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Typically, these hypotheses will be stated in terms of a parameter.

A test of hypothesis is a statistical procedure used to make a decision about the conjectured value of a parameter.

We will make our decision based on observed values of a statistic. * The purpose of hypothesis testing is to determine whether there is enough statistical evidence in favor of a certain belief about a parameter. * There are two hypotheses which we are comparing. * The null hypothesis, H0, specifies a value of a parameter. This hypothesis is assumed to be true, and the collected data will be analyzed to see if it is contradictory to the null hypothesis. * The alternative hypothesis, Ha, gives an opposing statement about the value of the parameter. The collected data will be analyzed to see if it supports the alternative hypothesis.

Example:

* An operation manager needs to determine if the mean demand during lead time is greater than 350. * If so, changes in the ordering policy are needed.

There are two hypotheses about a population mean: * H0: The null hypothesis m = 350 * Ha: The alternative hypothesis m > 350 Decision Rule: This tells us when we feel the observed data provided sufficient evident to conclude the alternative hypothesis is true.

It will be phrased as: Accept the alternative hypothesis when the p-value of the test is less than a.

Steps of the Test of Hypothesis 1. Identify the null and alternative hypotheses 2. Give the decision rule 3. Identify the form of the test statistic and calculate it based on the sampled data. 4. Verify the method is valid (n is at least 30 for now) 5. Calculate the p-value based on the z-score and Ha 6. Give an interpretation.

Example

If:

H0: m = $122,000

Ha: m < $122,000 n =…...

...Hypothes9 9.1 Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing: One-Sample Tests A Connection Between Confidence Interval Estimation and Hypothesis Testing Can You Ever Know the Population Standard Deviation? USING STATISTICS @ Oxford Cereals, Part II Fundamentals of Hypothesis-Testing Methodology The Null and Alternative Hypotheses The Critical Value of the Test Statistic Regions of Rejection and Nonrejection Risks in Decision Making Using Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis Testing Using the Critical Value Approach Hypothesis Testing Using the p-Value Approach 9.4 Z Test of Hypothesis for the Proportion The Critical Value Approach The p-Value Approach Potential HypothesisTesting Pitfalls and Ethical Issues 9.5 9.2 t Test of Hypothesis for the Mean (S Unknown) The Critical Value Approach The p-Value Approach Checking the Normality Assumption One-Tail Tests The Critical Value Approach The p-Value Approach 9.6 Online Topic: The Power of a Test USING STATISTICS @ Oxford Cereals, Part II Revisited CHAPTER 9 EXCEL GUIDE CHAPTER 9 MINITAB GUIDE 9.3 Learning Objectives In this chapter, you learn: • The basic principles of hypothesis testing • How to use hypothesis testing to test a mean or proportion • The assumptions of each hypothesis-testing procedure, how to evaluate them, and the consequences if they are seriously violated • How to avoid the pitfalls involved in hypothesis testing • Ethical issues involved in hypothesis testing U S I N G S TAT I S T I...

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...A2 Biology Coursework A1- Develop a hypothesis Outline your biological knowledge or research related to the problem under investigation Yeast are eukaryotic species and make up approximately one percent of species in the kingdom Fungi. One of the most well studied yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly known as bakers yeast, and also used in the fermentation of alcohols, is a model species for the study of eukaryotic cells. They are known to reproduce either sexually, by mitosis, or asexually, by budding, depending on environmental conditions. Yeast grow and reproduce by producing enzymes to catabolise polysaccharides. Upon maturation the parent cell passes its genetic information to the bud which then becomes a genetic copy of the original cell and adds to the population. A growth curve demonstrates the four stages of population growth for a yeast cell as follows: Diagram 1. Reference: http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/33/flashcards/602033/jpg/bacterial_growth_curve1320203184633.jpg Lag phase: Indicates the process of assimilation of nutrients by the initial population. Growth is restricted as the yeast are adjusting to their environment and synthesising cellular macromolecules. Exponential phase: Growth is increasing rapidly at this stage and competition for resources is minimal allowing for the yeast to bud at maximum capacity. Stationary phase: The population is now stabilising as resources become depleted and competition......

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...Hypothesis Testing Paper PSY/315 - Statistical Reasoning in Psychology December 16, 2013 Jennifer Slothower Hypothesis Testing Paper There are many reliable sources that are readily available for researching topics, whether it is for personal or professional use. Two of these sources are known as the Internet and the Yellow Pages. Based upon the test performed, to determine if the Yellow Pages will become obsolete in the near future, the following information was found based on the hypothesis and test results that have been recorded in the passage. There are many people who would prefer the use of the Internet to the Yellow Pages because of the convenience and not having to flip through pages to find what you are looking for. The Yellow Pages have become a thing of the past and is quickly being replaced by new research methods individuals can access via the Internet. In the past twenty years the Internet has continued to grow into what we know today. In 1993 the first primitive search engine was released (Seymour, Frantsvog, & Kumar, 2011). Google became the prominent search engine around 2000 by using an algorithm to rank web pages; the desirable pages would be linked more than others based on importance (Seymour, Frantsvog, & Kumar, 2011). With the growth of the Internet and the rise of technology, there has been an increase in the number of businesses that use the Internet for marketing (Salehi, Mirzaei, Aghaei, &Abyari, 2012).......

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...Bada Introduction to Sociology SOC 100 Dr. Mehdi Nazer June 11, 2014 Specific Hypothesis Understanding the full reality of this statement advanced as an hypothesis requires careful thought to be evaluated, and supported, plus or minus. It has been well established that for any government the necessity of dealing with crime is a major responsibility. This requires having an adequate number of personnel to deal with crime. Depending upon the area to be covered might require more men or women or persons of various language or cultural abilities. It might also require a number of employees of various religious backgrounds who can enter certain regions exclusive to certain believers or where prohibitions exist against non-believers. In short, there are many times, places, and events which might give good reason to hire more people. The development of special situations, unusual or uncertain conditions, might create more crime. The increase of which crime in turn might rationalize those in charge of a region or operation, to handle the increase of the prospect of crime by making more appointments. In recognizing those realities persons in government can ordinarily have good reason to hire more people. It also assumes the existence of judgments which themselves have no basis on a recognized religious belief. Sociological Concept In short, the previous interpretation of the hypothesis cannot be taken as single, limited, or fully legitimate . Certainly the......

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...Hypothesis: Social Mobility Demetria Hooks Profess, Bridgett Hester Sociology 100 Strayer University June 7, 2014 Children from less wealthy families appear to support the work hard hypothesis. This is the hypothesis that asserts that hard work in school can overcome all the disadvantages associated with poverty. These are attributed to the lower economic status in people who are found to achieve a social mobility in improving their literacy, education, health status and social status (Mayer, 2012). Single- parent families are at greater risk of economic hardship than two- parent families, largely because the latter has twice the earning potential. Upper-income families can invest more in their children’s education and they may have a better understanding of what it takes to get a good education. Some of the causes of America’s mobility problems are the topics of dispute — starting with the debates over poverty, mostly in the United States they maintain a thinner safety net than other rich countries don’t, leaving more children vulnerable to debilitating hardships. The work hard hypothesis is supported by the above case. The status of women in the early nineteenth century was at once subservient and exalted. In other words, the culture womanhood requested that women become a “hostage in the home,” it was better for her “to pray than think,” submission was “perhaps the most feminine virtue” of them all, and to be domestic was, in effect, to be...

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...Wire Company? 5. A hospital spokesperson claims that the average daily room charge for a specific procedure is $622. Can we reject this claim? WHAT IS A HYPOTHESIS? Hypothesis: A statement about the value of a population parameter developed for the purpose of testing. Examples of hypotheses, or statements, made about a population parameter are: The mean monthly income from all sources for systems analysts is $3,625. Twenty percent of all juvenile offenders ultimately are caught and sentenced to prison. Hypothesis testing: A procedure, based on sample evidence and probability theory, used to determine whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement and should not be rejected, or is unreasonable and should be rejected. lFollowing is a five-step procedure for testing a hypothesis. 5 STEPS IN THE HYPOTHESIS TESTING PROCEDURE 1. State the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis. Null Hypothesis – statement about the value of a population parameter. Alternate Hypothesis – statement that is accepted if evidence proves null hypothesis to be false. Tests of Hypotheses: z-test and t-test 0801-HypothesisTests.doc Page 2 of 4 NOTES 2. Select the appropriate test statistic and level of significance. When testing a hypothesis of a proportion, we use the z-statistic or z-test and the formula ˆ p− p z= pq n When testing a hypothesis of a mean, we use the z-statistic or we use the t-statistic according to the following conditions. If the population standard deviation, σ, is......

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...experimental conditions and then the interest is in knowing whether there exists a significant difference in the value of the variable under different experimental conditions or different periods of time. To know this one need to perform a hypothesis test. In hypothesis test one starts with the null hypothesis that there exists no significant difference in the mean value of the variable under the conditions or time periods in the study and an alternative hypothesis that one of the means is significantly smaller and / larger (depends on the problem) than the other mean. This hypothesis is tested using suitable statistics (z-statistics, t-statistics, F-statistics etc.) at certain significance level (probability level). The outcome of such a hypothesis test helps us in determining whether or not there is a significant difference in the value of the variable under two different time spans or experimental conditions under investigation. I am working as a police officer in southern California, therefore, I decided to perform hypothesis test on a data pertaining to crime rate. I have chosen to examine the question, whether there is any significant drop in theft cases between 2007 and 2008 in the city I work, using suitable hypothesis testing. The statistical analysis is presented in this paper. 2. Data Collection - Proposed As I am working as a motorcycle cop it was easier for me to get data pertaining to different crimes. As this data is......

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...How surface area affects the rate of diffusion. Hypothesis – the larger the surface area the faster the rate of reaction Why did you choose your hypothesis? The reason I have chosen my hypothesis is because large surface area of the tea bag will contain more molecules which means the rate of reaction will happen faster. For example the pyramid due to it 3D shape provides more sides for diffusion to take place and more area in the middle for the tea molecules to move around which will make them escape quicker so the reaction will happen faster. 2 web sites I have done my research, a) http://www.mylearning.org/learning/investigate/Tea%20Bag%20Trials.pdf b) http://www.science-sparks.com/2012/01/02/get-the-kids-to-make-your-cuppa-investigating-teabags/ I prefer website science-sparks because I found it easier to follow and also it was more useful was because it’s a scientific website therefore it was more accurate than mylearing. It also appeared to make more sense to me. Therefore website science-sparks was more detailed and had a diagram whereas website mylearning didn’t have one so it was hard to understand how to do the experiment and how to set it all up. Equipment: Circle, square and pyramid tea bags 4 pieces of white paper A black pen or a marker Kettle with hot water (70°c) A stopwatch/timer 3 Clear glass cups Thermometer Method: On the piece of 4 white paper that are going to be used as......

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...A high school principal wanted to know if the racial makeup of her teachers mirrored that of the student body. The student body broke down into 47% White, 28% Latino, 15% African American, and 10% other. Of the 65 teachers, 42 were White, 4 were Latino, 15 were African American, and 4 were Other. Do these results suggest that the racial makeup of the faculty members is different from that of the students? (Use the .05 significance level.) Use the five steps of hypothesis testing and explain your findings. Since the teachers are given in numbers and the students in percentage therefore we will write both in percentage. | |White |Latino |Af.American |Other |Total | |% of students |47 |28 |15 |10 |100 | |% of faculty |64.6 |6.15 |23.1 |6.15 |100 | |Total |111.6 |34.15 |38.1 |16.15 |200 | Step1- H0: The racial makeup of faculty members is independent of that of the students. H1: The racial makeup of faculty members is same as that of the students. Step2- Level of significance as stated in the problem alpha=0.05 Step3- For this problem we will be using Chi-Square test. Step4- [pic] Degrees of......

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...http://reel-life-performing-arts.com/sign-in?save_page=%2Fessay-on%2FFive-Step-Hypothesis%2F34686 Five Step Hypothesis In: Business and Management Five Step Hypothesis The five-step step hypothesis test The team will use the five-step hypothesis test to support or reject the research problem. The following are five steps that will lead to accurate conclusions concerning the null hypothesis and the claim. The five-step step hypothesis testing consists of: 1. Step one - State the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis 2. Step two - level of significance/ Formulate testable hypothesis 3. Step three - Calculate the test statistic 4. Step four - Set up a decision rule 5. Step five - Collect some data The research topic: the team calculates the average cost of houses in cities with high crime rates against affluent cities with low crime rates in PGC. Step 1: State the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis. Home values in PGC have decreased because of the high crime rate in the county. H0: The average home sold is 203,069 that is, m = 203,068 Ha: The average home sold is 203,068 that is, m ≠ 203,068 Step 2: Select a level of significance (ά or alpha) In this step, we are able to evaluate if the hypothesis is suitable, and have met the requirements for the test. To do this we must select a type one error that is frequently used at the 0.5 or 0.1 significance level. For instance, to get the Z for a 95% confidence interval, make the shaded area 0.95.......

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...A hypothesis is a explanation for phenomenon that can be tested in some way that ideally approve or disapprove it. In the process of testing the hypothesis is taken to be true and the the goal of the researcher is to rigorously test its terms. The concept is a very inportant part of the scientific method, it also holds true in other disciplines as well. Some historians have put forward the hypothesis that the SalemWitch Trials were brought about by the consumption of grains contaminated with ergot, resulting in a mass hysteria. When someone formulates a hypothesis the individual has intentions of testing it. You can not know the outcome of potential tests before the hypothesis is made. When formulating a hypothesis the ideal scientific method are often keep in mind so that it is designed to be testable in a way that could be relicated by other people. It is always kept clear and simple and the hypothesis relies on known information and reasoning. I feel hypothesis is a needed study because if you test a problem properly you will most definitely get accurate results. The results are probably not what you expect but its best to have things tested so that you do not have to assume the results of the outcome. The results will be utilized because you will not have guessed the solution to the problem but you will have factual information about the things that was tested to give a complete and precise explanation. When you utilize the hypothesis you can determine the interest of...

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...Hypothesis Identification Danielle Rickards RES342 February 13, 2012 Dean Gualco Hypothesis Identification Algae are considered versatile in nature since it has much potential. Algae can be used for multiple purposes including food, bio-filters, industrial fuels and compounds, etc. It seems as though the more research conducted on algae, the more functions that are found. Recently more research studies have been conducted on the uses of algae. “Algae, being one of the widely cultivated species around the world, have been a focus of many research studies to widen its commercial scope”(, 2012, ). Since algae are freely available, the use of algae in any industry could help reduce cost and increase profitability. One of the recent research studies was composed by a team from the School of Architecture and the Built Environment of Singapore Polytechnic. The team was focused on the use of algae in the construction industry. Algae from the catchment areas of water bodies are known for its binding ability. The team used this binding ability of algae for the development of a bio-based binding structure. The team’s hypothesis was that by adding the wet algae to conventional cement, the mixture could be used in the construction industry. Not only would the use of algae reduce the cost of construction but also reduce the toxic alkaline components of the conventional cement, which causes lung and skin disorders. The team determined that combining 40% of the wet algae with 60% of...

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...Hypothesis: The theoretical framework presented above will be used to develop the testable hypothesis for this study. The basis of the hypothesis is that the introduction of corporate governance best practice namely board leadership structure and board composition will be reflected in firm performance in the hospitality industry scenario. However the board structures in the global hospitality industry vary in firms and countries. Therefore, the hypothesis presented in this study will be tested to investigate the effect of corporate governance codes on firm performance in the global hospitality industry. Capital markets attract investor confidence for which good corporate governance is an essential. For good corporate governance to occur the board should effectively monitor the managers for their accountability to shareholders. The monitoring mechanisms of Board leadership (Ha) and Board Composition (Hb) are represented to investigate the accountability to shareholders through firm performance. 2.4 a. Board leadership Based on the above literary argument, it can be said that leadership structure of the firm will have an important impact on performance, because board leadership structure is a device that is implemented to monitor the activities of the CEO. Therefore in this study a monitoring leadership structure is considered important in affecting firm performance. Examination of empirical research in the above chapters has provided important insights into the......

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...The purpose of this paper is to review the hypothesis testing of the influence bank account balances have on ATM transactions. Team A will use a two-sample hypothesis test to compare two means to examine the hypothesis. The first part of the process will develop the hypothesis statement numerically and verbally. The test begins with the determination of the level of significance and decision rule whether to accept or not reject the null hypothesis. Calculating the test statistic will provide basis of the decision according to the critical region. The final section will describe the results in relation to the research question of bank account balance influencing the number of ATM transactions. Hypotheses Team A uses a five step hypothesis testing method as part of the research for this document in determining if two sample groups of bank account balances influence the number of ATM uses in one month. As with the steps for a one population hypothesis test, a two population hypothesis test follows the same sequence. Step one for Team A starts with stating the null hypothesis. Given the data shown in Appendix A and Appendix B, Team A has a hunch that bank account holders with larger balances tend to use ATMs more frequently than low account balance holders. Group A, from Appendix A, hold balances under $1600 for a given month and the Team measures the lower balance account’s ATM transactions during the given month. Group B samples include accounts with......

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...Hypothesis Identification Article The article of choice is around a communication research study that was conducted regarding the downsizing that has taken place through-out different organizations. The study shows how the downsizing of the employees, that have direct customer interaction, has a negative impact on the customers as a whole. It is thought by the managers within the businesses, that this can be improved by having open communication with the customers. The first study is a manager study. The study is an executive survey that is based on the downsizing of more than 100 different projects. The study is conducted in order to try and get a better understanding of the failures of downsizing. Many feel that when down-sizing takes place, the customer gets an instant negative thought and starts to question the business and product/service as a whole and as blame on having to downsize. The hypothesis is that the communication or lack thereof between the manager and customer could have prevented a further negative impact on sales during the downsizing. The manager study was based on industries that had drastically reduced their workforce in sales and sales related areas within the last 5 years. Due to the availability of this type of data, a multi-step sampling approach was taken. During the database searched over 2500 different firms were identified as reducing their staff by at least 5%, over the last 5 years. Next step was to identify the ones that were......

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