal belief in governmental policy and societal values. As young children, teenagers, and young adults of parents and communities across this nation, individuals may...

Words: 1260 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The United Kingdom

...The United Kingdom Tables of Content 1. The United Kingdom’s Background 2. Culture of the United Kingdom 3. Language, social class, sports, stereotypes, doing business in the UK 4. 5 Main tourist destinations 5. Recent News 6. Economy of the United Kingdom (vs. the United States) 7. Politics and Business in the United Kingdom 8. Membership to World Trade Organization 9. Free Trade Agreements with the United States 10. Business Indicators and Country Rank 11. Problems and Corruption in the United Kingdom 12. Important Companies in the United Kingdom 13. References & Bibliography The United Kingdom’s Background The United Kingdom (also known as Britain) is a sovereign state located to the northwest of France, and spans 94,060 square miles. Its climate is mild, and rainfall is prevalent between September and January, with more than half of the days being overcast. The UK is made up of the providence of Northern Ireland, as well as Scotland, England, and Wales (together considered a country); it entered the European Union in 1973. Its 64.1 million citizens primarily speak English, however there a few other regionally recognized languages spoken, including Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, Irish, and Cornish. The UK’s main cities are London (capital of the UK), Edinburgh (capital of Scotland), Cardiff (capital of Wales), Belfast (capital of Northern......

Words: 3226 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

United State Comparison with Jordan

...United States comparison with Jordan If we explore Jordan’s culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Jordanian culture relative to other world cultures. Power Distance This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not equal – it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. With a high score of 70, Jordan has a hierarchical society. This means that people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organization is seen as reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat. Individualism The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with whether people´s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “We”. In Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and their direct family only. In Collectivist society’s people belong to ‘in groups’ that take care of them in exchange for loyalty. Jordan’s low score of 30 on this dimension means that it is considered a collectivistic society. This is evident in a close,......

Words: 1252 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Health Status and Health Care Services in the United Kingdom with Comparison to the United States

...Phone: 773-241-**** E-mail: ********* Health Status and Health Care Services in the United Kingdom with comparison to the United States HSM310 Introduction to Health Services Management Course Project Date submitted: 11/29/2015 Table of Contents Executive Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 Population and Health Status………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... 3 Demographic characteristics of population Mortality, Infant mortality data, causes of death Other data of health status Related information (such as on quality if life); analysis Availability of Health Services………………………………………………………………………………….. 4 Basic organization/general description of services institutions, providers of care Issues related to access Utilization of services (data, if available) Other related information/analysis Expenditures………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5 How are health services paid for; any roles for the government here Data on total expenditures Other related information/analysis Macroenvironmental influences on the health care system……………………………………………… 6 Political Socioeconomic Cultural Technological/Other relevant influences Summary comments…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 Problems Opportunities Other related comments regarding this country's health care services Comparison to the United States: what works better, what is not working as well Concluding comments: Lessons learned for the......

Words: 2264 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Drug Tracficking in the United States

...Drug trafficking in the United States: Blacks are treated unfairly when it comes to drugs. Cheryl Cooper English Composition 11 Instructor Lesa Hadley 01/18/2012 When it comes to drug trafficking in the United States most African Americans and minorities are treated unfairly when it comes to drug charges being handed down from the criminal justice system. “Critics of American drug policies have long said that war on drugs is really a war on people. Today, the Justice Policy Institute is releasing a new study chock- full of jaw- dropping statistics to prove it. One in four people locked up in American prisons is behind bars for a drug offense, the study finds. They number almost as many as the entire US prisoner population did in 1980 (458,131 vs. 474,368). The study adds that the US incarcerates 100, 000 more people for drug offenses than there are people imprisoned for all offenses in the entire European Union even though the EU has 100 million more citizens than the US. Other stats show how America’s war on drugs has been waged disproportionately against African Americans.” The groups that are mainly targeted in the drug trafficking in the United States are minorities and African Americans. This is a worldwide problem and it needs some immediate attention do to the lack of fairness that is presented when it comes to whites committing the same charges. There are issues and concerns when it comes to racial profiling that takes place in poor low......

Words: 1618 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The United States Illegal Drug Business

...The Drug Business Tawni Masters CJA 384 January 30, 2012 Sherryl Roten-West The Drug Business The illegal drug business in the United States is not a new business. This business has been around for quite some time. In this paper I will discuss the history of illegal drug business in the United States including the types of drugs that involved in the illegal drug business. I will also be discussing illegal drug syndicates and cartels a long with their structures and operational methods. Also I will be talking about some of the modern trends of organized drug trafficking. Finally I will answer, explain, and provide recommendations to the question, is there is a better solution to the ways in which we combat the drug business in the United States. The illegal drug business in the United States consists of all different types of activities from drug use to drug sales to producing and manufacturing to trafficking. Until the 1940’s most Italian Mafia leaders were strict with their rules telling their outfits that they were to avoid dealing drugs. A few leaders, notably Charles “Lucky” Luciano, broke that rule and used their organizations to push other gangs out of the drug trade and developed sophisticated networks for importing and selling illegal drugs in the United States (Mazzeno, 2011). During World War II illegal drugs were becoming less available in the U.S. because traffickers had a difficult time importing the drugs from overseas areas that were already in a......

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

United States-Centric Views Comparison

...United States-Centric Views Comparison In comparing and contrasting my answers to my participants (Francesca Carrubba), I have came to the conclusion that my views are quit different than my participants. My views appear to be much more prejudice and stereotypical of how Christian Americans and Arab-Muslims are viewed. We had many similar views as far as Christian Americans. However we had some desriptors in the “Both Groups” category with similar views as far as both Christian Americans and Arab-Muslims being family orientated, modest dressed, law abidin, sexist, flexible moral values, patriarchal society, religious content in education, devout and feminist. Our differences were many as my participant obviously has less predjudice views than I do. It's quite interesting in camparing our views as they match with what we have been accustom to in our lives. My participant was raised in a town that had a vast majority of ethnic groups where as I was raised in a small suburb mainly consisting of the Caucasion race. This just proves to me that what I have learned in this class, which is just how much stereotypes are unreliable generalizations and that predjudice is a form of absolute ignorance. The true facts about Arab-Muslims are that they are goverened by Qur'an and they are fanatically religious. A true facts about Christian Americans is that they are more open to political environment of both sexes. I believe a false statement of my participants is the......

Words: 367 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Politicals Institutions in the United Kingdom and the United States of America

...Summary : I. The United Kingdom 1. The Make-Up of the UK 2. Constitutional Monarchy and Parliamentary Democracy 3. The Electoral System and Political Parties in the UK 4. The Current Political Situation 5. Devolved Administration in the UK II. The United States of America 1. The Make-Up of the USA 2. The Federal and Constitutional Republic of the USA 3. Political Parties in the USA 4. The Current Political Situation in the USA I. The United Kingdom 1. The Make-Up of the UK The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy and unitary state. It is made up of four individual countries, which are England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. It is governed by a parliamentary system and its seat of government is in London. There are also three devolved powers outside of the capital, located in Belfast, Cardiff and Edinburgh (the three capital cities of Ireland, Wales and Scotland respectively). There are also a number of islands that are constitutionally tied to the United Kingdom constitution, but that are not part of the UK. They are the bailiwicks (headed by a bailiff, appointed by the crown to administer) of Jersey and Guernsey (to the south of the UK) and also the Isle of Man, which is off the north-east coast of the British mainland. However, it is true to say that the majority of British might even get confused as to the difference between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and the British......

Words: 5493 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Drug Taffickin in the United States

...Drug Trafficking in the United States Amie Woods Instructor Shelley Lawyer English Composition 122 January 23, 2012 The topic I choose to discuss is Drug Trafficking in the United States. The reason I choose this topic is, because I want to inform you about the social, and the ethical effects that drug trafficking has on upon our society. From people robbing others to families stealing from each other to leaving children without one or both parents, drugs have affected our daily lives. Some addicts spend so much time and money trying to obtain drugs or under the influence of drugs that they neglect their family, friends, and work. (World Book, 2012) I will show through statistics how drug trafficking affects our economy, and introduce you to some low-level offenders that have had stiffer sentences than others simply because of their color of their skin. Last year the United States spent 68 billion dollars on incarcerating drug traffickers, and low-level offenders. (Global Commission on Drugs) (2011) In 1972, there were an estimated 300,000 people incarcerated compared to 2.3 million today. (Global Commission on Drugs) (2011) I started the research trying to limit the topic to drug cartels’, but it was too much information, and I found myself being overwhelmed with all of it. I then changed my focus to the social, ethical, and political side of the coin, because I found it to be more intriguing and much more important. I will show you how drug......

Words: 2013 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

United State Versus the United Kingdom

...The healthcare systems in the United States and the United Kingdom provide interesting comparisons to one another, especially since the United States is considered private and the United Kingdom has a national health system that supply universal coverage. National health systems are theoretically designed to provide accessible, affordable care for all segments of the population, but critics of such systems often question the quality of that care. Conversely, critics of the United States system often point to the fact that affordable, high quality healthcare is not equally available to all who need it (Blizzard, 2003). The differences that lie between the United States and the United Kingdom are the health plans, the providers, and hospitals. It is not strictly an insurance system because there are no premiums collected, costs are not charged at the patient level and costs are not prepaid form a pool. However, it does achieve the main aim of insurance which is to spread financial risk arising from ill health. The costs of running the National health system, which is approximately 104 billion pounds in 2007-2008, are met directly from general taxation. The National health system provides the majority of healthcare in the United Kingdom, including primary care, in -patient care, long-term care, ophthalmology, and dentistry. In the United Kingdom appointed bodies called primary care trust are responsible for the health of a defined local population. Primary care is typically......

Words: 951 - Pages: 4