Huntington Disease

In: Other Topics

Submitted By AnnJHB
Words 1853
Pages 8
Running head: HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE

Huntington’s Disease
Bradley Amos
St. Ambrose University
March 21, 2011

Huntington’s Disease Huntington’s disease is a devastating and progressive neurological disorder that results primarily from degeneration of nerve cells deep in the center of the brain that waste away (PubMed Health, 2011). According to National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke (2010) more than 15,000 Americans suffer from this debilitating disease. Nearly all people who develop Huntington’s disease will die within 10 to 30 years from onset. This disease does not show bias to any sex, ethnicity or race. The pathophysiology of Huntington’s disease is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance (Jarvis, 2008, p.360). The symptoms of Huntington’s disease are abnormal uncontrollable movements and personality changes (Jarvis, 2008, p.360). As the disease progresses so does the severity of the symptoms. It is a genetic disease that is passed on from generation to generation. A person can be genetically tested to determine if you have the gene for this disease. To date there is not a cure for this rare debilitating disease (Medline Plus, 2009).
Definition of Disorder
Huntington’s disease was named after an American doctor George Huntington in 1872. Before it was named by Doctor Huntington it was called “chorea” which means choreography in Greek. It was named so because people affected by this disease would twist, turn and jerk in uncontrollable movements that others perceived as dancing moves (National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke, 2010). There are two forms of Huntington’s disease. Adult-onset, which is the most common, usually develops when the person is in their mid 30s or 40s. Early-onset is rarer and develops in childhood or adolescents (Medline Plus, 2009).…...

Similar Documents

Huntingtons Clash of Civilizations

...superiority in utilizing organized violence. Westerners often dismiss this fact, non-Westerners never do.” Samuel P. Huntington, Eaton professor of the science of government and director of the John M. Olin Institute for strategic studies at Harvard, wrote a thought-provoking article; “The Clash of Civilizations” was published by Foreign Affairs in the summer of 1993. (Foreign Affairs). Huntington’s article given in nine topics, gives the reader a big-picture look at the world which nerved to imagine that a bi-polar rivalry between communism and capitalism was about to be reinstated by a multi-polar world of contradicting civilizations. He argues that the short-term warfare between ideologies is being replaced by the ancient warfare between civilizations. People’s cultural and religious identities will result in future conflicts. Huntington cautions that all this proposes that there will be cultural clangorings in the future. He says the troubling ones "are likely to arise from the interplay of Western arrogance, Islamic intolerance, and assertiveness." This is indeed a debated statement. Such clangoring’s are by no means an evident necessity, after all. Neither is it at all apparent that in the lack of such exterior issues, Western society would not have very uncompromising internal complications with absolutism and wars. I. The Next Pattern of Conflict: Huntington advocates his thesis and begins with an introduction describing the problem modeled by the Clash of......

Words: 1392 - Pages: 6

Disease

...Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease): eradication without a drug or a vaccine, Gautam Biswas, Dieudonne P. Sankara, Junerlyn Agua-Agum and Alhousseine Maiga, June 2013. Introduction: Dracunculiasis is the first parasitic disease that has the potential to be eradicated without the need of drugs or vaccines. Since the parasite life cycle revolves around the host consuming the infected copepod in the water, the experimental designed was to focus on the introduction of water treatment educations into those tropical and subtropical areas. Design and Strategies: The eradication campaigns were also supported by many private and community partnership, and the strategy was to surveillance, provision of safe drinking water, vector control, health education and certification of eradication. In summary, every case should be monitored and recorded before, during and after the launch of the programs. Water sources should be well treated and maintained to control the only mode of transmission through copepods, and proper disposed of water education should be taught to the people. Lastly, the disease must be certified by WHO for every epidemic countries to mark the complete termination of Dracunculiasis. Result: The progress was recorded. In 1986, there were an estimated of 3.5 million cases of Dracunculiasis. After the launch of the studies, in 1989, a total of 883,640 cases were reported to WHO by 15 countries, and in 2004, those countries has been reduced to only 12 endemic......

Words: 644 - Pages: 3

Huntington's Disease

...Huntington Disease Rachelle Jelosek Idaho State University Jackson is a healthy twenty-seven year old male who recently presented to his doctors office inquiring about genetic testing. Jackson recently married, and his wife Alisha is anxious to start a family. Unfortunately Jackson does not share Alisha's enthusiasm because he fears that he is a carrier of a deadly genetic mutation. Just five years ago Jackson's mother was diagnosed with Huntington's Disease at the age of 43 and Jackson's grandmother succumbed to the disease at the age of 68. Jackson is an only child and although unconfirmed and heavily denied by his family Jackson is convinced that his mother discovered her ill fate shortly after he was born. Jackson's wife and father do not want him to be tested for the disorder because they fear a positive diagnosis will destroy any life he has now and in the future . Jackson has endured years of watching his loved ones suffer and does not want to pass the disorder on to his children. The purpose of this paper is to define and describe Huntington's disease (HD), explain inheritance patterns, describe the specific gene mutation seen in patients with HD, discuss reproductive issue and outline the ethical and social implications associated with genetic testing. Huntington's disease was named after Dr. George Huntington, who is credited for discovering the hereditary disorder in 1872(Huntington’s Disease Society of America, 2008). HD progressively destroys......

Words: 1861 - Pages: 8

Huntingtons Disease

...Huntington ’s disease Ronald Banks is a white male in his early 30’s. The patient presents for symptoms of uncontrollable leg movements. Mr. Banks has had these symptoms for over two months. Family history and genetic testing has indicated Mr. Banks has Huntington’s disease. Huntington’s disease is a genetic disease passed from parent to child. If a person has the faulty gene there is a 50/50 chance the child will have it. If a person has two children one will inherit the disease. Huntington’s is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern. Meaning you only have to get the gene from one parent to get the disease. Everyone who inherits the faulty gene will eventually develop the disease. There are many body systems that are affected by the disease. Huntington’s has a profound effect on the musculoskeletal system. You lose neurons that control coordination and fluidity of movement. Muscle twitching and jerking are usually the symptoms of the disease. This is also referred to chorea, and leaves many patients unable to care for themselves. They are unable to perform daily tasks such as feeding themselves, bathing due to risk of falls, dressing, and finally walking. At the end of the disease many people are bedridden and unable to speak. Huntington’s also affects the digestive system by causing loss of muscle control it makes chewing and swallowing difficult. The esophagus becomes uncoordinated and leads to regurgitation of swallowed foods. Having problems eating also......

Words: 727 - Pages: 3

Disease

...Concerning disease, research papers report that the medical field believes that disease is the result of physical changes within the body. This philosophy of science has led to a narrow focus upon pathogens that create illness. Modern medicine looks to biochemical factors, levels of immunology, nutrition, and environmental toxins as causing disease. To eradicate disease or illness, then these elements thought to cause the difficulties must some how be changed. There are several implications of this treatment of disease. One is that given the sophistication of causality and treatment, the medicine man or physician must be well trained in the complexities of this field. Another is that equally sophisticated or technologically advanced tools must be created or developed to ascertain the precise disease in order to prescribe the precise treatment that is necessary to affect a cure. Still another implication is that the medicine must be specific in order to attack and kill whatever it is causing the illness. Modern medicine appears to have met the challenge of these implications with regard to developing treatments that will cure most diseases. Interestingly, the diseases that continue to plague modern medicine are diseases that did not exist in the pre-European world of Native Americans. Heart disease and cancer, the two illnesses that are fatal and impact contemporary Americans, continue to sometimes have fatal consequences. Below is a list of some of the most common......

Words: 260 - Pages: 2

Huntingtons

...Huntington’s Disease Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a neurological condition characterized by uncontrolled movements, psychological and emotional problems, and decreased cognition. This disease affects 3-7 per 100,000 people of European ancestry, although people of other ancestries, such as African and Asian descent, are less affected. (3). Due to the nature and symptoms of the disease, various treatment plans can be enacted to help with everyday managing of the disease effects, along with new research that also helps shed light on the root causes. Signs and Symptoms Patients present with a variety of symptoms related to the malfunctioning of various neurons in the central nervous system. Onset of symptoms usually begin with patients complaining of clumsiness, tremor, “balance trouble”, or jerkiness. These movements, which develop into Huntington’s Chorea, is characterized by continuous, jerky, irregular, and writhing limb movements, which also can affect the trunk. Other areas also affected include the respiratory system, larynx, pharynx, and oral cavity. Along with spontaneous movements, voluntary actions are usually impaired, slow, and uncontrolled. (1) (2). Symptoms can also begin with cognitive impairments. Cognitive speed and efficiency tends to lessen, and over time, dementia will become more global. Behavioral changes include irritability, hallucinations, moodiness, paranoia, and psychosis. As dementia sets in, disorientation, loss of judgment and memory, and......

Words: 1866 - Pages: 8

Huntingtons Disease

...INTRODUCTION Many people are blessed to have lived a long, healthy life in a world full of detrimental and deadly diseases. However, not everyone can say the last years of his or her life were even remotely close to healthy. Losing someone you love and care about to natural causes is sad enough as it is. Losing someone to a disease that progressively incapacitates your mental and physical capabilities is something entirely different. An example of such a malignant disorder is Huntington’s Disease, an inherited, degenerative brain disorder that is now diagnosed in 1 out of every 10,000 Americans. Huntington’s Disease Society of America is a voluntary, non-profit health organization dedicated to facilitate the lives of those who have inherited the disease by promoting and supporting scientific and medical research in hopes of developing a treatment or cure. The purpose of this report is to inform the community about the value and importance of the HDSA’s mission and goals and the impact it will have on the victims of this destructive brain disorder. What is Huntington’s Disease? Huntington’s Disease as defined by the Huntington’s Disease Society of America is “a devastating, hereditary, degenerative brain disorder…[that] slowly diminishes the affected individual's ability to walk, talk and reason.” Essentially, the victim loses capability of all motor skills and causes involuntary muscle movements, leaving them fully dependent of another person. Involuntary muscle......

Words: 1910 - Pages: 8

Diseases

...things. Caused by an organism that can be transferred from one organism to another. Non-transmissible among people, may be a chronic disease or carried through genes. They include measles, cols, influenza, chicken pox, and hepatitis. They include genetic diseases e.g. hemophilia, down syndrome, and diseases related to lifestyle and or environment. A Pathogen is any organism any organism that can produce and carry a disease. Pathogens range from viruses so miniature that thousands may fit side by side in in one millimeter to several meters long. They are all infectious and can live on the outside of the body as fungus. Three common ways in which water is treated for human consumption are as follows: Filtration whereby water flows through a filter designed to remove particles in the water. The filters are made of layers of sand and gravel, and in some cases, crushed anthracite. Filtration collects the suspended impurities in water and enhances the effectiveness of disinfection. The filters are routinely cleaned by backwashing. Other ways include the boiling of water which ultimately leads to heat killing bacteria and most of the microbes present in tap water that haven’t already been killed by the process of filtration. Sterilizing tablets can also be used to diminish these microbes and other fluids that need it. There are a huge number of disease causing organisms known as pathogens that are microscopic and may enter the body through any availability of openings. The......

Words: 380 - Pages: 2

Diseases

...GLOBAL VARIATIONS OF CHRONIC DISEASE Name: Institution: Chronic diseases all around the world have been causing lots deaths and having devastating effects on families (CDC, 2011). In this essay, I will discuss coronary heart disease symptoms, detection, prevention, causal mechanisms, treatment, and effects. I will also analyze its global variations and recommend how public health officers can be able to promote prevention and treatment measures. Coronary heart disease is a disease that develops over a long time. This disease involves accumulation or deposition of plaque in the coronary arteries that supply the heart muscles with oxygen and nourishments. The plaque hardens with time and it can burst at time and formation of a clot can occur in the artery causing more narrowing or blockage. In the long run, the accumulation leads to a decrease of the coronary artery diameter. This causes limitation of the oxygen and other nourishments supplied to the heart muscles. This weakens the heart muscles hence impairing the function of the heart resulting to angina, myocardial infarction, heart attack/heart failure and finally death (Krasner & Riegelman, 2013). A coronary heart disease has several causes or factors that are affiliated to it. These factors are classified into modifiable and non-modifiable depending on whether they can be prevented or not. Some of the modifiable factors are: smoking...

Words: 1534 - Pages: 7

Huntington Crime

...1735 7th Avenue Huntington, WV 25701 April 7, 2015 Mr. Joseph Ceccarelli Chief of Police Huntington Police Department 675 10th street Huntington, WV 25701 Dear Mr. Ciccarelli: This letter is to address certain issues in the Huntington area that are becoming more significant in terms of crime. It is most likely no surprise to you that the number of outside drug dealers in this area has dramatically increased, which in return has resulted in the dramatic increase of crime rates of this area. The issues of murder, driving under the influence charges, the number of abandoned buildings for drug deals to take place and drugs in general are the most prevalent issues of this area we felt necessary to address. In order to re-gain control of these situations and take action we have included multiple suggestions that will be included in the remainder of this letter. To reduce the number of crimes related to drugs in the Huntington area, we suggest that adding more security cameras to the streets would be beneficial. By implementing this intervention, it would additionally be necessary for more officers to be hired to tentatively watch the surveillance and patrol the area as well. Furthermore, the number of areas for potential drug deals need to be eliminated by tearing down old abandoned buildings where these occurrences could potentially take place. Other issues, such as driving under the influence additionally needs to be addressed. To cut back on...

Words: 2625 - Pages: 11

Huntingtons Diseasee

...Huntington’s Disease Huntington’s Disease is a progressive neurological disease generally genetically inherited (Frank, 2014). This disease has an occurrence in all racial groups, however there is a greater concentration in those of northern European decent. This disease is rare, however is devastating to those afflicted with this disease as well as their family members (Novac & Tibrizi, 2010). Less than a month ago a very close friend of mine revealed that his father has been officially diagnosed with Huntington’s disease and that he now feared for himself that we will eventually be diagnosed with this disease. His father started having symptoms 11 years ago, however was diagnosed 8 years ago. He also watched his grandmother suffer through Huntington’s Disease throughout his childhood. He recently became engaged and it was in my conversation with him that I thought it was too soon and he was too young that he revealed his family history with Huntington’s disease. It was his concern for his father and his own future was my motivation for searching Huntington’s Disease. I hoped to gain insight that I can share with my friend if even just to be a sounding board with a little more context. History & Symptoms of Huntington’s Disease Huntington’s Disease is named for George Huntington who wrote and shared one of the most initial detailed accounts of the symptoms of this disease. Although other individuals have ben noted as documenting various aspects of what is now...

Words: 1107 - Pages: 5

Huntington's Disease

...Cellular Pathophysiology Huntington’s disease causes many changes in the immune system and the inflammatory response. According to Ellrich, Reick, Saft and Linker (2013), “increased inflammation in HD might be the response to neuronal death induced by mhtt toxicity” (para. 10). The immune system initiates the inflammatory response that is seen in Huntington’s disease. The exact impact of the innate and adaptive immune system is unknown in Huntington’s disease (Ellrichmann, Reick, Saft and Linker, 2013). It has been proven that the immune system, inflammatory response and stress provide more harm to the body than good. Eventually those diagnosed with Huntington’s disease end up succumbing to an illness that is contracted from a failing immune system (Mayo Clinic, 2014). Huntington’s disease is an autosomal dominant inherited disease that causes cell loss (Revilla, 2014). According to Raymond et al. (2011), cell loss occurs in the striatum, cortex, globus pallidus, thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and the cerebellum. The exact mechanism of cellular death is still unknown in Huntington’s disease. According to Revilla (2014), “Several mechanisms of neuronal cell death have been proposed for HD, including excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, impaired energy metabolism, and apoptosis”. Systemic Dysfunction Huntington’s disease not only affects the brain but the entire human body. According to Zielonka et al. (2014), “patients experience a wide......

Words: 752 - Pages: 4

Huntingtons

...Huntington's Disease Huntington's Disease (HD) is a dominant genetic disorder. Each child of a person who has HD has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease, and the disease does not skip a generation. HD is caused by a larger than normal CAG repeat in the Huntington gene. This larger than normal CAG repeat produces an abnormal protein that begins to kill brain cells when the person who has the gene reaches middle age. The loss of these cells causes intense symptoms and eventually death. HD was named after Dr. George Huntington. In 1872, he was the first person to document an accurate description of the symptoms and course of the disease. At the time he called it “hereditary chorea”. The Huntington gene was discovered in 1993 by the Huntington Study Group. The CAG repeats in the Huntington gene, which is located on chromosome 4, code for the protein huntingtin. The larger than normal number of CAGs in a person with HD causes the huntingtin protein to be abnormal, which leads to symptoms. Even though every cell in the body has the gene, only the cells in the brain seem to be affected. A person has two alleles for every gene. One allele is inherited from the mother and one allele is inherited from the father. If either allele of the Huntington gene has the larger than normal CAG repeat, the person will have HD. If neither allele has the larger than normal CAG repeat, the person will not have HD and will not pass it on. When a person has children, only one allele of......

Words: 721 - Pages: 3

The Huntington's Disease

...Huntington’s disease Author’s name University Affiliation Nancy Wexler is an American geneticist at Columbia University as the Higgins Professor of Neuropsychology. She is known for discovering the location of the gene causing Huntington’s disease. She works in the field of genetics despite earning a Ph.D. in clinical psychology. Currently, she works as the president of the Hereditary Disease Foundation clinic initiated by her father. The personal situation that motivated her to take up the study was the prevalence of Huntington’s disease in her family (Quarrell, 2008). Her grandfather, mother and three uncles died of the disease. She got prepared professionally for this task from the bright background as her father was a psychoanalyst while the mother was a geneticist. She also made up her mind to go for the gene testing hence added to her credibility. Additionally, the doctoral thesis she wrote on the emotional features of people at risk for Huntington’s disease also helped her. She contributed to the effort to produce a chromosomal test to identify carriers of the disease. Hungitin protein encoded by the Huntington’s gene plays a significant role in the neurons of the brain for development before birth. In cells, this protein is involved in transporting materials, chemical signaling, binding to proteins, and protects the cells from self-destruction. The coding area of the gene contains the DNA sequence repeated many times. People infected with Huntington disease......

Words: 348 - Pages: 2

Disease

...Meningococcal disease, also known as meningitis, is caused by the bacteria known as Neiserria meningitids, and is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis worldwide. Outbreaks of this disease are rare in the United States but are very common along an area of sub –Saharan African called the African Belt. The African Belt stretches from the Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east with 26 countries involved where it contains the highest rates of the disease. (Who, 2015). Neiserria meningitids is carried in the throat and is transmitted from person to person through droplets of respiratory or throat secretions from carriers. It is secreted from prolonged kissing, sneezing or coughing on someone or by living in close quarters. There is an incubation period of about 4 days before symptoms start to occur. Symptoms of meningitis include a stiff neck, high fever, confusion, headaches vomiting, and sensitivity to light. Meningococcal disease can be a potentially fatal disease if not treated right away. Patients must have a lumbar puncture performed so that spinal fluid can be examined and antibiotics, such as penicillin and ceftriaxone must be given as soon as possible. Sometimes the infection can be severe enough that death or serious long term problems can occur. About 11 to 19 out of every 100 survivors will have long term disabilities such as loss of limb, deafness nervous system problems or brain damage. (CDC, 2015). Meningococcal......

Words: 1385 - Pages: 6