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Formation

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Formation interne
Qu'est-ce que la formation interne ?
Une formation interne est une formation organisée par l'entreprise au bénéfice de l'un ou plusieurs de ses salariés. L'entreprise s’occupe de la conception du stage, du contenu pédagogique et de l'organisation pratique du déroulement.
La formation interne peut se dérouler dans les locaux de l’entreprise ou en dehors.
Important : si une partie de la formationa lieu sur les lieux de production, ou au poste de travail du stagiaire, celle-ci doit respecter des conditions précises pour être considérée comme une formation. Il est obligatoire d'en informer les représentants du personnel.
Les formateurs peuvent être soit des salariés de l'entreprise soit, sous certaines conditions, des formateurs extérieurs, qui interviennent à la demande de l’entreprise pour des activités spécifiques.
Temps de formation et rémunération ?
La rémunération des salariés pendant leur formation obéit à des règles différentes selon que celle-ci est organisée pendant ou en dehors du temps de travail habituel.
En règle générale, les actions de formation inscrites dans le plan de formation se déroulent pendant le temps de travail, dans le cadre de l'horaire normal de l'entreprise. Dans ce cas, la rémunération est maintenue.

La réalisation de la formation en dehors du temps de travail, c'est-à-dire sur des temps habituellement non travaillés (jours de congés payés, de RTT, soirées...) est possible.

Les règles relatives à la rémunération du salarié sont différentes selon la catégorie d'action de formation du plan concernée : formation du plan concernée : Catégorie d'action | Formation au-delà du temps de travail habituel | Rémunération | Conditions | 1/ action d'adaptation au poste de travail ou liée au maintien et à l'évolution de l'emploi | Possible, dans le cadre des heures supplémentaires autorisées dans l'entreprise. | Versement de la rémunération habituelle avec majoration pour les heures supplémentaires. | Aucune | 2/ action de développement des compétences | Possible, jusqu'à 80 heures par an et par salarié (5% du forfait annuel). | * Pas de paiement des heures supplémentaires, * versement de l'allocation formation. | * Accord entre l'employeur et le salarié. * Engagements de l'employeur. |
Important : pour un même salarié, les heures de formation réalisées en dehors du temps de travail ne peuvent pas dépasser 80 heures par an.
Principaux avantages : formation sur mesure, souplesse et coûts réduits
Le choix de formation interne est pertinent dès lors que l’entreprise :
> recherche une formation sur-mesure, parfaitement adaptée à son contexte ;
> souhaite la mise en place d’actions portant sur des métiers spécifiques ;
> ne trouve pas sur le marché l’offre adéquate.
Ce mode d’organisation de la formation présente en outre d’autres avantages :
> souplesse de planning : le calendrier de la formation s’adapte facilement aux contraintes de l’entreprise ;
> possibilité de démultiplication : l’action peut être programmée autant de fois que nécessaire ;
> coût réduit : pas ou peu de déplacement, pas d’achat de formation… Et, sous réserve de répondre aux critères d’imputabilité, la formation peut être financée sur les fonds de la formation professionnelle en ce qui concerne :
• la rémunération des stagiaires ;
• les frais de personnel formateur et non formateur ;
• les dépenses de fonctionnement pédagogique des actions ;
• les dépenses de location et d’entretien des locaux et du mobilier affectés à la formation ;
• les dépenses d’organisation administrative des actions de formation (dans la limite de 5 % du montant des frais de rémunération des personnels enseignants et non-enseignants) ;
• les dépenses de transport et d’hébergement des formateurs liés à la réalisation des actions.

Des précautions à prendre
Organiser la formation en interne exige certaines précautions. Il ne s’agit pas, en effet, de faire « une formation sur le tas ». Il faut donc :
> prévoir une véritable progression pédagogique, à détailler dans le programme de formation ;
> dispenser l’action dans des locaux distincts des lieux de travail. A noter toutefois qu’un enseignement pratique peut être dispensé sur les lieux de production sous réserve néanmoins d’en rendre compte aux représentants du personnel (CE ou DP) ;
> établir des attestations de présence mentionnant les objectifs, la nature, la durée de la formation et les résultats de l’évaluation des acquis de la formation (à faire signer par les stagiaires). (voir boite à outils)
L’entreprise doit en outre veiller à :
> disposer de salariés experts dans le domaine enseigné et bons pédagogues ;
> prévoir les supports pédagogiques ;
> organiser la logistique liée à la formation (repas...) ;
> évaluer la formation.
Comment choisir le formateur interne ?
Le formateur est choisi parmi les salariés de l’entreprise. Il doit disposer des compétences professionnelles et pédagogiques nécessaires pour atteindre l’objectif de formation visé. Afin d’identifier les compétences du formateur interne, l’entreprise pourra s’appuyer sur les éléments suivants : * la qualification du salarié, * son expérience professionnelle dans l’entreprise, * ses connaissances et ses savoir-faire, * les compétences requises au regard de la spécificité de la formation.
Il est recommandé au formateur interne d’acquérir au préalable les techniques et méthodes nécessaires pour concevoir le programme ainsi que préparer, animer et évaluer les actions de formation.
Comment mettre en place un cahier des charges ?
Pour les actions de formation organisées en interne spécifiques à l’entreprise (métiers, contexte, organisation), il est possible de mettre en place un cahier des charges détaillant la demande de prestation de formation.
Le cahier des charges permet à l’entreprise de formaliser ses attentes liées à la réalisation de la formation (objectifs, publics, contenu, méthodes pédagogiques, modalités d’évaluation, budget).
De son côté, le formateur interne sera en mesure, à partir d’un cahier des charges, de faire une proposition personnalisée tenant compte des contraintes et des spécificités du contexte dans lequel l’action de formation est mise en oeuvre. L’entreprise pourra sélectionner ses prestataires de formation à partir des réponses au cahier des charges qu’elle aura reçues.
Un cahier des charges peut, notamment, contenir les informations suivantes : * Une description du contexte dans lequel s’inscrit le besoin en formation * Une présentation des objectifs pédagogiques visés par l’action (les compétences à acquérir) * La typologie des publics * Les principaux axes du contenu souhaité * Les modalités d’organisation souhaitées (formation interne ou externe, durée, période de déroulement, outils pédagogiques souhaités,…) * Les modalités d’évaluation et de validation souhaitées * Le budget prévisionnel alloué pour l’action
Comment évaluer une formation ?
L’entreprise peut effectuer une évaluation à l’issue de la formation, pour en mesurer la pertinence et l’efficacité. * Recueillir à chaud l’avis du salarié (degré de satisfaction, contenu des programmes, qualité de l’animation, durée, fonctionnement du groupe, supports remis…) ; * Repérer les acquis du salarié (atteinte des objectifs professionnels, difficultés rencontrées, connaissances à améliorer…) ; * Mesurer les effets de la formation dans l’entreprise (impact de la formation, amélioration de l’organisation de travail, diminution d’erreurs ou de défauts, optimisation des outils de production…) ; * Evaluer les prestations de l’organisme de formation (respect des programmes, méthodes et outils pédagogiques utilisés, durée, qualité de l’organisation, de l’animation, gestion administrative du dossier de formation…).
NB : Une évaluation implique tous les acteurs de la formation : stagiaire, l’encadrement, l’organisme de formation.

Formation externe

Qu'est-ce qu'une formation externe ?
Une formation est dite « externe », lorsque l’entreprise fait appel à un prestataire de formation extérieur pour en assurer la conception,la réalisation et l’organisation.
Les actions de formation peuvent être organisées :
- en inter entreprise : stage réalisé pour les salariés provenant de plusieurs entreprises ;
- en intra entreprise : stage réalisé pour les salariés d’une même entreprise
Quelles sont les dépenses imputables ?
Dans le cadre du plan de formation, l’entreprise déduit de sa participation les frais liés au déroulement de l’action de formation externe, sous réserve que celle-ci réponde aux critères d’imputabilité d’une action de formation, notamment les coûts pédagogiques externes, les rémunérations versées aux stagiaires pendant l’action de formation et les frais de transport, de repas, d'hébergement éventuels.
Rappel
Une action de formation est imputable sur la participation de l’entreprise si l’action de formation relève de l’une des catégories d’actions de formation définies dans le Code du travail (www.juritravail.com). Celle-ci doit comporter les éléments suivants : un programme, des objectifs préalablement déterminés, des moyens pédagogiques et d’encadrement mis en oeuvre, un dispositif de suivi de l’exécution du programme et d’appréciation des résultats.
Quels prestataires sont habilités à dispenser une action de formation externe ?
Seuls les prestataires qui disposent d’un numéro de déclaration d’activité peuvent dispenser une action de formation.
Qui peut bénéficier d’un numéro de déclaration d’activité ?
Toute personne physique ou morale qui : * a une activité de prestations de formation (actions de formation professionnelle, actions de bilans de compétences, actions de validation des acquis de l’expérience) donnant lieu à la signature de conventions ou de contrats de formation professionnelle. * réalise effectivement des actions de formation (mise en œuvre des moyens pédagogiques, techniques et financiers pour atteindre les objectifs des actions de formation), ou ne réalise pas elle-même les formations mais les confie à un autre prestataire (soit en tout ou partie) pour les réaliser sous sa responsabilité contractuelle.
L’activité de formation peut être l’activité principale de la personne ou bien une activité exercée de manière occasionnelle et ponctuelle en plus de son activité principale.
Dans quels cas la déclaration d’activité n’est pas nécessaire ?
L’organisme ou le formateur qui réalise les formations pour le compte d’un autre organisme de formation (sous-traitance) car il ne conclut pas directement de convention ou de contrat de formation professionnelle mais intervient en apportant un soutien technique ou pédagogique à la réalisation d’une action de formation.
Quel type de convention établir avec un prestataire de formation ?
L’entreprise qui a recours à un prestataire de formation doit conclure avec lui une convention de formation portant sur les modalités d’organisation et de réalisation de la formation. Ce document doit obligatoirement comporter certaines mentions, et notamment : * le numéro de déclaration d’activité de l’organisme de formation * la nature de l’action de formation (prévention, adaptation et développement des compétences, promotion, acquisition, entretien ou perfectionnement de connaissances) * l’objet (thèmes et objectifs pédagogiques) * le lieu de réalisation * la durée et la date * les effectifs concernés * les moyens pédagogiques mis en oeuvre * le montant global de la créance de l’organisme et l’année de participation à laquelle la convention est rattachée * les modalités de règlement.
Observation : certaines actions, telles que les actions de validation des acquis de l’expérience et les bilans de compétences font l’objet d’une convention tripartite entre l’organisme de formation, l’entreprise et le salarié bénéficiaire.
+ cf partie cahier des charges pour la formation interne
Quelles sont les obligations d’un prestataire de formation déclaré ?

Etablissement du bilan pédagogique et financier
Chaque année, tous les prestataires de formation doivent remplir un bilan pédagogique et financier (formulaire transmis par l’Administration) avant le 30 avril. Ce document permet de retracer l’activité de formation le nombre de stagiaires accueillis, le nombre d’heures de formation suivi par les stagiaires, les spécialités et les niveaux de formation, la durée des formations, statut des personnes réalisant les formations, les fonds reçus (entreprises, OPCA…), les charges, …
En savoir plus : télécharger le modèle de bilan
Les obligations comptables
Chaque année, le dispensateur de formation doit établir un bilan, un compte de résultat et une annexe conformément au plan comptable général. Les organismes qui ont des activités multiples doivent suivre de manière distincte en comptabilité l’activité de formation professionnelle.
Les organismes de formation doivent désigner au moins un commissaire aux comptes et un suppléant lorsqu’ils dépassent, à la clôture de l’exercice comptable, les chiffres suivants pour deux des trois critères suivants : * trois salariés ; * 153 000 euros HT de chiffre d’affaires ; * 230 000 Euros HT au total du bilan…...

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...Armando I Cortes Nov. 17. 2025 Mrs.Lisa Smith The Formation of a Star The basic idea of star formation is gravitational collapse – the contraction of a region of gas under the influence of gravity. This is a simple process that would be expected to occur in any region of material dense enough for collisions between atoms to radiate away energy. However, the gas must be dense enough for collisions to occur and the temperature must be low enough for the atomic velocities not to be able to escape the system's gravity, so star formation only occurs in a few areas.  The sites of star formation in the galaxy are mostly located within molecular clouds – expansive, cool clouds of mostly hydrogen and helium gas. Molecular clouds are on average too diffuse to contract gravitationally, but within a cloud are regions of locally higher density, which are the sites of active star formation. It is not known exactly what causes molecular clouds and star-forming regions to be distributed as they are. However, it appears to be related to the spiral-arm structure of spiral galaxies, which is thought to be the result of density waves passing through the disk, compressing matter and igniting star formation in their wake, leaving the trails of young, hot, blue stars in their wake that are the primary feature of spiral galaxies.  The distribution of gas in these regions is probably erratic enough that once a sufficient compression comes through a large number of......

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Formation of Relationships

...Discuss two or more theories of the formation of romantic relationships. (8 marks + 16 marks) Reward/need satisfaction theory suggests that we become attracted to people who evoke positive feelings as they provide direct reinforcement through operant conditioning. If the presence of an individual leads to a positive outcome, they will be perceived as more attractive. We are thus more likely to repeat these behaviours towards that individual, leading to the formation of a relationship. We also become attracted to people who are associated with positive events through classical conditioning. People who are associated with these positive events acquire positive value, increasing our attraction to them. For a relationship to commence & succeed, positive feelings should outweigh negative feelings. Griffitt & Guay provided support for the idea that we like some individuals because they provide direct reinforcement. Participants were evaluated on a creative task by an experimenter & were then asked how much they like the experimenter. The rating was highest when the participant was highly evaluated (i.e. rewarded) by the experimenter, showing that direct reinforcement can lead to attraction. The same study also supported the role of indirect reinforcement (association with positive events). Participants of the study had to rate an onlooker as well as an experimenter. The onlooker was also more highly rated when the participant had been positively evaluated by the......

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