How Does a Jpeg Work

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By yatush
Words 1599
Pages 7
How JPEG works

Introduction - Images
An image is a 2D matrix of values Color images consist of 3 RGB matrices, Grayscale images consist of one This basic format is BMP

Introduction - JPEG
JPEG – Joint Photographic Expert Group Late 1980’s, early 1990’s Consumer level computers
Relatively high processing power Low bandwidth.

Goal: File size↓ Picture quality~ Voted as international standard in 1992 Photos Scanned text or images with sharp transitions

Introduction - Motivation
2 Observations:
A large majority of useful image content changes slowly across images Experiments show that the human eye is less sensitive to loss of high spatial frequencies

Now let’s see how we can use these observations!!!

Outline
Phase 1: Color transform Phase 2: Divide the picture Phase 3: Conversion to frequency domain Phase 4: Quantization Phase 5: Entropy Coding Comparison to other formats

Outline – phase 1 (lossless)
Phase 1: Color transform Phase 2: Divide the picture Phase 3: Conversion to frequency domain Phase 4: Quantization Phase 5: Entropy Coding Comparison to other formats

Color transform RGB->YCbCr
Red

RGB Image
Green

Blue

Color transform RGB->YCbCr
Transformation in the color space RGB has all the information, however, if we want to encode, we can’t decide which of the Red/Green/Blue is more important. Y – brightness (luma), Cb – Chromatic blue, Cr – Chromatic red. Only Y will show black/white TV. More bits are used for Y, less for the Cb/Cr.

To help protect y our priv acy , PowerPoint has block ed automatic download of this picture.

Color transform RGB->YCbCr
•General RBG -> YPbPr

•YPbPr -> YCbCr •ITU-R BT.601 Standard
K B = 0.114 , K R = 0.299

RGB → YCbCr Y = 0.3R + 0.6G + 0.1B

YCbCr → RGB R = Y + 1.4 ( Cr − 128 )

Cb = −0.2 R − 0.3G + 0.5 B + 128 G = Y − 0.3 ( Cb − 128 ) − 0.7 ( Cr − 128 ) Cr = 0.5 R −…...

Similar Documents

What Is Internet and How Does It Work?

...------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- What is Internet and how does it Work? Radu Zatreanu HS Web Design 10 B 02/13/12 We can't imagine our lives without it anymore, by having one using it from hour to hour on a daily basis. Multi-purpose as it had accustomed us, right from the beginning, the "Internet" has pushed well-established limits forward, in terms of jobs, socializing, financing, information or entertainment. Its full potential is not used, yet it will be discovered in future, it is predictable. However, there are numerous limitations reported to using such technology, as it creates dependancy. Deaths have been found out of children or teenagers spending 24 hrs. or more on the internet. Another serious problem would be the inverse effect of virtual socializing. Instead of having people talking to each other, you get messengers in form of (computer and internet), speaking for yourself. This affects not only the youth but also adults as it tends to change their moods/emotions and bring introverts out of them. However, it is important to look at the internet's history, how it all started, how it did progress over such a short period of time and most important, the complexity of its system. The history of the internet has its roots to as early as 1957, right after URSS successfully......

Words: 1401 - Pages: 6

How Does Culture Affect Work

...Work plays an important part in our lives. Growing up we see our parents, grandparents and relatives work to provide for their family. In order to survive in this world, an individual has to work. A man’s basic needs; food, clothing and shelter comes with a price, and in order to have the basic needs a man has to work. Most people like us work in order to get compensated and have enough to feed the family. Some people work to succeed. They do not just have a job, but they want careers. They will challenge themselves to go higher and higher in the business world. They work not only for the money but for self-respect and gratification about themselves. Individuals, who are born rich, will consider pursuing their hobbies into work. They start their own fashion line, or perfumes, become a singer or actor, but all this is considered work. Different cultures look at work differently. I was born and raised in India. Growing up, friends, relatives and neighbors all at some point of time dreamt about coming to America, the land of opportunities. I knew a few people who came here to work, and heard stories from them about how the working environment in America is different from that in India. It made me want to come here and take advantage of the opportunities out here and make a name for myself. When I first came here and started working at the hospital, I came across various cultures, but all had one thing in common, they all worked hard. There was no job that was inferior to......

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

How Does Steinbeck Present the Ranch Community in of Mice and Men? Value of Work and Working Men in of Mice and Men for Gcse and Igcse

...How does Steinbeck present the ranch community in Of Mice and Men? Value of Work and Working Men in Of Mice and Men for GCSE and IGCSE Steinbeck presents the ranch community with a startling degree of realism, dramatising a condition created by the Great Depression of migrant labourers, forced into work communities, with no families. This is summarized in the key quotation at the start of the novel where George says ‘guys like us are the loneliest guys in the world.’ It’s a large scale farm with permanent and temporary workers, then the boss and boss’ son, and wife - who all have a higher status. The men put in ‘crops’ but never reap what they sow. The American Dream is to be self-reliant and self-sufficient - to own land - not to be isolated, but to be empowered, to be secure and to be able to ‘have fren’s over’. Though the men are forced into community on the ranch, there’s little friendship or kindness because of the poor conditions and poor job security. The community is presented as being intolerant of any kind of weakness - is racist and sexist - and often cruel. Here, there’s little sense of humanity: man is a machine whose purpose is to work. If one breaks down, you can always get another one. IDEA ONE The ranch is at the heart of the novel, framed by Chapters One and Six which are set in the same Edenic natural landscape in the ‘Gabilan hills’. This is the natural, god-given beauty of America - ‘gold’ and ‘warm’ - precious. It has both a mythical and a vividly......

Words: 1326 - Pages: 6

How to Work

...department at work. You recommend to a coworker and friend in another department that she should apply. You previously consulted with this person on small projects, and she appears knowledgeable and responsible. In fact, you became friends through these work contacts. Your friend appreciates your recommendation and arranges a meeting to ask you more details about the work done by your department. The meeting is productive, and your friend takes notes to help with the application process. Your friend stops by your desk a few days later to thank you for your help, because the application was long and detailed. She confides that some of the information she included on the application is not entirely accurate. Some of her work experience did not match the job requirements and needed to be reworded for a better fit. Your friend thanks you again and says, “I hope we’ll be working together soon!” Part A: Write five questions you need to ask yourself to help you think through the situation and determine a course of action. 1. What should I have done when I seen time was slipping away? 2. Is anything I could do for the group to make for my lack of work? 3. Am I using time management wisely? 4. Do I have too much going on and need to change my time management around? 5. What could I have done differently? Part B: Questioning yourself, as you did in the exercise above, is a form of critical thinking. This can, in turn, help you understand more about how you......

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

How Does Change Affect the People at Work?

...Q.1 How does change affect people at work? Managing Change : Change is Charming Embrace it ! A change means any process involving a difference in some feature of an organization at two points in time. Change is a fact of life for any organization. It is unavoidable that all organizations need to change their practice time to time as per requirement to remain in competitive market. In current scenario the organization who have made the changes as per current requirement are succeed in the market. Change can be either planned or emergent. In planned change there is a sequence of steps but in emergent change is not simply chaotic change. It takes place in incremental and gradual ways on an ongoing basis. Employees have a more proactive role to play in the change process. Many organizations practice a mixture of both planned and emergent change.   When the people in organization realize that their current organizational culture required to transform to support the organization’s success and progress, change can happened but it is not so easy. Change can be affect the people by following ways 1. Fear of the unknown 2. Fear of failure 3. Disagreement with the need for change 4. Losing something of valu 5. Leaving a comfort zone 6. False beliefs 7. Misunderstanding and lack of trust 8. Inertia 9. Job insecurity 10. Feel job pressures 11. Loss of commitment to the organization 12. Survival problem in changed situation 13.......

Words: 908 - Pages: 4

How Does It Work

...differentiates your idea from the competition (e.g., odd-numbered mismatched socks, chauffer service that gets you and your car home safely, ice cream shaped like a hot dog that can be accessorized)? Paint a picture of how and why customers will be attracted to your product. 4) Value Proposition Highlight what benefits your product will bring to the customers, whether they are specific TJX stores or TJX end-use customers or both. How will it increase earnings or cut costs? The critical difference between the Product Description and the Value Proposition is data: “Show me the numbers.” Supply some quantitative data that supports the feasibility of your business. Find facts and figures that show the size of your potential market, their disposable income, the projected growth of a particular market niche, etc. Cite industry analysis, if appropriate. Use a graph or pie chart to highlight the data. For example, in the case of LittleMissMatched, the Value Proposition would focus on: i) the population of “tweens” in the U.S. (How many are there?) ii) the potential buying power of that age group (How much do they spend on clothes each year?) ii) the number of socks sold each year (5 Billion) iii) Then, Little Missmatched would guesstimate from the data above how many socks they can sell. 5) Competition: Show that you have some knowledge of the competition in the marketplace. 6) Question? = last slide....

Words: 316 - Pages: 2

How Does Comerical Music Work

...sincerity, and others will be able to relate to your songs – especially if it’s on a subject matter that they know or will experience. 5.) Keep it short. Keep the length of your songs down to a maximum of four minutes. Jazz and World Music are exceptions. A song that is well written makes people want to hear it again, and again, and again. The longer the song is, the less likely that will happen. Don’t believe me? Check the length of your favorite songs. 6.) Well-Performed. Most outstanding vocalists are often surprised by how low this rule is on the list. The fact is that there are more mediocre songs performed by outstanding vocalists, than there are mediocre vocalists performing outstanding songs. A good song that is well-performed gives it an edge, but if the song is lacking, all of the yelling and vocal acrobatics that singers tend to use to compensate for it, will not make it a better song….though it may help the singer to attract better songwriters to work with. Now that you know the 6 rules of commercial music success, hopefully you will be able to use this information to your advantage and create songs that will increase your chances of success in your professional music endeavors…or you can ignore them and continue to wonder why no one (other than your friends and family – all of which listen to commercial music) like your songs....

Words: 956 - Pages: 4

How Does Labeling Work in Azerbijan

...How does labeling works in Azerbaijan? If we look around us, we can notice that most of the products we use have icons on them, which we call labels or sustainable certification. This term refers to standards related to some issues like food, social and environmental, and it is taken by companies to show off their quality and performance to some people. This so called “labeling” started in 1980s and 90s when some labels, called “Ecolabels”, were introduced to the world. However, after 90s, the number of these labels has rapidly increased. There are two premises of these sustainable standards. First, they began to appear in the places where legislation was not so powerful, and these places demanded some action. Especially, NGO movements around the world needed these actions that were also supported by the consumer. The most interesting factories like Nike, Levi Strauss and other famous brands helped to create the welfare standards. Second, in order to show the truth about both environmental and organic values of products, which helped to increase the number of labels tremendously. We can show FLO International as an example that gained huge success and sales in the world because of their product. Other example is Forest Stewardship Council’s Standards (FSC) used for many products made from trees. However, there are some problems between consumers and B2B standards that lead many buyers to buy only something with a certain label: for example to buy books with only FSC......

Words: 2589 - Pages: 11

What Is the Conscience? How Does “Natural Law” Work to Inform Our Conscience?

...August 18, 2013 Before I start anything about how what is conscience and how natural law work to inform our conscience, I will first give a little emphasis on what conscience is. According to Mueller in Theological Foundation on p.222, define conscience as something that involves several aspects of human reaction. He further explains that Conscience is a huge part of the human character that makes him or her to know and do good. He also explained further that Conscience is also a way to for us human being to determine what is good and what is evil. The second Vatican Council explained that “Conscience is the voice of God written in our hearts”. In dictionary.com, Conscience is said to be the inner sense of what is right or wrong in one's conduct, motives or action. According to Richard Gula cited from “Conscience” in Christian Ethics: An Introduction, Bernard Hoose, ed. (Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1998), p. (110-122) Defines “Conscience as the whole person’s commitment to value and the judgment one makes in relation to that commitment of who one ought to be and what one ought to do or not do.” (p. 114) Also seen as a capacity of a fundamental ability to know good and evil; every person, regardless of past experience, or their culture or religion, has the ability to know the values and standards that guide human life. Can also be seen as a process for finding out what is involved in becoming a good person, and in how one discovers right and wrong in a......

Words: 995 - Pages: 4

How Does a Philosophical Argument Work

...How do philosophical arguments work? The idea of philosophy incorporates numerous types of differentiating arguments that involve views on philosophical issues such as major topics such as, God’s existence or whether Morality is subjective. As well as this, the types of arguments that philosophical issues can consist of can also be used as background knowledge for the specified argument. Arguments are made in terms of ‘proofs’ which is “an argument that begins with one or more premise, which are propositions taken for granted for the purposive the argument and argues to a conclusion” which is stated by an author Richard Swinbourne in his novel regarding the existence of God. Another aspect of a proof is that it cannot be false in regards to it being factual. Mathematics is an example of this as a sum of 5+5=10 and in the definition of 5+5, it must always equal to 10. A proof can be untrue but cannot be false and there is a very big difference between these two statements as a proof has to be a logically proven statement. A proof has to include a premise in which i previously stated and a premise is a statement that an argument claims will induce or justify a conclusion. a premise is an assumption that something is true in which it requires a set of at least two declarative sentences(propositions) known as the premises along with another proposition commonly known as the conclusion. This structure of two premises and one conclusion forms the basic argumentative......

Words: 1064 - Pages: 5

Nra Things It Does and How It Does Things

...Amendment. After the initial evaluation, the court deemed whether they had the justification to ban handguns. The court argued that the ban was justified by congress’s wish to reduce crime and the second amendment does not restrict the selling of handguns. The court reasoned that with the prohibition on dealers transferring a firearm to an individual that would violate that laws of the individual’s state of residence and ruled out any justification for the ban on interstate handgun transfers. Interestingly the ban that the executive branch would have been repealed by a proposal that Obama supported in 2013. #2 California: The NRA Files a Brief Urging Supreme Court To Rehear Challenge To Ban on Common Semi-Automatic Firearms and Magazines This article was written on whether the semi-automatic firearms and magazines are allowed just because the public thinks that it makes them feel safer. The controversies were between the second amendment supporters and those who thought that there was need for semi-automatic weapons for hunting as they were military grade weapons. This is an ongoing debate with the NRA and the CRPA funding the attorneys and the resources to fight for the public. C. The NRA is able to be effective due to their large amount of money they have to work with which they use to hire great attorneys,  legislative advocates, and scholars has the experience, resources, skill and expertise needed to maximize the potential for victory. They have a big and......

Words: 870 - Pages: 4

Does Aa Work

...November 2011 What Can AA Do for Problem Drinkers? Does Alcoholics Anonymous work? Many people have family members and/or loved ones that have a drinking problem. So what should they do to get help? There are many different abstinence programs; Alcoholics Anonymous, also known as AA, is one of the programs. An analysis of the AA program reveals that the program can be very effective, but only if the alcoholic wants help and gets the help they need. AA celebrated their 76th anniversary this year. They counted two million members participating in 115,000 groups worldwide, half of them in the U.S. AA started its first meeting in Akron, Ohio, in 1935. Bill Wilson, a businessman, and Bob Smith, a physician, started the association. They were both alcoholics. Bill Wilson achieved sobriety mainly through his association with a Christian movement. Smith was inspired by Wilson, and also stopped drinking (Does Alcoholics Anonymous Work 1). They were determined to help other alcoholics, so the men published “The Big Book”. “The Big Book” explained their philosophy, methods, and principles. One method that became very famous, and still is famous, is the 12-step method. The 12 steps are what a recovering person must go through initially and repeat in order for the process to work. For newcomers, the steps are often grouped into three major categories: trust God, clean house, and help others (Does Alcoholics Anonymous Work 1). The 12-steps is about one getting honest with......

Words: 1577 - Pages: 7

Managerial Economics - How Does Personality Typing Help in the World of Work

...09902787224 MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS Section – A (Marks – 25) Attempt all questions 1. How is Price Elasticity measured? 2. State and explain the ‘Law of variable proportions’ 3. Define ‘Production Function’. Explain with diagram, the three stages of the Law of Variable Proportions. 4. Define production function. State and explain the ‘Law of Diminishing Marginal Returns’ 5. What is ‘Cost benefit analyses? Justify its use in the implementation of developmental projects. Section – B (Marks – 25) Attempt all questions – 1. What is ‘Segmentation’? Explain Product segmentation and Market segmentation concept. 2. What is ‘Wholesaling’? Discuss various benefits of Wholesaling. 3. Explain different Features of Perfect Competition. 4. Cost Volume Profit Analysis. 5. What is Capital Rationing? Section – C (Marks – 50) Attempt any five questions – 1- Explain in detail the nature and scope of Managerial Economics. How Micro Economics differs from Managerial Economics? 2. What is Empirical Production Function? Explain the optimum combination of inputs with diagrams. 3. What is Cost of Capital? Explain its structure and role in inter- national competitiveness. 4. What is Elasticity of Demand? Explain Price, Cross and Income Elasticity of Demand used in managerial decision making process. 5. What do you mean by Monopoly? How price and output is determined in short and long run in Monopoly Competition? 6.......

Words: 1096 - Pages: 5

How Does Change Affect People at Work?

...How does change affect people at work? What are some of the current forces for change in the workplace? What are the implications for HR managers? Introduction Organizational changes do not appear from themselves. For any process of performing something, there is a reason, and the process is the result of that reasons. Increasing globalization, rapid technological advancement, changing economic conditions and organization’s financial performance are some of the current forces that cause change in organizations. Current forces for change in the workplace 1. Globalization Globalization on one hand creates more opportunities as there are more potential customers around the world. However, it also means there will be fierce competition, as local companies have to compete with foreign companies as well. In terms of the organization’s structure and the human capitals, globalization intensified the need for more responsive and flexible organizations and employees. Globalization has also led to diversification of the labour poll. Companies can locate or relocate to where the tax laws are most advantageous and where skilled, cost-effective labor is most readily available. Workloads can be spread over several time zones to cut production costs and facilitate delivery schedules. Many organizations started to offshore or exporting jobs from developed to undeveloped countries for the reason of lowering the labor costs and exploiting new opportunities (Babcock 2004).......

Words: 2194 - Pages: 9

How Does Information System Work

...How Does Information Systems Support Business Processes CIS/207 May 1, 2012 How Does Information Systems Support Business Processes Information systems is a integrated set of components for collecting, storing and processing data ad for delivering information, knowledge, and digital products. Businesses reley on information systems to carry out and manage their operations, interact with their customers and suppliers, and compete in the marketplace (Zwass, 2012). Most business organizations are becoming more and more dependent on information systems to manage and maintain their internal organization infracstructures. It is necessity to maintain up-to-date, complete and accurate information to stay competitive in the changing world. Organizations utilize many types of information systems to assist in their daily operations. Some typical functional systems within an organization are human resources, accounting and finance, sales and marketing, operations, and manufacturing. Within these functions information systems play a various roles, such as in human resources, information system duties may include recruiting and training while in operations some duties may include order management and customer service. In other words business processesses are the ways in which organizations perform different tasks. Therefore it is very important to analyze business processes in order to determine how the information system can support that process. ...

Words: 895 - Pages: 4