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Windows XP
OEM Preinstallation Kit
Design Notes
Microsoft( Windows( Family of Operating Systems

Using the Windows Firewall .Inf File in Microsoft® Windows® XP
Service Pack 2

MICROSOFT CONFIDENTIAL - PROVIDED UNDER NDA
DO NOT REDISTRIBUTE

July 14, 2004

Abstract:

Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2 (SP2) includes significant enhancements to the Windows Firewall component (formerly known as the Internet Connection Firewall). Windows Firewall is a stateful host firewall that discards unsolicited incoming traffic, providing a level of protection for computers against malicious users or programs. To provide better protection for computers connected to any kind of network (such as the Internet, a home network, or an organization network), Windows XP SP2 enables Windows Firewall on all network connections by default. Network administrators can use the Windows Firewall .inf file (Netfw.inf) to modify default settings either before installation or after installation. This article describes the usage of the Windows Firewall .inf file.

The information contained in this document represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation on the issues discussed as of the date of publication. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented after the date of publication.

This white paper is for informational purposes only. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT.

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© 2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Microsoft, Win32, Windows, and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States or other countries or regions.

The names of actual companies and products mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.

Contents

Overview 4
Scenarios for Modifying Default Windows Firewall Configuration 4
Location of Windows Firewall .Inf File 5
Methods for Replacing the Default Windows Firewall Configuration 5
Default Windows Firewall .Inf File 6
Configuration Options Provided in the Windows Firewall .Inf File 7 Changing Windows Firewall’s Default Operational Mode 7 Disabling Windows Firewall’s Notifications 8 Blocking Unicast Responses to Multicast and Broadcast Packets 9 Enabling Remote Administration 9 Allowing ICMP Messages through Windows Firewall 10 Adding Static Ports to Windows Firewall’s Default Exceptions List 11 Adding Programs to Windows Firewall’s Default Exceptions List 12
Defining the Scope for an Entry in the Windows Firewall .Inf File 14
Summary 15
Related Links 15

Overview

Windows XP Service Pack 2 (SP2) includes significant enhancements to Windows Firewall, formerly known as the Internet Connection Firewall (ICF). Windows Firewall is a stateful, host-based firewall that drops all unsolicited, incoming traffic that does not correspond to either traffic sent in response to a request of the computer (solicited traffic) or unsolicited traffic that has been specified as allowed (excepted traffic). This behavior of Windows Firewall provides a level of protection from malicious users and programs that rely on unsolicited, incoming traffic to attack computers.

A new feature in Windows XP SP2 is the enabling of Windows Firewall by default during an installation of Windows XP or during an update to Windows XP SP2. Because Windows Firewall is enabled by default, network administrators need the flexibility to modify the default configuration of Windows Firewall during the installation of Windows XP SP2 and after its installation. Typical configuration modifications include adding programs to Windows Firewall’s exception list or disabling Windows Firewall, for example, if a third-party, host-based firewall is already installed and enabled.

Windows Firewall can be preconfigured by modifying the Windows Firewall .inf file, named Netfw.inf, in which Windows Firewall’s default configuration is stored. During an installation of or an update to Windows XP SP2, Windows Firewall imports its configuration from this .inf file. This means that any modifications made to the Windows Firewall .inf file before an installation of Windows will automatically be incorporated into the default configuration of Windows Firewall.

Scenarios for Modifying Default Windows Firewall Configuration

The following are common scenarios for modifying the default configuration of Windows Firewall.

Third-Party Firewall-Enabled

An original equipment manufacturer (OEM) may choose to provide its customers with a third-party, host-based firewall. If this firewall is enabled by default, then it is recommended that Windows Firewall be disabled. This can be done by modifying the Windows Firewall .inf file to disable Windows Firewall by default.

Preinstalled Programs

An OEM or enterprise may choose to install a suite of programs by default. Some of these programs may need to receive unsolicited, incoming traffic in order to function correctly. Windows Firewall can be configured to enable specific, unsolicited, incoming traffic by default by adding the programs to the Windows Firewall’s exceptions list. This can be done by adding entries for the programs to the Windows Firewall .inf file. Only programs that require unsolicited, incoming traffic should be added to the exceptions list; programs that do not require unsolicited, incoming traffic should not be added to the exceptions list.

Pre-Opened Ports

An enterprise may choose to use various network services and want to ensure that the network traffic for those services is enabled by default through Windows Firewall. For example, an enterprise may use some of the remote management functionality included in Windows XP. You can configure Windows Firewall to open the necessary ports by default by adding them to the Windows Firewall’s exceptions list. Specifically, you can add entries for the TCP or UDP ports to the Windows Firewall .inf file. Statically opening ports does potentially increase a computer’s exposure to attack, so the number of ports opened in Windows Firewall by default should be at a minimum.

Location of Windows Firewall .Inf File

On a Windows XP CD image, the location of the Windows Firewall .inf file is:

Cd_drive:\I386\Netfw.in_

Note: On a Windows XP CD image, the file’s name is Netfw.in_ (not Netfw.inf). This is for signing purposes. If an OEM modifies this file, the file must also be re-signed.

After the installation of Windows XP SP2, the location of the Windows Firewall .inf file is:

%WINDIR%\Inf\Netfw.inf

Methods for Replacing the Default Windows Firewall Configuration

Method 1: Pre-Installation
1. Copy the default Windows Firewall .inf file (Netfw.in_) from a Windows XP SP2 CD image.
2. Make the desired modifications to the .inf file. Directions for modifying the .inf file are provided in the "Configuration Options Provided in the Windows Firewall .Inf File" section of this article.
3. Save the modified .inf file as Netfw.in_.
4. Sign the modified Netfw.in_.
5. Replace the default Netfw.in_ with the modified Netfw.in_ in the Windows XP SP2 CD image.
6. Install Windows XP SP2 from the modified Windows XP SP2 CD image.

Method 2: Post-Installation
1. Copy the default Windows Firewall .inf file (Netfw.inf) from an installation of Windows XP SP2.
2. Make the desired modifications to the .inf file. Directions for modifying the .inf file are provided in the "Configuration Options Provided in the Windows Firewall .Inf File" section of this article.
3. Save the modified .inf file as Netfw.inf.
4. Replace the default Netfw.inf with the modified Netfw.inf in the installation of Windows XP SP2.
5. Run the netsh firewall reset command on the computer running Windows XP SP2. You can do this manually by typing the command at a command prompt or by including the command in a run-once script.

Default Windows Firewall .Inf File

The default contents of the Netfw.inf file are the following:

[Version] Signature = "$Windows NT$" DriverVer =07/01/2001,5.1.2600.2132

[DefaultInstall] AddReg = ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile AddReg = ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile

[ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile\AuthorizedApplications\List","%WINDIR%\system32\sessmgr.exe",0x00000000,"%WINDIR%\system32\sessmgr.exe:*:enabled:@xpsp2res.dll.-22019"

[ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile\AuthorizedApplications\List","%WINDIR%\system32\sessmgr.exe",0x00000000,"%WINDIR%\system32\sessmgr.exe:*:enabled:@xpsp2res.dll.-22019"

The first two sections of Netfw.inf contain versioning and configuration information, and do not need to be modified. The sections that are significant for modifying the default configuration for Windows Firewall are the following:

• [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] – Windows Firewall maintains two sets of configuration known as profiles. One profile is used when a computer is connected to the domain to which it is joined, while the other profile is used when the computer is not connected to its domain. This section is for defining changes to Windows Firewall’s default configuration when a computer is connected to a network that contains its domain.

• [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] – This section is for defining changes to Windows Firewall’s default configuration when a computer is not connected to a network that contains its domain. If a computer is not a member of a domain, then Windows Firewall will always enforce the configuration stored in the Standard Profile.

Configuration Options Provided in the Windows Firewall .Inf File

The majority of the default configurations for Windows Firewall can be defined in the Windows Firewall .inf file. This includes the following settings:

• Operational mode

• Disable notifications

• Block unicast responses to multicast and broadcast packets

• Enable Remote Administration

• Enable ICMP messages

• Open ports

• Enable programs

These settings are described in the next sections.

Notes: All of the settings made in the Windows Firewall .inf file will be applied to all of a computer’s network interfaces.

You cannot open ports nor enable ICMP messages for individual interfaces through the Windows Firewall .inf file.

Logging settings cannot be defined through the Windows Firewall .inf file.

Changing Windows Firewall’s Default Operational Mode

• Windows Firewall can be placed in one of three operational modes:

• On – This is the default operational mode for Windows Firewall. In this mode, Windows Firewall drops all unsolicited, incoming traffic, except those matching enabled entries in Windows Firewall’s exceptions lists. Because this is the default operational mode, no entries need to be included in the Windows Firewall .inf file.

• The assumed entries for the Domain Profile in the [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file are:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile","DoNotAllowExceptions",0x00010001,0

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile","EnableFirewall",0x00010001,1

• The assumed entries for the Standard Profile in the [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file are:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile","DoNotAllowExceptions",0x00010001,0

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile","EnableFirewall",0x00010001,0x00000001

• On with No Exceptions – In this mode, Windows Firewall blocks all unsolicited, incoming traffic, even those matching enabled entries in Windows Firewall’s exceptions lists.

• To make this the default operational mode for the Domain Profile, add the following entries to the [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile","DoNotAllowExceptions",0x00010001,1

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile","EnableFirewall",0x00010001,1

• To make this the default operational mode for the Standard Profile, add the following entries to the [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile","DoNotAllowExceptions",0x00010001,1

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile","EnableFirewall",0x00010001,1

• Off – In this mode, Windows Firewall is disabled and does not do any filtering of unsolicited, incoming traffic. All unsolicited, incoming traffic is enabled, and Windows Firewall does not help to protect the computer from network attacks.

• To make this the default operational mode for the Domain Profile, add the following entries to the [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile","DoNotAllowExceptions",0x00010001,0

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile","EnableFirewall",0x00010001,0

• To make this the default operational mode for the Standard Profile, add the following entries to the [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile","DoNotAllowExceptions",0x00010001,0

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile","EnableFirewall",0x00010001,0

Disabling Windows Firewall’s Notifications

By default, Windows Firewall displays a notification to users when a program not already included in the Windows Firewall exceptions list uses the new Windows Firewall APIs to add itself or its traffic to an exceptions list. By adding the appropriate entries to the Windows Firewall .inf file, these notifications can be disabled in either or both of Windows Firewall’s profiles.

• To disable notifications by default in the Domain Profile, add the following entry to the [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile","DisableNotifications",0x00010001,1

• To disable notifications by default in the Standard Profile, add the following entry to the [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile","DisableNotifications",0x00010001,1

Blocking Unicast Responses to Multicast and Broadcast Packets

By default, Windows Firewall enables incoming, unicast-response packets to a port for three seconds after a multicast or broadcast packet is sent from the port. By adding the appropriate entries to the Windows Firewall .inf file, this behavior can be disabled in either or both of Windows Firewall’s profiles.

• To block unicast responses to multicast and broadcast packets by default in the Domain Profile, add the following entry to the [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile","DisableUnicastResponsesToMulticastBroadcast",0x00010001,1

• To block unicast responses to multicast and broadcast packets by default in the Standard Profile, add the following entry to the [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile","DisableUnicastResponsesToMulticastBroadcast",0x00010001,1

Enabling Remote Administration

Windows Firewall includes a Remote Administration option that alters its configuration to enable Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) communication. Enabling this option statically opens TCP 135 and TCP 445 to unsolicited, incoming traffic. Additionally, communication over named pipes is permitted, and ports are dynamically opened as needed by Windows services using RPC. By adding the appropriate entries to the Windows Firewall .inf file, you can enable the Remote Administration option in either or both of Windows Firewall’s profiles.

• To enable Remote Administration by default in the Domain Profile, add the following entry to the [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile\RemoteAdminSettings","Enabled",0x00010001,1

• To enable Remote Administration by default in the Standard Profile, add the following entry to the [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile\RemoteAdminSettings","Enabled",0x00010001,1

When enabling Remote Administration, the set of IP addresses from which unsolicited, incoming traffic is accepted can also be specified through an additional entry in the appropriate section of the Windows Firewall .inf file.

To define the default scope for Remote Administration in the Domain Profile, add the following entry to the [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile\RemoteAdminSettings","RemoteAddresses",0x00000000,scope

To define the default scope for Remote Administration in the Standard Profile, add the following entry to the [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile\RemoteAdminSettings","RemoteAddresses",0x00000000,scope

Permitted values for scope are defined in the “Defining the Scope for an Entry in the Windows Firewall .Inf File" section of this article.

Allowing ICMP Messages through Windows Firewall

While the default configuration for Windows Firewall blocks all ICMP message types, you can modify this behavior by adding entries to the Windows Firewall .inf file that enable certain ICMP message types by default.

To enable an ICMP message type by default in the Domain Profile, add the following entry to the [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile\IcmpSettings","ICMP Message Type",0x00010001,1

To enable an ICMP message type by default in the Standard Profile, add the following entry to the [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile\IcmpSettings","ICMP Message Type",0x00010001,1

Both of these entries require an ICMP Message Type to be specified. The permitted values for ICMP Message Type are listed in Table 1.

Table 1. ICMP Message Types

|ICMP Message Type |Number |Description |
|AllowOutboundPacketTooBig |2 |When an Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) packet|
| | |is too large to be forwarded, data is dropped and|
| | |a computer replies to the sender with a Packet |
| | |Too Big message. |
|AllowOutboundDestinationUnreachable |3 |Sent data that fails to reach this computer due |
| | |to an error is discarded and reported with a |
| | |Destination Unreachable message explaining the |
| | |failure. |
|AllowOutboundSourceQuench |4 |When a computer’s ability to process incoming |
| | |data cannot keep up with the rate of a |
| | |transmission, data is dropped and the sender is |
| | |asked to transmit more slowly. |
|AllowRedirect |5 |Data sent from a computer is rerouted. |
|AllowInboundEchoRequest |8 |Messages sent to a computer are repeated back to |
| | |the sender. This is commonly used for |
| | |troubleshooting (for example, to ping a |
| | |computer). |
|AllowInboundRouterRequest |10 |A computer responds to router discovery messages.|
|AllowOutboundTimeExceeded |11 |When a computer discards a packet because its hop|
| | |count was exceeded or it ran out of time to |
| | |assemble fragments of a packet, it replies to the|
| | |sender with a Time Exceeded message. |
|AllowOutboundParameterProblem |12 |When a computer discards data that it has |
| | |received because of a problematic header, it |
| | |replies to the sender with a Parameter Problem |
| | |error message. |
|AllowInboundTimestampRequest |13 |A confirmation message is sent, indicating the |
| | |time that the data was received at a computer. |
|AllowInboundMaskRequest |17 |A computer listens for and responds to requests |
| | |for a network subnet mask. |

Adding Static Ports to Windows Firewall’s Default Exceptions List

In Windows XP SP2, Windows Firewall maintains an exceptions list for each of its two profiles. When in normal operation, Windows Firewall statically opens ports that are included in its current profile’s exceptions list. It is generally recommended that programs be added to the exceptions list, instead of statically opening ports. This enables Windows Firewall to open and close ports dynamically and to minimize the number of ports open at any one time. It is recognized, however, that there are scenarios in which ports need to be statically opened. For example, a static port may need to be opened in order for a Windows service to receive unsolicited, incoming traffic. To support such scenarios, OEMs have the ability to add static ports to either or both of Windows Firewall’s default exceptions lists through the Windows Firewall .inf file.

To add a static port to the Domain Profile’s exceptions list, an entry in the following format should be added to the [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile\GloballyOpenPorts\List","port number:protocol",0x00000000, "port number:protocol:scope:mode:port’s friendly name"

To add a static port to the Standard Profile’s exceptions list, an entry in the following format should be added to the [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile\GloballyOpenPorts\List","port number:protocol",0x00000000, "port number:protocol:scope:mode:port’s friendly name"

In the two entries above, the following elements must be defined, based upon the port added to Windows Firewall’s default exceptions lists and the desired behavior:

• port number – A port is specified by the combination of a protocol and a port number. The port number must be between 1 and 65535 inclusive.

• protocol – A port is specified by the combination of a protocol and a port number. The protocol must be either TCP or UDP.

• scope – Permitted values for scope are defined in the “Defining the Scope for an Entry in the Windows Firewall .Inf File” section of this article.

• mode – An entry can be added to Windows Firewall’s default exceptions lists as either enabled or disabled. The two permitted values for this element are Enabled and Disabled. If a port’s entry is enabled, the port will be statically opened in Windows Firewall. If a port’s entry is disabled, the port will not be statically opened in Windows Firewall.

• port’s friendly name – This is the description that will be used to represent the entry for Windows Firewall in Control Panel. It should provide an indication of why the port is statically opened, such as "Web Server (TCP 80)" or "Telnet Server (TCP 23)".

As an example for opening a port, two entries are required to enable the static port used by the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol, which uses UDP 500, for a scope of all IP addresses in the default exceptions lists for both of Windows Firewall’s profiles.

This entry is added to the [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile\GloballyOpenPorts\List","500:UDP",0x00000000,"500:UDP:*:enabled:IKE (UDP 500)"

This entry is added to the [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile\GloballyOpenPorts\List","500:UDP",0x00000000, "500:UDP:*:enabled:IKE (UDP 500)"

Adding Programs to Windows Firewall’s Default Exceptions List

In Windows XP SP2, Windows Firewall maintains an exceptions list for each of its two profiles. When in normal operation, Windows Firewall dynamically opens the ports used by programs in its current profile’s exceptions list. The Windows Firewall .inf file can be used to add programs to either or both of Windows Firewall’s default exceptions lists. Only programs that actually require unsolicited, incoming traffic should be added to the exceptions lists; there is no benefit to adding programs that use only outgoing connections to the exceptions lists.

To add a program to the Domain Profile’s exceptions list, an entry in the following format should be added to the [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile\AuthorizedApplications\List","program’s image path",0x00000000,"program’s image path:scope:mode:program’s friendly name"

To add a program to the Standard Profile’s Exceptions List, an entry in the following format should be added to the [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile\AuthorizedApplications\List","program’s image path",0x00000000,"program’s image path:scope:mode:program’s friendly name"

In the two entries above, the following elements must be defined, based upon the program added to Windows Firewall’s default exceptions lists and the desired behavior:

• program’s image path – This is the fully qualified path for the file to be added to Windows Firewall’s default exceptions lists. It may include environmental variables, such as %ProgramFiles%.

• scope – Permitted values for scope are defined in the “Defining the Scope for an Entry in the Windows Firewall .Inf File” section of this article.

• mode – An entry can be added to Windows Firewall’s default exceptions lists as either enabled or disabled. The two permitted values for this element are Enabled and Disabled. If a program’s entry is enabled, ports are dynamically opened in Windows Firewall for the program when it opens ports. If a program’s entry is disabled, ports will not be dynamically opened in Windows Firewall for the program.

• program’s friendly name – This is the name that is used to represent the entry in the Windows Firewall user interface. It should include the product name and publisher, such as MSN Messenger v6.1 or AOL Instant Messenger v5.5.

As an example of enabling programs, two entries are included in the Windows Firewall .inf file to enable Remote Assistance with a scope of all IP addresses in the default exceptions lists for both Windows Firewall profiles.

This entry is included in the [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\DomainProfile\AuthorizedApplications\List","%WINDIR%\system32\sessmgr.exe",0x00000000,"%WINDIR%\system32\sessmgr.exe:*:enabled:@xpsp2res.dll,-22019"

This entry is included in the [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] section of the Windows Firewall .inf file:

HKLM,"SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\StandardProfile\AuthorizedApplications\List","%WINDIR%\system32\sessmgr.exe",0x00000000,"%WINDIR%\system32\sessmgr.exe:*:enabled:@xpsp2res.dll,-22019"

Defining the Scope for an Entry in the Windows Firewall .Inf File

When enabling Remote Assistance, opening a port, or enabling a program, the set of IP addresses from which the unsolicited, incoming traffic is enabled can be defined. This set of IP addresses from which unsolicited, incoming traffic is enabled is the scope of the exception. There are three options for defining the scope for a Windows Firewall exception.

• All IP addresses – This is the default scope for a Windows Firewall exception, and it enables unsolicited, incoming traffic that matches the exception from any computer. In the Windows Firewall .inf file, making an entry’s scope element an asterisk ("*") results in a scope of all IP addresses for the entry.

• Local subnet only – This scope enables unsolicited, incoming traffic that matches the exception from any computer on the same subnet as the network connection on which the traffic was received through Windows Firewall, while dropping unsolicited, incoming traffic from all other computers. When a computer’s subnet changes, the set of enabled IP addresses dynamically changes to match the new subnet. In the Windows Firewall .inf file, making an entry’s scope element LocalSubnet results in a local subnet-only scope for the entry.

• Custom – The final option is to define a custom scope, which is a list of IPv4 addresses and address ranges that typically correspond to subnets. Unsolicited, incoming traffic that matches the exception and originates from a computer with an IPv4 address in the defined list is enabled through Windows Firewall. Unsolicited, incoming traffic from computers with IPv4 addresses that are not in the list is dropped. A custom scope can include the local subnet (using the "LocalSubnet" string), IPv4 addresses, and IPv4 address ranges, but cannot include IPv6 addresses and IPv6 address ranges. For IPv4 address ranges, you can specify the range using a dotted decimal subnet mask notation or a prefix length (w.x.y.z/n). When you use a dotted decimal subnet mask, you can specify the range as an IPv4 network ID (such as 10.47.81.0/255.255.255.0) or by using an IPv4 address within the range (such as 10.47.81.231/255.255.255.0). When you use a network prefix length, you can specify the range as an IPv4 network ID (such as 10.47.81.0/24) or by using an IPv4 address within the range (such as 10.47.81.231/24). Some examples of custom scope elements include the following:

• 192.168.0.5

• 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0

• 192.168.0.5,LocalSubnet

• 157.54.0.1,172.16.0.0/12,10.0.0.0/255.0.0.0,LocalSubnet

• 10.91.12.56,10.7.14.9/255.255.255.0,10.116.45.0/255.255.255.0,172.16.31.11/24,172.16.111.0/24

Note: You cannot have any spaces between the entries in the list of sources, or the entire list is ignored and Windows Firewall uses the default scope of any source IPv4 address. This can create an unintended vulnerability. Please double-check your scope syntax before saving changes to the Windows Firewall .inf file.

Summary

To install Windows XP SP2 with customized default settings for the new Windows Firewall or to change settings after installation, use the Windows Firewall .inf file (Netfw.inf). The Windows Firewall .inf file contains two main sections: [ICF.AddReg.DomainProfile] for modifying Windows Firewall settings for the domain profile, [ICF.AddReg.StandardProfile] for modifying settings for the standard profile, and [Strings] for defining strings for some settings. Typical uses of the Windows Firewall .inf file include disabling the Windows Firewall (if a third-party .inf file is already installed and enabled) and adding either programs or ports to the Windows Firewall exceptions lists (one list for each profile).

Related Links

See the following resources for more information:

• Deploying Windows Firewall Settings for Microsoft Windows XP with Service Pack 2 at http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=4454e0e1-61fa-447a-bdcd-499f73a637d1&displaylang=en

• Manually Configuring Windows Firewall in Windows XP Service Pack 2 at http://www.microsoft.com/technet/community/columns/cableguy/cg0204.mspx

• Windows XP Service Pack 2: Resources for IT Professionals at http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/winxppro/maintain/winxpsp2.mspx

For the latest information about Windows XP, see the Windows XP Web site at http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp.…...

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...possible to trace the origins of modern book-keeping back to at least the twelfth century. We know that from about that time, traders began to adopt a system of recording information called double-entry bookkeeping. By the end of the fifteenth century, double-entry book-keeping was widely used in Venice and the surrounding areas (the first-known book on the subject was published in 1494 by an Italian mathematician called Pacioli). Modern book-keeping systems are still based on principles established in the fifteenth century, although they have had to be adapted to suit modern conditions. 6 PART 1 INTRODUCTION TO ACCOUNTING His possessions Cows Hens [G = 10] Pigs Sheep [G = 10] Land [ = 1 acre] G A year ago GGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGGGGG GGGGGG GGGGG GGGG G GGG G Now GGGGGGGGGGGGGGG GGGGGGG GGGG GGGGGGG GGGG G G GG Change +5 –30 –2 +20 no change no change –2 +1 Cottage Carts Ploughs Figure 1.1 Accounting for a farmer’s wealth There are two main reasons why a recording system devised in medieval times has lasted for so long: G G It provides an accurate record of what has happened to a business over a given period of time. Information extracted from the system can help the owner or the manager to operate the business much more effectively. In essence, the system provides the answers to three basic questions that both owners and managers want to know. They are as follows. G G G What profit has the business made? How much does the business owe?......

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Gggggg

...Causes of Ecstasy Addiction Ecstasy in its purest form is not considered physically addictive in the ‘traditional’ sense. However, ecstasy does affect the brain’s neurotransmitters, which can lead to a chemical imbalance that helps fuel addiction. Ecstasy acts on brain chemicals, known as “neurotransmitters,” that control and balance mood. One important neurotransmitter that ecstasy acts upon is serotonin, responsible for feelings of happiness, calm, and relaxation. Ecstasy floods the brain with serotonin, expending the brain’s serotonin levels, and leaving the person experiencing a deficit of this important neurotransmitter once the drug exits the system. With repeated use, the brain detects the overabundance of serotonin and scales back natural production. Though this effect may only continue for a few days, users with weekly or more frequent use often experience withdrawal-induced depression. This effect, in combination with the intense “euphoric” feeling ecstasy produces and the ecstasy high’s impact on the brain’s reward centers can all combine to create a psychological addiction. Also, many ecstasy pills are not pure MDMA ecstasy’s active ingredient contain cheaper substances, such as speed (amphetamines). Chemical filler drugs may have their own physical addictiveness and can add to ecstasy addiction when used in high doses (often due to heightened tolerance) and high frequency use. Physical signs of ecstasy addiction are dilated pupils, high body temperatures,......

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Term Poaper

...Term paper Ggggggggg ggggggg gggg ggg ggg gggg ggg gggg ggggg gggggg gggg gg gggggg gggg ggggggg ggggg ggg ggggggg ggggggg gggggg gggggg gggg ggggg gggg ggggg gggg ggggg ggg gggg ggg gg ggg ggg ggg ggg ggg ggg gg ggg ggg gg ggg ggg ggg ggg ggg gg gg gg ggg gg ggg gg g gggg gg g gggg g ggg ggg ggg ggg ggg ggg ggg gg gg ggg ggg ggg ggg gg ggg gg g ggg gggg gggg ggg gg ggg gg g ggg gg gggg gggg gggg gggg ggg ggg ggggg ggv hggg gggg gggg gggg ggg ggg ggg ggg ggg ggg ggg gg gggg ggg g gg Nn nn n h h h hdefedfe f f fef ew r ewr ew re rwe e rwe r we rer rer rere red red rred rred rt re e d t t ted ted fed gre ee ttt ewed h h hhh sd skkskkskk slkslslld llslslls kslkdldld lddpdo ddppd dlld kd ld loododod ldldl dlldld dlldld ldldl dldldld ldldldn ddlld dldlld djdjd dkdkdkd dkdkd dkdkdk dkdkdkd dkdjdkd dkdod dododo doddi dod doodod odod dododo dood d dodododod ododod dododo dododod od ddlld odldld ldldld ldld dldld dldkdkdf [f[f[f [f[f fggf ff dd e r r ryyy yyuy fr smis s smsk siswkiwi ideuryr dytyrud iufuue iuirire dkdkjkd dkdkd dkdkdk dkdjkdd dopdk dod dodod ododod odododnod dpdodn do dood do d dododo dpodpd dodod dodod d odod dood dododpod pdpdppd od dpdppd odpd pdpdpd dpdpd dppdpd dpdpd pdpd dp dpdpdpd pdpdp dpd pd p d dppdpdp dpdpdpd dpdpdpd dpd dppd dpd pddd dpdpd pd pdpdpdpdp dpdpdpddpp d dvfyvy...

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...XXXXX jjjjj gggggg gggggg gg bb gg gg ggg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg uuu u I is ijijijijijijim XXXXX jjjjj gggggg gggggg gg bb gg gg ggg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg uuu u I is ijijijijijijim XXXXX jjjjj gggggg gggggg gg bb gg gg ggg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg uuu u I is ijijijijijijim XXXXX jjjjj gggggg gggggg gg bb gg gg ggg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg uuu u I is ijijijijijijim XXXXX jjjjj gggggg gggggg gg bb gg gg ggg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg uuu u I is ijijijijijijim XXXXX jjjjj gggggg gggggg gg bb gg gg ggg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg uuu u I is ijijijijijijim XXXXX jjjjj gggggg gggggg gg bb gg gg ggg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg uuu u I is ijijijijijijim XXXXX jjjjj gggggg gggggg gg bb gg gg ggg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg uuu u I is ijijijijijijim XXXXX jjjjj gggggg gggggg gg bb gg gg ggg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg uuu u I is ijijijijijijim XXXXX jjjjj gggggg gggggg gg bb gg gg ggg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg uuu u I is ijijijijijijim XXXXX jjjjj gggggg gggggg gg bb gg gg ggg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg uuu u I is ijijijijijijim XXXXX jjjjj gggggg gggggg gg bb gg gg ggg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg gg uuu u I is ijijijijijijim...

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Premium Essay

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...thrice when x = –1, 0 and 1. [4] – T n = a + (n – 1)d 467 = 3 + (n – 1)8 n = 59 Half of n = 29 terms 29th term is 227 and 30th term is 243 and when these two terms are added the sum is more than 470. Hence the maximum possible values the set S can have are 30. [1] —The least number of edges will be when one point is connected to each of the other 11 lines, giving a total of 11 lines. One can move from any point to any other point via the common point. The maximum edges will be when a line exists between any two points. Two points can be selected from 12 points in 12C2 i.e. 66 lines. [2] — GRRRRR, RGRRRR, RRGRRR, RRRGRR, RRRRGR, RRRRRG GGRRRR, RGGRRR, RRGGRR, RRRGGR, RRRRGG GGGRRR, RGGGRR, RRGGGR, RRRGGG GGGGRR, RGGGGR, RRGGGG GGGGGR, RGGGGG GGGGGG Hence 21 ways. 140. 141. 142. 143. Answers 144 and 145 144. [3] 145. [4] S, M and R in all spend 1248 bahts. Initially M pays 211 bahts and R pays 92 bahts. Remaining is born by S i.e; 945 bahts If 1248 is divided equally among S,M and R each has to spend 415 bahts Hence M has to pay S 205 bahts which is 5 Dollars. And R has to pay 324 bahts to S. 146. [1] — Solution cannot be found by using only Statement A since b can take any even number 2,4,6 …….. But we can arrive at solution by using statement B alone. If b > 16, say b = 17 Hence 244 < (16 + 1)11 244 < (24 + 1)11 [2] — Solution can be found using Statement A as we know both the roots for the equation (viz. 1/2 and – 1/2). Also statement B is sufficient. Since......

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Free Essay

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...regularities is that they call for a different approach. Instead of focusing on how the event at hand came to be, the statistical view relates it to what could have happened instead. Nothing in particular caused it to be what it is—chance selected it from among its alternatives. Our predilection for causal thinking exposes us to serious mistakes in evaluating the randomness of truly random events. For an example, take the sex of six babies born in sequence at a hospital. The sequence of boys and girls is obviously random; the events are independent of each other, and the number of boys and girls who were born in the hospital in the last few hours has no effect whatsoever on the sex of the next baby. Now consider three possible sequences: BBBGGG GGGGGG BGBBGB Are the sequences equally likely? The intuitive answer—“of course not!”— is false. Because the events are independent and because the outcomes B and G are (approximately) equally likely, then any possible sequence of six births is as likely as any other. Even now that you know this conclusion is true, it remains counterintuitive, because only the third sequence appears random. As expected, BGBBGB is judged much more likely than the other two sequences. We are pattern seekers, believers in a coherent world, in which regularities (such as a sequence of six girls) appear not by accident but as a result of mechanical causality or of someone’s intention. We do not expect to see regularity produced by a random process, and......

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Paper

...Gggg ggg gggg ggg ggggg gggg ggg ggg gggg ggggg ggggg ggg ggg gggg gg gg ggggg gggg ggggggg gg ggggg gggg gg gggggg gggg ggg ggg gg ggggggggg gg gggggggg gggggg ggg ggggggggg gggggg gg ggg gggg gggg gggg gggg ggggggg gggg ggg ggggg g gggg gggggg ggg ggg gggggg ggggggg ggggg ggg gg gg gg gggg ggggg ggg ggg ggg gg ggggg gggg gggg ggg gg ggggg ggg ggggg ggggg gggg ggg ggggg gggg gggg ggg ggg ggggggg gggg ggg gggg gggg ggggg uuu uuu uuu u uuu uu uuuu uuu u uuuu uuuu u uuu uuuu uuuu uu uuuu uu uuu uuuuu uuu uuu uuuu uuuu u uuuuu uuuu uuu uu uuuu uu uuuu uuu uuuu uuu uu uuuu uu uuuu uuu uu uuu uuuuuo iii iiiiiiii iiii iiiiii ii iiiiiii iiiiiii iiiiiii iiiiiiiii iii iiiiiii iiiiii iiiiiiiiiii iiiii iiiiiiiii iiiiii iiiiiiiii8hy8888888 8888888888 88888 88 888888 8888 888 888 88888 8888 8888 88888 88u55 5555 5555 55555 5 55555 55 5 555 55 555 55 555 55 55 5555 55555 555555 555 5555 5555555 555 55555555555 5555555555555555 555 5555 5555 5555 5555 55555 555 55555 55 5555 555 uuuuuu uuu uu uu uu uuu uuuu uuu uuuu uu uuuu uuu uuuuuu uuuu uuuuuu uu iuu uuuu uuuu uu uuuuuu I I iii iiiiiiiii I ii iiiiiii iiiii iiiii iiiii iiii I jk sj dlkjas aodj kladj a sakao dj ajd kle alajd ajoe akj ksa ado jsa asj d kiai ajdkl k kd fjka djk fa ajfkfdjka jd saj da f dj kadj sdj ksjd afjk asd...

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Premium Essay

Life Is Funny

...beyond my control. I do believe that it could happen to anyone at any given point in time. Hopefully most people don’t have to go through these types of situations. 4. The thing that makes me wonder in this book is life itself. It makes you think about how many people are going through these types of situations that you see everyday. Some cases can be more severe than others and you could never know. Most people are to embarrassed to tell anyone or get help. It makes you wonder is there some type of way that I can help people that are going through these types of things, and could you prevent them. The book puts you in the position to wonder if it were you what would have done in that situation. Most don’t have a choice. For example GGGGGG has to follow her religion and she can’t talk to anyone outside of the family. What if you were her, and your problem was with another family member and you wanted to get help, but don’t want to shame your family at the same time? Things like this happen each and everyday and some people just put up with it, and don’t say a word. 5. The author was saying many things about life throughout this entire book. It was a heartfelt book that I think everyone should read. After reading this book you will have a different way of thinking about life. You shouldn’t be afraid to speak up and get help if you need it no matter what anyone says. Being a prisoner to life isn’t the way to live; it can be so much more enjoyable with freedom. Talk......

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Gggggg

...ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ......

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Gggggg

...In the August of 1945, U.S. completed an attack on Japan that left a permanent stain in their culture that will never be forgotten. Japan learned from the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that the tragedy caused by nuclear weapons must never be repeated and that humanity and nuclear weapons cannot coexist. The U.S. along with other feuding countries have missiles pointing at one another, blaming each other for their poor fortune and tragedies. They don’t think about what could possibly come to scar the minds of upcoming generations and how we view our continental neighborhoods. In Hersey’s Hiroshima, he tells the stories of six nuclear bomb survivors and what they seen on that fateful day and how they braved through the devastation that occurred. People going on about their usual daily tasks despite knowing that they could be bombed at anytime. Some moved furniture, lounged about on the veranda, took care of their children, and left to go to work like the Enola Gay wasn’t vastly approaching their homes. When you think about it you begin to question, what have these people done to have the United States destroy everything around them to the point of leveling the places they could call home? What have these children walking back home with their mother possibly done to call an air raid siren a “usual occurrence”? Hersey pointed out that despite Japanese rule the people who live there are effected the most, because they are the ones who must suffer for their governments......

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