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Hospitality and Restaurant Services

In: Business and Management

Submitted By allancedeno
Words 3326
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Week 3 Sanitation and Food Safety

Professionalism is an attitude that reflects pride in the quality of your work. One of the most important ways of demonstrating professional pride is in the area of sanitation and safety. Pride in quality is reflected in your appearance and work habits. Poor hygiene, poor grooming and personal care, and poor work habits are nothing to be proud of.

Poor food handling procedures and unclean kitchen cause illness, unhappy customers, and even fines, summonses, and lawsuits. Poor kitchen safety results in injuries, medical bills, and workdays lost. Finally, poor sanitation and safety habits show lack of respects for your customers, for your fellow workers, and for yourself.

You study the causes of food-borne diseases and kitchen injuries, and you will learn ways of preventing them. Prevention of course, is the most important thing to learn. It is not as important to be able to recite the names of disease-causing bacteria as it is to be able to prevent their growth in food.

Sanitation refers to the maintenance of healthy and hygienic conditions that is free from disease-causing organisms
The Prevention of Food-Borne illness
Preventing food-borne illness- is one of the most important challenges facing every food service worker. Most food-borne illness is the result of eating food that has been contaminated. To say that a food is contaminated means it contains harmful substances that were not present originally in the food. In other words, contaminated food is food that is not pure. Any substance in food that can cause illness or illness or injury is called a hazard. Food hazards are 3 types: * Biological * Chemical * Physical

Biological Toxins are made by pathogens, or they come from plant and or animal.
Plant toxins
Mushrooms toxins

Seafood Toxins Seafood toxins can’t be smelled or tasted. They also can’t be destroyed by freezing or cooking once they form in food.
Fish toxins some fish toxins are natural part of the fish. Others are made e by pathogens on it. Some fish can be contaminated when they eat smaller fish that have eaten a toxin.
Shellfish toxins oysters can be contaminated when they eat marine algae that have a toxin
Plant Toxin Plant contamination is another form of biological contamination. Illnesses from plat toxins usually happen because an operation has purchased plants from an unapproved supplier. Some illnesses however are caused by plants that haven’t been cooked the right way Here are some examples of items that can make people sick.
Toxins plants such as fool’s parsley or wild turnips, mistaken for the edible version.
Honey from bees allowed to harvest nectar from toxic plants
Undercooked kidney beans
Mushrooms Toxin Food borne illnesses linked with mushrooms are almost always caused by eating toxic, wild mushrooms collected by amateur hunters. Most cases happen because toxic mushrooms are mistaken for edible ones. The symptoms of illness depend on the type of toxic mushrooms eaten. Mushrooms toxins are not destroyed by cook8ing or freezing. Does not use mushrooms or mushrooms products unless you have purchased them from approved, reputable supplier.


The most important kind of biological hazards to consider are microorganisms. A microorganism is a tiny, usually single-celled organism that can be seen only with a microscope. A microorganism that can cause disease is called pathogens. Although these organisms sometimes occur in cluster large enough to be seen with the naked eye, they are not usually visible. This is one reason why they can be so dangerous. Just because food looks good doesn’t mean it is safe. Four kinds of microorganisms can contaminate food and cause illness.

* Bacteria * Viruses * Fungi * Parasites
What Pathogens Needs to Grow Understanding how pathogens grow can help you prevent food borne-illness outbreaks. pathogens need six conditions to grow. You can remember these conditions by thinking the words FAT TOM | Food = To grow, pathogens need an energy source, such as carbohydrates or proteins | | Acidity = Pathogens grow best in food that contains little or no acid | | Temperature = Pathogens grow well in food held between the temperature of 41”F and 135”F ( 5”C and 57”C ). This range is known as the temperature dander zone. | | Time = Pathogens need time to grow. When food is in the temperature danger zone pathogens grow. After four hours, they will grow to a level high enough to make someone sick | | Oxygen = Some pathogen need oxygen to grow Others grow when oxygen is not there. | | Moisture = Pathogens need moisture in food to grow |

Food Most Likely To Become Unsafe
Any type of food can be contaminated. But some types are better for the growth of pathogens Milk and dairy products | | Meat , beef, pork, and lamb | | Fish | | Baked potatoes | | Or other soy bean | | Sliced melons, cut tomatoes | | Eggs ( except those treated to eliminate salmonella | | Poultry | | Shellfish and crustaceans * | * | Heat-treated plant food such as cooked rice, * | * | * beans Sprouts and sprout seeds * | * | Untreated garlic- and oil mixtures * | * |

Note: 1 All these types of food have the right FAT TOM conditions that pathogens need to grow. They have a natural potential for contamination because of the way they are grown, produced, or processed. They are also commonly involved in food borne- illness outbreaks.
2. Time-temperature abuse- Food has been-temperature abused when it stays too long at temperatures that are good for pathogen growth
3. Food borne illness – disease transmitted to people by food.
4. Food contamination refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness
Controlling the Growth of Pathogens You can help food safe by controlling FAT TOM. In your operation, however, you will most be able to control only time and temperature. These two conditions are so important that food needs time and temperature control for safety, or TCS
Types of pathogens


Bacteria are everywhere- in the air, in the water, in the ground, on our food, on our skin, inside our bodies.
Bacteria are single celled living organisms. They reproduce by splitting in two. A process known as binary fission. One bacterium can become nearly 10 billion bacteria in just 10hrs.

Classification of Bacteria

1. Harmless bacteria
Most bacteria fall into this category. They are neither helpful nor harmful to us.

2. Beneficial bacteria
These bacteria are helpful to us. For ex. Many live in the intestinal tract, where they fight harmful bacteria, aid the digestion of food, and produce a certain nutrients. In food production, bacteria make possible the manufacture of many foods, including cheese, yogurt, and sauerkraut.

3. Undesirable bacteria
These are the bacteria that are responsible for food spoilage. They cause souring, putrefying (molds), and decomposition. These bacteria may or may not cause disease, but they offer a built-in-safety factor. They announce their presence of sour odors, sticky or slimy surfaces, and discoloration. As long as we use common sense and follow the rule that says “when in doubt, throw it out”; we are relatively safe from these bacteria.

4. Disease-causing bacteria or pathogens
These are the bacteria that cause most food-borne illness. Pathogens do not necessarily leave detectable odors or tastes in food. In other words, you can’t tell if food is contaminated by smelling, tasting, or looking at it. The only way to protect against pathogenic bacteria is to use proper hygiene and sanitary food handling and storage techniques.

Each kind of bacterial pathogens causes disease in one of 3 ways:

1. Intoxications- are caused by poisons (toxins) the bacteria produce while they are growing in the food. It is these poisons, not the bacteria themselves that cause the disease. 2. Infections- are caused by bacteria that get into the intestinal system and attack the body. Disease is caused by the bacteria as they multiply in the body. 3. Toxin- mediated infections- are also caused by bacteria that get into the body and grow. Disease is caused by poisons the bacteria produce as they grow and multiply. Most food-borne diseases are toxin-mediated infections.

Bacterial Growth Bacteria multiply by splitting in half. Under ideal conditions for growth, they can do double in number every 15 to 30 minutes. This means that one single bacterium could multiply to a million in less than 6 hours. Some bacteria make toxins in food as they grow and die. People who eat the toxins can be sick. Cooking may not destroy these toxins
When bacteria are introduced to a new environment, they need time to adjust to their surroundings before they start growing. This time is called the lag phase. If other conditions are good, the lag phase may last 1 hour or somewhat longer.

Protection against Bacteria There are 3 basic principles of food protection against bacteria.

1. Keep bacteria from spreading
Don’t let food touch anything that may contain disease- producing bacteria, and protect food from bacteria in the air. 2. Stop bacteria from growing
The most effective way to prevent growth is to keep foods below 41ºF (5ºC) or above 135ºF (57ºC). These temperatures won’t necessarily kill bacteria; they will just slow down their growth greatly.

Food poisoning
The symptoms of food poisoning usually affect your stomach and intestines (gastrointestinal tract). * The first symptom is usually diarrhea. * Other symptoms include feeling sick to your stomach (nausea), vomiting, and abdominal cramps.
The time it takes for symptoms to appear, how severe the symptoms are, and how long the symptoms last depend on the infecting organism, your age, and your overall health.
Food Poisoning which is the result of bacterial contamination, can be classified into 3 namely:


| Botulism- caused by toxins produced by the bacterium | | Salmonella- caused by toxins produced in foods by the bacterium staphylococcus aureus, stap is probably the most common food poisoning, characterized by nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and diarrhea. Foods involved are custard & desserts, protein salads, potato salads, ham,.hollandaise sauce & other high protein | | Shigella-symptoms are diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, cramps, chills & dehydration. The illness can last 4 to 7 days. Foods involved are salads or other raw or cold cooked foods, dairy products, poultry. | | Clostridium Perfringens- symptoms are nausea, cramps, stomach pain and diarrhea. The bacteria are hard to destroy because they are not always killed by cooking. Foods involved are meats and poultry, reheated or unrefrigerated gravies and sauce. | | Streptococcal- (strep) symptoms of this are fever and sore throat. Foods involved are any food contaminated by coughs, sneezes, or infected food workers. | | Bacillus Cereus-symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain. This disease usually lasts less than a day. Foods involved are grains, pastries, and food w/ starch thickeners, milk, meats, vegetables and fish. | | Hepatitis A- this is a severe disease that can last for many months. Foods involved are shellfish eaten raw, any food contaminated by an infected person. |
2. BiologicaL Taken from plants with toxic constituents and also from animal toxin
3. Chemical From pesticides, chemicals like mercury, lead, etc

Different Types Of Bacteria 1. Psychrophiles – cold, loving bacteria, destroyed 1 by heat | | 2.Mesophiles – bacteria that thrive at moderate temperatures, destroyed by heat, slowed by cooling | | 3.Thermophiles – heat-loving bacteria, destroyed by cooling | |


Viruses are even us to make food safe by cooking and to sanitize dishes and equipment with heat. The terms sanitize means to kill disease-causing bacteria
Viruses can survive cooler and freezer temperatures. They can’t grow in food. But once eaten, they grow inside a person’s intestines.
Viruses can be transferred from person to person from people to food and from people to food-contact surfaces. People carry viruses in their feces and can transfer them to their hands after using the restrooms. Ready to eat food can then become contaminated if hands are not washed the right away.

Molds and yeast are examples of fungi. These organisms are associated primarily with food spoilage rather than food-borne disease. Most molds and yeasts are not dangerous to most human beings. Some are beneficial, and are responsible for the veining in blue cheese and the fermentation of bread dough. Some molds produce toxins that can cause allergic reactions and severe disease in those people who are susceptible. Fungi are found in air, soil, plants, water, and some food. * *
Molds spoil food and sometimes causes illness, the grow in acidic food with little moisture. Ex: jams, jelly, and cured, salty meat, such as ham, bacon, and salami * Cooler or freezer temperature may the growth of molds, but they don’t kill them.
Yeast can spoil food quickly. Sign of spoilage can include a smell or taste of alcohol. The yeast itself may look like a white or pink discoloration or slime. It also may bubble
Note: like molds , yeast grow well in acidic food with little moisture, such as jellies, jams, syrup, honey, and fruit or fruit juice

Parasites are organisms that can survive only by living on or inside another organism. The organism a parasite lives in and takes nourishment from is called host. Human parasites are generally transmitted to them from animal hosts. They can usually be killed by proper cooking or by freezing.
Parasite can contaminate both food and water particularly water used to irrigate produce.12


Once you have learned the information in the first part of this lesson, you must apply it in the kitchen.

THE HACCP SYSTEM Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)- is the food safety system that has been confirmed as effectively by various health authorities worldwide that can assure safe food in all stages of the food chain. HACCP includes three basis groups of elements: * The pre-requisite programs * The preliminary steps * The 7 HACCP principles

HACCP Prerequisites

The pre-requisite programs are sanitation measures indicated in the Good Hygiene Practices and the Sanitation Operating Procedures (SSOP). The SSOPs are detailed procedures that the establishment prepares and implements to maintain sanitary conditions for food preparation.

Preliminary Steps

The preliminary steps are: description of the food in focus, its intended use, the specific process flow involved in the preparation of the food, as well as the composition of the team will work on the HACCP.
Seven Principles of HACCP

1. Conduct a Hazard Analysis. This will mean examination of all raw materials and procedures so that none of the hazards described; physical, chemical or biological can be present in the food.

2. Identify the Critical Control Points. This means that the part/s of the process that will entail risk of contamination need to be identified. This is called the CCP or Critical Control Point.

3. Set up Standards or Limits for Critical Control Points. Once the CCPs have been identified, the factors that will control the hazards have to be set.. Example. The time and temperature of cooking has to be set so that bacterial hazards will be destroyed.

4. Monitor the Critical Limits indicated. This principle indicates that the critical limits at the CCPs have to be constantly watched so that any deviation from the set limits will not pass unnoticed. This will be the basis for doing the next step.

5. Establish Corrective Actions. Once monitoring indicates deviation from the limits set, an immediate correction has to be made. In our example of cooking time and temperature, if the temperature has not been reached, the corrective action would be to cook longer so that such requires cooking temperature will be achieved.

6. Set Up a Recordkeeping System. It means that the hazard analysis is reviewed so that all hazards that are likely to occur are addressed and that the identified critical control points and the monitoring method employed are valid in ensuring the safety of the product. This further implies that all instruments used such as thermometers and weighing balances should be properly calibrated at all times.

7. Verify that the System is Working. Record the results of monitoring and corrective actions taken, maintaining documents used in the preparation of the HACCP Plan. This is the recording of data taken from monitoring, corrective actions and even the data used to determine the critical limits, the hazards present and the CCPs. The recording system employed will depend on the complexity of the set up

For the food worker, the first step in preventing food-borne disease is good personal hygiene. Even when we are healthy, we have bacteria all over our skin and in our nose and mouth. Some of these bacteria is given the chance to grow in food, will make people ill.

1. Do not work with food if you have any communicable disease or infection. 2. Bath or shower daily. 3. Wear clean uniform and aprons. 4. Keep hair neat and clean. Always wear a hat or hairnet. 5. Keep mustaches and beards trimmed and clean. Better yet, be clean-shaven. 6. Wash hands and exposed parts of arms before work and as often as necessary during work, after eating, drinking or smoking, after using the toilet, after touching or handling anything that may be contaminated with bacteria. 7. Cover coughs and sneezes, and then wash hands. 8. Keep your hands away from your face, eyes, hair and arms. 9. Keep fingernails clean, and short. Do not wear nail polish. 10. Do not smoke or chew gum while on duty. 11. Cover or sores with clean bandages. 12. Do not sit on worktables.
PROCEDURE FOR PROPER WASHING HANDS 1. Wet hands with hot running water. Use water as hot as you can comfortably stand, but at least 100°F. 2. Apply soap to make a good lather. 3. Rub hands together thoroughly for 20 seconds, washing not only the hands but the wrists and the lower part of the forearms. 4. Using a nail brush, clean beneath the fingernails and between the fingers. 5. Rinse hand well under hot running water. If possible, use a clean towel off the water to avoid contaminating the hands by contact with soiled faucets.
Dry hands with clean single-use paper towels or a warm-air-hand washing dryer
Washing your hands conscientiously & frequently is one of the most important elements in keeping foods safe. * When arriving at work or returning to the kitchen * After using the bathroom * After smoking * After sneezing * After touching your hair, face or clothing * After eating or drinking * After taking off or before putting on a new pair of gloves * Before handling food, especially ready-to-eat like salads & sandwiches * After handling garbage * After handling dirty equipment, dishes or utensils * After touching raw meats, poultry & fish * Anytime you change from one task to another

How long can foods be stored? Even if foods are refrigerated, the storage must not be prolonged to maintain their quality & to prevent spoilage. Consuming spoiled food can be dangerous to one’s health. Items | Length of Storage | 1. Refrigerate steaks & roasts | Must be consumed w/in 3 to 5 days after purchase | 2. Ground meats, fresh poultry & raw fish | Consume w/in 1 to 2 days after purchase | 3. Milk, cream, cheese & cream cheese | Good only for 1 week after opening | 4. Tightly wrapped Hard Cheeses | 3 to 3 months | 5. Eggs | 3 to 4 weeks when refrigerated | 6. Cooked or uncooked vegetables | 3 to 5 days when refrigerated | 7. Berries | 3 to 5 days in the refrigerator before they mold or not | 8. Bread, cakes & cookies or anything from batter w/ yeast or wheat | Within 1 week to avoid molds | 9. Baked goods | 2 weeks when refrigerated |

Clean Uniforms

* Start each shift in a clean uniform * Whenever possible put your uniform on at work, rather than wearing in from your home to the workplace * Replace aprons whenever they are soiled. Do not use aprons to dry hands or wipe down tools or equipment * Use only clean dry side towels for holding or moving hot containers…...

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Mcdonald’s--the Best Restaurant in Innovation and Quality of Service

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