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Human Memory Model, Thinking, and Intelligence

In: Philosophy and Psychology

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Human Memory Model, Thinking, and Intelligence
Kasia Nlabandian
American Intercontinental University Online

In this week project subject is human memory model, which I’m going to discuss about in my paper about the following step by step. How many memory models and stages of memory a human have, how memory operate, the factors that enhance or impede information that flow in each step of the process, I’m also going to talk about proactive and retroactive interference, how we can counteract, there effects, type of forgetting, how can we improve memory consolidation and how can we retrieve.

Memory, Thinking, and Intelligence
Everyone knows about human memory is what allows us to store memories and use them or retrieve them in the future like colors, images, conversations and more, I’m going to discuss in details the memory system from stimuli into long term memory. We have technical enhance impede flow in every step. Proactive interference and retroactive interference show us how we will contract our effects while studying facilitates the maximum retention into long-term memory and also I’m going to discuss how we can forget things and what other types of forgetting we have. The strategy can improve our memory, consolidation and retrieval. Human Memory processes and stages Human memory is like a computer anything we need or is important we will store them for later; the same thing is with our brain we will encode, store and reuse them from our past, it will gives us power to lean and keep our past experiences, and remembering them we it needed. According to (Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968) processed two human memory models short and long term memories, later they add the third memory model which was the Sensory memory. The processes of human memory are three, Encoding, Storage and Retrieval as I mentioned in my first paragraph now I’m going to define and discuss them. Encoding process is the first step transfer of information in human memory to be store, the most important thing in encoding is paying attention, if you don’t pay attentions it won’t stores the details in our memory, encoding also have three types visual, auditory and semantic. The second process is storage which keeps or stores memories or informations in human memory and the third process is retrieval which it access information that was encoded than stored in human memory. Sensory memory is the first stage of memory; the environment information will be stored immediate, for a short time, duration is couple second, the capacity is not that large, according to (Dr. Abbott, n.d. para5) we have “memory of vision also called iconic memory” and “audition (hearing) called echoic memory”. The characteristic of sensory memory system (Dr. Abbott, n.d., Para 4, 5) was the following, for iconic memory “Capacity Essentially that of the visual system, Duration: About 0.5 to 1.0 seconds (Sperling)” and “processing no additional of perceptual processing”. Echoic memory, Capacity not conferred, Duration is about 4 to 5 seconds, and processing no additional perceptual processing. Example: I test something 20 years ago and until now I can feel the taste in my mouth. Short term memory is short time storage, limited and temporary stored, paying attention for any information in sensory memory it will transfer to short term memory, according to (Dr. Abbott, n.d. para7) stated the following properties about short term memory, Capacity, Duration and processing, Capacity in the short term of memory is for a short time” About 7 plus or minus 2chunks (number, letter and more) information (Miller, 1956),” duration is about 18 to 20 seconds (Peterson & Peterson, 1959), and processing is holding informations”., also in short term memory if we don’t rehearse the memory will disappear or erase we have two types of rehearsal Maintenance and Elaborative, maintenance rehearsal is when repeating something consistence it will less long enough to remember it, elaborative rehearsal is when we connect thing or information together to remember them later that will be long term memory, and elaborative rehearsal is very important because it will transfer the information from short term memory to long term memory. Example: someone told me something that made me mad and after couple second I already forgot what was that made me mad. Long term memory also is known as working memory too; it has connection with short term memory, this memory is the informations that it was memorized from extended period of time; and unlimited, the long term memory keeps all the informations even we are not attending them. According to (Dr.Abbott, n.d. para12) stated the following properties of Long term memory “Capacity, Duration and processing”. In the long term memory the capacity and duration are unlimited, “Processing informations organized according to meaning and is associatively linked”. Working memory or long term memory has three parts, Phonological Rehearsal Loop, Visuospatial Sketchpad and Executive Control System. Phonological Rehearsal Loop is how long it will take to rehears information (word, letters, numbers…). Visuospatial Sketchpad is the images that it will be in our short term memory (image, colors, shaped…). The central executive system is controlling system of Phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad; it will let us change between informations paying more attentions and make it easier to elaborative rehearsal. We have different divisions in long term memory, procedural and declarative, episodic and semantic, prospective and retrospective (I traveled to Egypt and learned about the pyramids). Procedural memory is the inner memory, thing that we learned its more action thing doing something to remember like (brushing hair). Declarative memory everything we learned it more talking action (reading books, telling numbers). Episodic memory is what we had done in our life in our daily basis, where we went, what happened, what I did).Semantic memory is related to declarative memory but it’s more involved what did we learn from. Prospective memory it’s remembering our self to remember to do something (remembering ourselves to tell someone something later). Retrospective memory is to remember everything from our past (I was in Chinese restaurant and I mat a gentleman named Mike long time ago). Flashbulb memory is more detailed information (11/21/04 my son was born and I remember how hard was for me the first day when I didn’t know how to take care of him). Long term memory is like a dictionary it goes by alphabetic order because it is easier to memories them and rehearsal them. Schema memory I can say it’s type of imaginations or seeing something farther (reading journal) (when I read the journal I will see everything behind the words not only what is it writing in). Semantic network is connections between things (human-hand-legs-hair-eyes…) all of those are connected to each other and when we will talk about a human we will know about the other things. Retrieval is getting back from our memories remembering things by using clue, (you know you are going to do something but when the action is going to occur you will forget what you were going to do), (most of the time I will go to my kitchen to bring something when I will be there I will totally forget why I was there for).Retrieval cue is the way to access our memories. There is techniques to enhance our memory sleeping, relaxing, spending time anything will keep you happy, leave the stress out, having healthy relations, paying attentions , rehearse information all of those will keep our memory active and enhance. Example: sleeping well will help us to memories things, or exercising will relax our brain muscles, we need to focus on what we are doing, organize what we are learning, try to remember, play game to remember things back and more. Proactive and Retroactive Interference The proactive interference is when our old memory will have difficulty to learn something. Example: learning Arabic language it is going to be hard for me since I speak Armenian, in Arabic language is feminine and masculine but in Arminian there is not it’s all one so I’m going to mix both feminine and masculine together). Retroactive interference is when we will have hard time to remember old things because of our new informations that we got. Example: It’s hard to ride on roller skater because we recently learned skateboard. Forgetting and other kinds of forgetting. Forgetting limited things sometimes is good but forgetting too many things that is not good and normal all of us we will forget things that we barley need them but the important memories or the information we can’t forget them. We have seven types of forgetting are the followings: Transience, Absentmindedness, Blocking, Misattribution, Suggestibility, Bias and Persistence. Transience is forgetting things always, also transience is to deleting or clearing memory to replace new memories in, it is like recycle bin in a computer we need to clean that to have more space or memory in our computer to store them. Absentmindedness is when we don’t pay attention to things we will forget them, sometimes we will have broses in our body but we forget where or when did we hit it. Blocking this happens with everyone we will forget things temporary is not paying, like sometimes I will call my two sisters by calling them opposite name, I will call my sister Aline Tania and Tania Aline. Misattribution forgetting is to getting the right memory with wrong source or detail. (if I know someone and I heard something about the person but I don’t know where I got his or her information from).or very good example about me when I read something and I will be in the next page I will totally forgot that was the story about, and I’m still young aging will play a role in forgetting things. Suggestibility I can explain as imagination, we will trick our self by believing to that, like collecting your and others information together like ours. Bias according to (Schacter, 1999, para11) stated that “distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences". Persistence is a bad or negative fact, events or informations that we want to forget them, like if someone got raped this is negative fact for the person and it will cause them fear so it’s much better if we will get rid of them. Strategies that improves our memory consolidation and retrieval. Strategy is method to achieve our goal and solve our problems; according to we have some good strategies to improve our memory consolidation and retrieval are in the next paragraphs. Believe in yourself: believing to your self is the most important thing to me, all of us we can forget things, that is a normal thing of us even kids can forgetting, so we don’t have to believe if someone tells us it’s all about aging that it’s not true, in the mine while we know that usually old people forget things, according to (Harvard Health Publications, 2009) stated the following “ Middle-aged and older learners do worse on memory tasks when exposed to negative stereotypes about aging and memory, and better if exposed to messages about memory preservation into old age”. The best thing is exercise to improve our memories. Economize your brain use: using reminders, when you go to shopping make a list of your items, use calendars for appointment, organize your stuff that you can always remember where they are. (Harvard Health Publications, 2009) Organize your thoughts: we can organize our thoughts for later uses like This way it will be easy for us to remember and retrieve them when needed. (Harvard Health Publications, 2009) Use all your senses: if you use more sense your brain will get more involved with, like an odors the scent of my mom’s baked cake. (Harvard Health Publications, 2009) Expand your brain: learning something by drawing it, when you read something draw what you were ridding about that way you don’t have to read it again or try to remember, the image will be easier and it will force us to remember them. (Harvard Health Publications, 2009) Repeat after me: repeating is good to not forget things if you repeat anything consistently loud you won’t forget it, like if we learn new word in other language and if we repeat that word out loud. (Harvard Health Publications, 2009) Space it out: instead of repeating something consistently within a short period of time, try to exercise it after a long period of time, like half an hour later instead of repeating it after five minutes, give it some space between the repeating process. (Harvard Health Publications, 2009) Make a mnemonic: “Mnemonic devices are creative ways to remember lists”, is more for large informations by hearing a song remembering a movie. Challenge yourself: challenge yourself by asking question, by exercising your memory by concentrating on things, like playing memory cards this way you will improve your memory. (Harvard Health Publications, 2009) Sleeping: sleeping is very important, leave everything back don’t think about bad things happened with you, stay far from the caffeine, according to my teachers (Van Cleave, 2014,) explained us that sleeping well after learning something is important in consolidation of the consolidation process because our connections in the cortex will grow while we were sleeping and not while we were awake. Conclusion Human memory is very important part in our body; our brain controls us most of the time, store our past, our good and bad memories, stores new informations, what we have done and learned by retrieving them back any time we need them.


Dr. Abbott Bruce. (n.d.). para 1 to 15.Human memory. Atkinson-Shiffrin Model. Retrieved from Cherry K. (n.d.).para 2 to 11) Top 10 Memory Improvement Tips. Improve Your Memory With These Great Tips. Retrieved from Cherry K. (n.d.). para 6,7. Explanations for Forgetting)( Why We Forget. Forgetting and proactive. Retrieved from Harvard University. (2012). para 3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Forgetfulness — 7 types of normal memory problems. Retrieved from Mastin L. (2010). para 1,2. What memory is? The human memory. Retrieved from Schacter D. (1999). The Seven Sins of Memory. Insights from Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience" American Psychologist Vol. 54. No. 3, 182-203. Retrieved from…...

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