Hypothermia, the Diving Reflex,

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Biology Paper, CSE Style (Martin)

Hypothermia, the Diving Reflex, and Survival

Full title, writer’s name, name of course, instructor’s name, and date (all centered).

Briana Martin

Biology 281 Professor McMillan April 17, XXXX

Marginal annotations indicate CSE-style formatting and effective writing. Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2007). Adapted from Victoria E. McMillan (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006).
This paper follows the style guidelines in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 7th ed. (2006).

Page header contains abbreviated title and the page number. Headings, centered, help readers follow the organization.

Hypothermia and Diving Reflex 2

ABSTRACT This paper reviews the contributions of hypothermia and the mammalian diving reflex (MDR) to human survival of cold-water immersion incidents. It also examines the relationship between the victim's age and MDR and considers the protective role played by hypothermia. Hypothermia is the result of a reduced metabolic rate and lowered oxygen consumption by body tissues. Although hypothermia may produce fatal cardiac arrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation, it is also associated with bradycardia and peripheral vasoconstriction, both of which enhance oxygen supply to the heart and brain. The MDR also causes bradycardia and reduced peripheral blood flow as well as laryngospasm, which protects victims against rapid inhalation of water. Studies of drowning and near drowning of children and adults suggest that victim survival depends on the presence of both hypothermia and the MDR, as neither alone can provide adequate cerebral protection during long periods of hypoxia. Future research is suggested to improve patient care. INTRODUCTION Drowning and near-drowning incidents are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in both children 1 and adults…...

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