History of Civilization

In: Historical Events

Submitted By sprim
Words 503
Pages 3
Type: E
Title: Chapter 2e
How did the geography of the Indian subcontinent influence the development of civilization there?

The Geography of the Indian subcontinent, for sure, influenced the development of civilization. Agriculture was the main occupation for the most of the Indian population. Geography of the Indian subcontinent includes the climate and weather a country has. If there are a lot of floods and droughts it destroyed the harvest and it could cause a bad crop which decrease the supply and increases the prices of the grain all over the world.

There are Himalayan Mountains on the Indian subcontinent territory, they divide India from Asia which prevent from enemies and any kind of immigration. When the snow melts on the Himalayan Mountains it provides a lot of water, which is needed for fertile soil. The northern mountains shield India from cold Artic winds, and make India a sub-tropical climate country. This makes the land mass much warmer than the ocean that surrounds it, prompting the development of the monsoons. Other words Himalayan Mountains protected people from the monsoons and created warm climate. Sailors in the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean very fast figured how to use the monsoon wind to their advantage. Also there are 2 rivers on the Indian subcontinent (Ganges and Indus).The Ganges provides water for the crops and harvest, and not only that, the citizens could use it for transportation purposes as well, and the Indus river nourish the dry plain of southwest of India. In this area the rainfall was very heavy, and late rainfall or no rain at all result unsuccessful harvest. But the first civilizations evolved near Indus where people could grow wheat, barley and cotton, raised up chickens, goats, cattle all of these led to more complex culture, because citizens could trade. Rise of the Indus Civilization and the development of…...

Similar Documents

Indus Civilization

...INDUS CIVILIZATION Indus civilization, also called Indus valley civilization or Harappa civilization, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. It was first identified in 1921 at Harappa in the Punjab region and then in 1922 at Mohenjo-Daro (Mohenjo-Daro), near the Indus River in the Sindh (Sind) region, now both in Pakistan. Subsequently, vestiges of the civilization were found as far apart as Sutkagen Dor, near the shore of the Arabian Sea 300 miles (480 km) west of Karachi, also in Pakistan, and Rupnagar, in India, at the foot of the Shimla Hills 1,000 miles (1,600 km) to the northeast. Later exploration established its existence southward down the west coast of India as far as the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay), 500 miles (800 km) southeast of Karachi, and as far east as the Yamuna (Jumna) River basin, 30 miles (50 km) north of Delhi. It is thus decidedly the most extensive of the world’s three earliest civilizations; the other two are those of Mesopotamia and Egypt, both of which began somewhat before it. The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) located in the western region of South Asia, and spread over what is now Pakistan, northwest India, and eastern Afghanistan. Flourishing in the Indus River basin, the civilization extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the upper reaches Ganges-Yamuna Doab, it extended west to the Makran coast of Baluchistan and north to......

Words: 1401 - Pages: 6


...BUkleja Date 2013-01-03 Civilization Today we look at the future and wonder? Have you ever wondered about the past? We will discuss were we came from in forms of region, religion, as well as artistic expression. If you grew up in North America with in the last thirty years there are things that you would automatically know, such as baseball, hotdogs, rock stars, J.F.K. and Martin Luther King. Why would you know these things? Well first Hot dogs no matter where you came from in the country you had a hotdog either at a family barbeque, quick meal on the go or a sporting event. The idea of such things like sporting events like Baseball and Football pro and college alike, in some areas these can be as inspirational as religion. It may seem like a cliché as the underdog stories like “Rudy”, League of their own or Major League. What do all these things have in common? They each talk of the man or men even women doing what might seem as impossible at the time but what might be need at that time. They each bring hope and inspiration to their characters. Sporting events aren’t the only source of modern day inspiration every now and then we come across great men and women that will inspire or motivate a generation some good and some bad. Let’s us look back at George Washington, Harriet Tubman, Hitler, Martin Luther King and Obama. Each has their place in history President Washington some say the greatest president of all time, Harriet Tubman the bravest women of all time...

Words: 977 - Pages: 4

Contributions of Greek Civilization to Western Civilization

...Alejandra Fraguada Ancient & Medieval Western Civilization Contributions of Greek Civilization to Western Civilization. Ancient Greeks made many influential contributions to western civilization such as in the areas of philosophy, art and architecture, math and science. These contributions, which are also the achievements of ancient Greece, include certain things in the areas of philosophy, art, architecture, math and science. The ancient Greeks were a remarkable civilization in that they have made all these contributions and achievements while simultaneously fighting two wars, the Peloponnesian wars and the Persian wars. Luckily for western civilization, Greece carried on through these hardships and managed to achieve one thing after another, ultimately contributing a vast amount to western civilization. In the area of philosophy, Greece had made many influential contributions to western civilization. Greek philosophers were great thinkers who were determined to seek truth to a certain subject or question no matter where it led them. Three of the most famous philosophers in Greek history include Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato. Socrates, who lived from around 470 to 399 B.C., believed that life was not worth living unless it was examined and the truth about life was sought out. He also believed that there had to be certain standards for justice and punishment. In order to solve problems in life, Socrates invented a method for solving these problems called......

Words: 825 - Pages: 4


...* Civilization Essay * Civilization is the product of the inner human consciousness that projects itself collectively within society. These projections are what we interact with everyday within our own society. These projections are based on the natural interpretation of their respective civilization or culture and the basic walks of life that consume it. For example the existence of laws, arts, religion, and government are the meat and potatoes of civilization without these essential elements humans would be reduced animals that eat to live and breed without leaving a mark or legacy of his own. The fact that humans even want to leave legacy is interweaved into building blocks of civilization. As defined by dictionary.com civilization is an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached. (Dictonary.com) Are humans defined by their civilizations acceptance of their cultural ideologies? How do these ideologies play out in society and what role do these ideologies play in civilization? * The answer is the humanities rule our existence. Humanities because it is the outward expression of our selves our ideas and culture. Humanities capture the human spirit, soul, and inner thoughts and express them in three different ways through visual art, performing art, and literary art. These arts impress upon our society to shape our ideas of the world around us, and how we fit into the grand scheme of......

Words: 489 - Pages: 2


...The stage of human social development and organization that is considered most advanced. Civilization is a term used in many different ways. It can be defined as; people who eat the same kind of foods, People who live together, people who speak the same language, and so on. Yet each way that it is defined relates towards the same topic; Humans and their existence on the planet. Civilization is known greatly as a group of humans or animals that live generally together and practice the same habits. Civilization, according to some historians, first came into play in the year 3000 BCE. These historians look at civilization as people who have the same dietary needs and habits, which practice these habits regularly in order to survive. A couple of years before 3000 BCE, the world went through what historians call the Agricultural revolution. They feel that because of this revolution, groups of people started to come together to practice their farming ways. Because of all the new food supplies that came about through the agricultural revolution, the population started to grow into little villages, which eventually turned into city states. This caused people to look further beyond their little villages in search of more land to hold their growing populations. This caused groups of people to break off and form their own little towns or civilizations. After a while the people learned that by being in different places their farming encountered different weather and growing conditions.......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Civilization History

...how much yield was? Therefore landlords had exaggerated to profit of rented land, more exaggerated more disadvantage for famer, this activity has been seem as immoral. ( page 232-233) II. Carolingian THE HEIRS OF THE EMPIRE: GERMANY, ITALY, AND FRANCE The similarities and differences exist when Carolingian area by 1300 (The situation of Italian, German, French star collapse of the Carolingian Empire).By 1300, France had emerged as a large, stable kingdom. Italy had turned into several reasonably coherent regional entities. The most surprising political developed time the old Carolingian lands. 1. Germany and Empire, 911-1272: _The situation Reich: Two issued are paramount: the role of dynastic and territorial instability in German history and German rulers’ complex, contentious relations with the leaders of the church. The Treaty of Verdun created something essentially new in 843: an East Frankish kingdom. Frankish rulers had long claimed authority over some of the lands that eventually became Germany. Being attacked the Roman Empire. The Empire's reign (Saxons, Salians, Staufer) and King are chosen from one of the duke. (After the end East Frankish Carolingian died in 911). Under varying circumstances, the dukes chose kings from different families several times:Saxons (or Ottonians) 919: When the Saxons came to power, they attempted to control one or more of these duchies, Salians 1024, Staufer 1138. Master of the King competition and the News (At the beginning of......

Words: 4673 - Pages: 19


...1 Civilization What is meant by the term “Civilization” Kenneth Dutton EG 362 Humanities 2 Civilization What is meant by the term “Civilization” and how we characterize it? What role do the humanities play in this definition? The definition of civilization is an advance state of human society that shows high levels of culture, science, industry and the government have been reached. Specifically the state of cultural development at which writing and the keeping of written records is attained. Humanities by definition is the documentation of human being through stories, paintings, religion and beliefs. The stories around the campfire, family heirlooms that come with a story, the journaling of our experiences and lives all become a form of humanities that is passed on to the next civilization after it. Humanities is shown through art and paintings, but does not stop there. The paintings not only tell a story in picture, but document the evolvement in skill of art with techniques and tools. The documentation of beliefs allowing for the development of religion organized societies, giving order or sense of normalcy in the burial of bodies and or praying to a god. In religion art made its presence through sculptures used in religious content. These definitions of humanities were...

Words: 364 - Pages: 2


...Civilization – A Definition What do ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform writing tablets, Egyptian pyramids of Giza, inscribed oracle bones from ancient Chinese divine rituals, and automobiles have in common? Each of these objects represents a bi-product of an ancient or modern civilization. However, many anthropologists, historians, theorists and sociologists alike disagree with regard to how the term civilization should be defined. According to sociologist Robert Park, “Civilization […] is the result of man’s effort to use the resources of his environment in order to change nature and, where possible, make it less raw, more comfortable and less difficult to endure” (Park, 132). He reasons that civilization should be measured by man’s degree of conquest over nature (133). Historian and author Felipe Fernández-Armesto describes civilization as both a “process of collective self-differentiation from a world characterized […] as barbaric or savage or primitive” and a stage reached when a particular society reaches its “climax” (Fernández-Armesto, 13). While peace activist Scott Nearing believed civilization to be the “most comprehensive, extensive and inclusive life pattern achieved by terrestrial humanity,” the philosopher and revolutionary Karl Marx believed that the beginning of civilization symbolized the beginning of oppression (Nearing, 54). In the simplest sense, the Oxford English Dictionary defines the verb “to civilize” as “to bring out of a state of barbarism, to......

Words: 1508 - Pages: 7

Clash of the Civilizations

...The definition of a civilization according to Huntington is a cultural entity. It is the highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of cultural identity people have short of that which distinguishes humans from other species. It is defined by common elements such as: language, history, religion, customs, institutions and the self identification of people. Civilizations may include a large number of people or a very small number of people. They may include several Nation States or only one. They can blend or overlap and even include sub civilizations. Huntington's definition of a civilization matches up well with what we have learned in class. Civilization's are complex and civilizations are dynamic. They rise and fall, and divide and merge. They have many characteristics which include: urban revolution, distinct religious culture, new political and military structures such as bureaucracy, new social structures based on political power, the development of writing and the development of war complexity in material sense. Huntington divided the world into seven other civilizations, Western, Latin American, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu and Slavic-Orthodox. He said that Africa was only a possible civilization. Huntington said that “people's religious and cultural identities will be the main source of conflict in the post- cold war world” and there will be conflict between Western Civilizations and Islamic Civilizations because of seven main......

Words: 579 - Pages: 3


...Civilization Civilization is a hard word to explain, in one word or in a sentence, because it depends on how the society is built and there are many different aspects. Civilization comes from the word civis, which comes from Latin, and means citizen of a city. When you take a look in the mirror, have you ever thought about that you belong to a certain identical group and that your language or culture even could be some of your personality behaviors are a sign of the particular civilization? What is civilization? And how is Civilization defined? According to the dictionary “Civilization” means a society, its culture and way of living life. The definition of civilization refers to a society or it can be group of people or the process of achieving a higher state of social development. When we look at R.Cobb´s drawing about civilization, we see these two mason where some people are blocked inside them both, those peoples are exactly the same but they have created too parts of different civilization and one of the group consider the other group to be “mentally ill” and reverse. A example could be the Israeli-Palestinian conflict that has been going on for 65 years. The new born state took its place back in May 1948. They got mandates for Britain, to occupate the county of the Palestinians. They performed ethnic cleansing, which resulted in millions of refugees of Palestinians in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon. Then they came up with the apartheid politics, which resulted in a wall...

Words: 320 - Pages: 2


...Suzette Wright World Civilization II Jill Walsh July 14, 2013 The role of women in today’s society has changed significantly from the modern age. There will always be different traits of each gender that can’t be duplicated by the opposite gender. Many families have tried to make the responsibility roles more equal amongst the adult male and female in the house hold. In today’s society the women is still treated un equal, less human rights than a man and the American culture still tends to believe that a women can’t do a job that a man can. In the modern age, the women were expected to raise the children, keep the house cleaned and have dinner ready when the man gets home at the end of the day. Families were not able to pay for the expense of child care so the mother stayed home with the children. Many of the children were also home taught because school was too expensive or too far for the family to travel to. The man in the house hold tried to do some hunting and they grew their own crops to cut down on the cost of food. Times started to change and families could barely get by so it became worthwhile for the female to try and find a way to help out the family financial as well. When it was time for the women to enter the work field, it was difficult for them at first. Employers had a lot of doubt in the female’s work ability and the quality of the job they were capable of. In the eye of an employer, men are seen to be a strong......

Words: 2208 - Pages: 9

African Civilizations

...The idea that Africans have contributed little to world civilization is one which many in the West have for a long time assumed and taken for granted. Thanks in part to depictions of Africa which rarely extend past civil wars, famine and the primitive; information about Africa’s past advances and accomplishments have continued to remain obscure and little known. Since first contact between Europe and Africa the history of Africa has been fundamentally dominated by the way Europeans have portrayed themselves in relationship to that continent. So that most of what we read and see about Africa tends to say -- either directly or indirectly -- more about the history of European colonialism and its biases toward Africa than it does about the real Africa and its people (see Ahmad, 1987). The majority of people today of all backgrounds, including those of African ancestry, tend to know little about Africa and its history outside of the transatlantic slave trade and perhaps colonialism. While even in these instances knowledge about these events can be at times, limited. The African continent is too often conceived of as one with no legitimate history before contact with Europeans. Formal anthropological research is now showing that this notion could not be further from the truth. In the bible Ham's sons are believed to have fathered the peoples of Africa. Of Ham's four sons, Canaan, fathered the Canaanites, while Mizraim fathered the Egyptians, Cush the Cushites and Phut the......

Words: 1957 - Pages: 8

Mioan Civilization

...Michael Miner World Cultures I Professor Friedrich November 2, 2015 Minoan Civilization Throughout history the Minoan civilization was very major during its time. “Prior to the classical Greek culture, during the Bronze Age, lived the Minoans.” The Minoans was credited as being Europe’s first great civilization. “Named after the legendary King Minos, the Minoans were an advanced society made up of highly cultivated artists and extremely intelligent engineers.” While researching, it showed the Minoans were primarily mercantilist people, engaged in overseas trade and managed a lucrative maritime empire, dominating the Mediterranean, the Greek islands, Greece, and expanded all the way out to the Black Sea. “A sophisticated group of people, they were also the first Europeans to use a written language, “known as Linear A, as well as the first to construct paved roads.” Located in the Middle of the eastern Mediterranean, at the crossroads of Africa, Asia, and Europe, “was the mountainous islands of Crete.” It was there were the magnificent civilization, “flourished.” Archeological evidence shows there was a habitation on the islands since the seventh millennium.” After the fifth millennium B.C., they found the first evidence of handmade pottery, marking the beginning of the civilization. “History showed that the Crete had 90 cities, of which Knossos was the most important one. “However, research shows the palaces of the Minoans were destroyed by forces unknown to us......

Words: 498 - Pages: 2

History of World Civilizations

...Jeremy Drummond History of World Civilizations Dr. Israel December 9, 2014 Horrible Aztecs or Hypocritical Spaniards? Since the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Americas in 1492, many other “explorers” sought to conquer the various native tribes and exploit the resources the Americas had to offer. When discovered by the European explorers, it was only a matter of time the not-so-great- Spanish conquistadors arrived with their plans to take over the Americas – even if it meant generating rumors and propaganda about how horrible the Aztecs were. The conquistadors would bring back reports to Europe saying the Aztecs were a brutal, human sacrificing cult who needed to be destroyed. While there is some archeological evidence to back up these claims, the Spanish strongly exaggerated the truth about such to coerce the Christians in Western Europe into thinking their invasion of the Americas was okay. Upon arriving in Mexico, Hernando Cortes, a famous Spanish Explorer who unbeknownst to many gave California its name, was an enslaver and murderer of not only the Aztecs, but his own people as well. “He was known to dismantle his own ships in an effort to force his followers had no choice but to follow him inland (Jaffee).”1 The sheer self-righteousness of he and his followers, none can fathom. At first, Cortes was mistakenly thought to be “Quetzalcoatl,” or the “bearded god of the Aztecs” because of his light skin and beard. On the contrary, Cortes is nothing close...

Words: 816 - Pages: 4

Unwinding the Spool of Civilization in Ponting's the Green History of the World

...Unwinding the Spool of Civilization in Ponting's The Green History of the World and Quinn's Ishmael Clive Ponting's The Green History of the World and Daniel Quinn's Ishmael both critique the dominant paradigms of modern human civilization-especially where its relationship with environment is concerned. Both feel strongly that we are in trouble. Neither are quite willing to make final connections and present us with a systematic method for getting out of our impending ecological crisis, but they both do spell out what has been wrong, what is wrong now, and what will happen should we choose not to take evasive action. In the absence of similar works "in the canon" it is hard not to feel as though, (as the character Ishmael promised), if you accept their premises you are doomed to isolation for, those who see the future most clearly are usually outcasts, lost as to what power they may have to change minds and directions. Enlightenment almost always comes at a price, often steep. In the interest of exploring the necessity of dissent, let's follow that line of environmental thought a little further. Ponting presents us with the scientific/cultural evidence that backs up what Quinn is saying: that we as a species are destroying our foundations even as we proclaim our creation-Civilization-a success. If this massive breakdown and foreboding future are certainties, then we must ask-as Quinn does-who or what is telling us lies to make us believe otherwise? His......

Words: 1062 - Pages: 5