Human Aggression

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By nishichoudhury
Words 759
Pages 4
All the intellectually disabled have one thing in common which is the disability they have. However, they differ in every other aspect.
The main characteristics of the intellectually disabled fall under 5 criterias which are:

Physical characteristics
◾An underdevelopment in physical growth
◾Average weight and height usually less than normal peers of the same chronological age
◾Physical deformation
◾Retarded movement and balance

Mental characteristics
◾Less-than-average I.Q.
◾Underdeveloped speech and language skills
◾Poor: memory, attention, perception, imagination, thinking, computing and concentration

Social characteristics
◾Underdeveloped ability of social adjustment
◾Lack of interests and orientations
◾Irresponsibility
◾Aloofness
◾Aggression
◾Low self-esteem

Emotional characteristics
◾Emotional imbalance
◾Excessive movement
◾Evidence of premature or late reactions
◾Primitive reactions

Attributes of the intellectually disabled classifications
◾EMR:
◾Provided with the appropriate educational services, certain aspects related to some academic skills (reading, writing, arithmetic) could be acquired, besides, possessing social communication skills as well as vocational rehabilitation.

◾TMR: ◾Primary educational programs.
◾Workshop training.
◾Rehabilitation programs.

◾SMR:
◾In constant need of professional and extensive care provided only within the premises of permanent boarding centers.

Psychological and behavioral characteristics

It's important to know that statements about psychological and behavioral characteristics of the intellectually disabled are based on the research studies, comparing group of persons with and without intellectual disability.
Each individual must be considered as a unique and separate person.

Learning and memory

The most obvious characteristic of the disabled is…...

Similar Documents

Theories of Aggression

...Home[->31] › Blogs[->32] › SerendipUpdate's blog[->33] › Theories of Aggression && Submitted by SerendipUpdate on Fri, 01/11/2008 - 10:20am · Biology 202[->34] Biology 202[->35] 1999 Final Web Reports[->36] On Serendip Theories of Aggression Alexandra K. Smith "Two Gunman at Colorado School Reportedly Kill Up to 23 Before Dying in a Siege." On Tuesday, April 20, 1999, two students, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, of Columbine High School, shocked the nation when they entered the school armed with guns and explosives, killing fellow students and a teacher before taking their own lives. Stories of random violence and aggression such as this all too often plague the media. While the attention of the nation has recently been focused on the Colorado slayings, history reveals countless other similar crimes of aggression targeted towards innocent individuals. In both Nazi Germany and the more recent Bosnia conflict, ethnic cleansing has been used to violently eliminate certain races. In the early 1990s, Timothy McVegh's vengeful intentions led him to use a car bomb to kill hundreds of innocent people in the explosion of the Oklahoma City Federal Building. In these cases, the culprits were seemingly normal people that displaced their aggression on innocent bystanders for a variety of reasons. What is the cause of this unleashed aggression toward society? How can we come to explain such acts of aggression and violence? Are they a result of societal influences, or are......

Words: 4463 - Pages: 18

Aggression in Human Behavior

...Final Paper Aggression in the Human Society The topic I have chosen is aggression. I want to try to show that everyone can be affected by aggression. I want to show the different stimuli that will bring anger out in people thus causing them to have aggressive behavior. I want to discuss the different types of aggressive behavior as well as who else can be affected by aggressive behavior besides the victim. I have been a victim of aggressive behavior which is the reason I picked this topic. I want to try to understand the causes behind the behavior. Understanding from my own experiences the aggressor may know the victim in one of many different roles; such as, and intimate partner, a family member, a close friend, or they could be a stranger. Aggression is an attacking, hostile behavior by one person toward another person with the intention of causing pain or doing harm. Aggression is usually thought of as physical acts against another person. However, verbal assaults meant to cause psychological harm are also considered acts of aggression (FAQs, 2013). Direct aggression is the physical act of attacking someone; indirect aggression can be overt or covert. While indirect aggression may be less passive it can cause just as much pain and harm to an individual as direct aggression. Indirect aggression is a behind-the-back behavior that reduces the chances for retaliation by the victim (Archer, 2005). Aggression may be considered as a hostile act or as an......

Words: 1634 - Pages: 7

Is Human Aggression Learned?

...Introduction Is human aggression learned? Was the cruelty that led to the offenses committed by our grandparents in World War II in their genes? Or did Hitler and the Nazis use the moment of the huge economic crisis and great shame of Germany after the Treaty of Versailles to integrate power, shut down the conflict, and through mass propaganda persuade German people to follow them in their achievement of Europe and the greater Third Reich? In this research paper, I will give an imperative assessment of the extent to which human beings are learned towards aggression, or conditioned for aggression by their environment. My goal is to present evidence that will show that humans are not biologically or inherently aggressive, but the aggression is something that is learned from everyday life experience. The first part of the paper will present theories and evidence that punctuate biological factors as the main causes of aggression in humans. The second part will present theories and evidence that demand that “aggression and hostility are diseases of development,” as Buss (1961: 190) puts it, and are affected by the external environment. Aggression in Human Beings Aggression is defined as physical or verbal behavior intended to harm. Aggression can either be ordered inside by self-mutilation or self-murder, or ordered apparently at another person. There are many things that human aggression has been blamed on, including broken homes, discrimination, poverty, chemical......

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

Psychology Aggression

...PSYCHOLOGY - AGGRESSION JANUARY 2011 ; discuss evolutionary explanations of human aggression (8+16marks) Aggression is behaviour directed towards another intended to harm (hostile) or as a means to an end (instrumental). The evolutionary theory explains aggression as an adaptive response to a series of threats to an individual’s survival and reproduction. Aggression is a way of tackling the threats posed to an individual, by eliminating them or reducing the level of their interference. Mate retention is the act of guarding against mate poaching and maintaining a partner’s interest. This includes direct guarding and negative inducements. Direct guarding is when the male restricts his partner’s sexual autonomy. Coming home early from work, for example, to check on his partner is an act of direct guarding. Shackleford (2005) found men who used mate retention are more aggressive. This suggests that mate retention is the main reason for aggression towards a partner. However, this is criticised as a clear cause and effect relationship cannot be established as it doesn’t explain what caused the mate retention in the first place. It is also reductionist as it doesn’t take into psychodynamic factors that may lead to over protective behaviour (like checking up on partners) which could be a result of previous control-related experiences in an individual’s early childhood. Negative inducement includes threats of infidelity (unfaithfulness), and research has found through......

Words: 685 - Pages: 3

Exposure to Aggression

...PSY150A 05 October 2012 Exposure to Aggression The question I have is: Does the age at which a child is first exposed to aggression influence that child's future aggressive tendencies?  According to the chapter "See Aggression... Do Aggression!," what is currently known is that a child can acquire specific behaviors just by observing adults.  One such behavior includes aggression, which Bandura, Ross, and Ross found to be learned through the observation and imitation of an adult model. My question goes beyond what is currently known because the researchers of the described study only looked for aggressive behaviors on children between three to six years of age, and used gender as the major variable rather than age.              Following is my experimental proposal to my question. In order to determine whether age of exposure onset affects how aggressive a child's behavior results.  To construct this experiment, 300 children from non-aggressive backgrounds will be divided into ten groups of thirty children each, with each group containing children all of the same year of age from three to twelve (i.e., thirty 3 year old children, thirty 4 year old children, thirty five year old children, etc.).  All ten groups will be further divided into thirds, such that ten children per group will be exposed to an aggressive adult model, another ten children from that group will be exposed to a non-aggressive model, and the remaining ten children from that group will serve as the......

Words: 470 - Pages: 2

Aggression

...Aggression is the physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm. This could be unintentional or intentional harm. Some theories of aggression are: there is a biologically rooted aggressive drive, it is a natural response to frustration, and it is learned. There are 7 major influences on aggression. An influence on aggression is aggression cues. Violence tends to happen more often aggressive cues release pent-up behavior. Research shoes that children who play with toy guns tend to be violent towards other children. Another study showed that when a gun was showed during an experiment a person tended to deliver more electrical shocks versus if a tennis racket was displayed. Weapons, to include guns, are seen as a violent instrument and not seen as a recreational item even though we use guns and knives for hunting. It has been proven that if a law is put into place to restrict handgun possession, the murder rate would drop. Examples of aggression cues are pictures of guns or the actual gun, pictures of alcohol, and violent games. When people see acts of aggression they tend to be aggressive themselves. Another influence on aggression is media influence, such as video games. Video games are a huge part of children’s life nowadays. Children pay close attention to video games and use them as a learning tool. The video games today have excellent graphics and show more realism. In video games people actually play the role of the character so the are enacting the violence.......

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

The Effect of the Media on Aggression in Children.

...The Effect of the Media on Aggression in Children. Media is of importance to many people for many reasons, including entertainment and escapism. The mass production of televisions in the 1950’s has led to a phenomenon previously unheard of, with statistics showing that as of 2013, 79% of the world has at least one television set per household (TVTechnology, 2013). It therefore stands to reason that children may have easy access to media that may not be age appropriate. Is it accurate to assume, however, that media can cause aggression in children? The Oxford dictionary defines aggression as: “feelings of anger or antipathy resulting in hostile or violent behaviour”. This definition depicts a narrow view of aggression, with the assumption being it will often manifest physically, this view does not take into account varying types of aggression that can be equally as harmful, such as verbal and psychological abuse (persistent abuse to the point of anxiety or stress). It should also be noted that aggression is a form of anti-social behaviour, a concept that varies culturally, for example one study concludes that Western cultures are far more likely to resort to physical violence, whilst Eastern cultures would more readily resort to verbal abuse (Andreu et al, 1998). The most interesting aspect of aggression, particularly in children, comes from the debate of Nature/Nurture. The debate is the belief that all behaviour can be explained in one of two ways. Nature states that......

Words: 1117 - Pages: 5

Aggression

...Aggression: Social Learning Theory: Gabriel Tarde 1912: Characteristics of imitation: * Behaviour of role model * Copying of behaviour * Degree of contact w/ role model * Degree of understanding behaviour These are ways in which our social behaviour and responses could be shaped by the actions of others Bandura’s SLT: Behaviour is motivated by inherited psychological factors and socio-environmental factors Believed there were four basic processes: * Attention * Retention * Reproduction * Motivation STUDY: Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) Aim: to find out if human behaviour is shaped by sociocultural processes of social learning Process: 72 children (36 f/m) * Bench mark for comparisons= teachers rated children’s level of aggressiveness * Child and adult enter room with toys * Agg = mallet and gun * Non agg = construction set * Agg = plays aggressively with bobo doll using physical and verbal violence * Non agg = didn’t interact with doll * To create frustration child was taken to a room w/ better toys and told they couldn’t play w/ them * Then taken to a room with similar toys to first room Findings: Children who witnessed the aggressive model were more likely to act aggressively * Boys were more aggressive if their role model was same sex * Girls had similar trend but was weaker * The girls in the aggressive model condition showed more physical aggressive responses if the model was male...

Words: 555 - Pages: 3

Psychology Aggression

...doll. The study also focuses on aggression toward a doll rather than real-life aggression, meaning the same results may not apply to other settings. However, a subsequent study using a live clown instead of a doll found similarly high levels of imitation among children, showing that SLT does apply to violence aggression towards other people. A strength of this theory is that it can explain context-dependent aggression. People behave differently in different situations because they are rewarded for aggressive behaviour in some situations but not in others. This means that SLT is able to predict whether aggressive behaviour is likely in a specific situation dependent on previous experiences. Another strength of SLT over simpler learning theories is that it can also explain aggressive behaviour in the absence of direct reinforcement. For example, in the children in the Bobo doll studies were never directly reinforced for their own aggressive behaviour; the concept of vicarious reinforcement is necessary to explain their actions. There is research support for the idea of self-efficacy in the social learning of aggression. Perry et al. found that children who were described as highly aggressive by their peers also reported having greater confidence in their ability to use aggression to resolve conflicts than did children who were rated as less aggressive by their peers. This supports SLTs view that having self-efficacy relating to aggression increases the incidence of......

Words: 672 - Pages: 3

Discuss Evolutionary Explanations of Group Displays of Aggression in Humans

...group displays of aggression believes that humans display aggression in groups in order to gain access to resources; likely resources gained through group displays of aggression include land, women and money. The acquisition of these resources is important for the survival of a group and to ensure the continued existence of future generations in terms of reproduction. This explanation also argues that group displays of aggression towards potential threats are one of the best ways in which to secure the resources which are much desired by groups. Aggression as a group of humans on an individual in another territory is a low-risk strategy in order to gain more resources, more food, more females and more offspring, thereby passing more genes onto the next generation (in line with Darwinian evolution). Group displays of aggression may occur due to xenophobia - also known as the threat of the unknown. It is evolutionarily advantageous to be wary of something unknown and to display aggression when faced with something which could potentially be a threat to our survival and/or reproduction. Aggression displayed as a direct result of xenophobia would ensure that the group is protected and would send a signal to other potentially threatening out-groups that the in-group is prepared to defend itself. Again, this would have the direct benefit of increasing the chance of survival and future reproduction of all members of the group. Displays of group aggression can be seen in......

Words: 1442 - Pages: 6

Aggression

...are found to be doc- ile and bred for domestication purposes have increases in sero- tonin over the following generations again supporting the theory that high serotonin somehow inhibits aggression.[34] Another study by Ferrari et al provides support for the influ- ence of both Serotonin and Dopamine. Researchers allowed rats to fight everyday over a period of 10 days at exactly the same time. On the 11th day, the animal did not fight and researchers meas- ured the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the rats body. They found that elevated e- comes more likely as a means to promote cortisol release to re- duce such feelings.[33] Research/Evaluation Support for serotonin comes from one study by Raleigh et al. Researchers fed vervet monkeys on diets that either increased serotonin levels or decreased them. For monkeys that ate diets that increased their serotonin levels; they exhibited less aggressive behaviour. For Monkeys fed on diets that lowered serotonin levels; they ex- hibited more aggressive behaviour lending support for the sero- tonin theory. Other studies have found that animals that are found to be doc- ile and bred for domestication purposes have increases in sero- tonin over the following generations again supporting the theory that high serotonin somehow inhibits aggression.[34] Another study by Ferrari et al provides support for the influ- ence of both Serotonin and Dopamine. Researchers allowed rats to fight everyday over a period of 10 days at exactly the......

Words: 585 - Pages: 3

Discuss Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms in Human Aggression. (8 Marks + 16 Marks

...This biological explanation proposes that aggression occurs due to physiological causes. It assumes that aggression is located within the biological make-up of the individual through hormonal and neural mechanisms rather than in the environment around them. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that enable impulses within the brain to be transmitted from one area of the brain to another. There is some evidence that at least two of these neurotransmitters, serotonin and dopamine, are linked to aggressive behaviour. Serotonin and dopamine are of particular interest because low levels of serotonin and high levels of dopamine have been associated with aggression in animals and humans. Serotonin is thought to reduce aggression by inhibiting responses to emotional stimuli that would otherwise lead to an aggressive response (e.g. someone pushing past you rudely). It has been found that low levels of serotonin in the brain have been associated with an increase of impulsive behaviour, aggression, and even violent suicide. Some drugs are thought t alter serotonin levels and thus increase aggressive behaviour. Mann et al (1990) gave 35 health subjects dexfenfluramine, which is known to deplete serotonin. They used a questionnaire to assess hostility and aggression levels, they found that dexfenfluramine treatment in males (but not females) was associated with an increase in hostility and aggression scores. Although the link between high levels of dopamine and aggressive behaviour is......

Words: 951 - Pages: 4

Role of Gentics in Aggression

...Introduction Introduction Outline and evaluate the role of genetic factors in aggressive behaviour (5+16 marks) Moghaddom (1998) distinguishes between explanations of aggression which are normative, and those which are causal. Causal explanations, as in this case, suggest aggression is determined by particular factors e.g. genes and are usually biological explanations. The genetic explanation of aggression suggests that it is influenced through our genes, and that such behaviour is therefore inherited. Para 1 A01 Para 1 A01 It is thought that aggression is due to a defective gene that is inherited by following generations. One possible gene is the Monoamine Oxidase A gene, which produces Monoamine Oxidase A enzyme that breaks down neurotransmitters associated with aggression. It is thought that a build-up of serotonin and dopamine can cause an individual to act aggressively to stress in the fight or flight response. There are two forms of the gene, MAOA-H (produces a high level of the enzyme) and MAOA-L (produces a low amount of the enzyme). The presence of the MAOA-L gene is related to an increase likelihood of aggression. One third of people in Western countries have the MAOA-L gene, compared to two thirds in countries with a history of warfare; leading the gene to be dubbed with the term “warrior gene”. Para 2 A02 Para 2 A02 Research to support the role of the MAOA gene comes from Cases et al who disabled the gene in the X chromosome of mice. As no enzyme was......

Words: 1608 - Pages: 7

Aggression and the Brain

...Term Paper: Aggression and the Brain Aggression as a general term refers to the act of inflicting physical or verbal harm with the intentions of causing pain. It is very questionable why people choose to harm each other especially if there is no reason, such as self defense, involved, but research has been evolving on that issue to show how the biology of the brain is related to aggression and how different the neurochemistry of the brain of an aggressive person to a non aggressive one. “Violent behavior never erupts from a single cause, rather it results from a combination of risk factors — among them inherited tendencies, a traumatic childhood and other negative experiences — that interact and aggravate one another” (Strueber). Basically putting together this combination of likely explanations of aggression may let one see the whole picture of why people become so aggressive. The biology of the brain and aggression seek to be explained in two different ways, in terms of androgens which are male hormones and the level of serotonin in the brain. In general it is important to talk about aggression and understand its possible manifestations because aggression is important in human existence therefore being aware of its likely biological causes will help us understand better why there is a high rate of aggression, violence and suicide and make us perceive it from the biological aspect rather than from the cultural or the individual context. First of all, the first......

Words: 1282 - Pages: 6

Social Aggression

...Article Critique The article that I chose was about a study designed to examine the relationship between watching social aggression on television and the use of social aggression in everyday life. Social aggression is a type of non-physical aggression by which people use verbal or non-verbal actions to damage another’s self-esteem or social status. Martins and Wilson formed a study that involved 500 students from two different schools located in the same county, kindergarten through fifth grade. The schools in the study were chosen based on their economic backgrounds because it was established in the article through other studies’ findings that students from low income families watched more television than higher income families. The students participating in this study were given parental consent and partook in a survey that was conducted with one interviewer per two students. The students in the study were asked questions from two categories; the amount of television that the child watched in a week and the amount of social aggression that they used in a week. Half of the students were asked about the amount of TV watched first then the amount of social aggression used, and the other half were asked how much social aggression was used then the amount of TV watched. This was done in order to eliminate or lessen extraneous variables. The end results of the study were deemed varied. There were four hypotheses stated, half of which were......

Words: 1445 - Pages: 6