Premium Essay

Ib Biology Guide

In: Science

Submitted By sally0870
Words 43724
Pages 175
Biology guide
First assessment 2016

Biology guide
First assessment 2016

Diploma Programme
Biology guide

Published February 2014
Published on behalf of the International Baccalaureate Organization, a not-for-profit educational foundation of 15 Route des Morillons, 1218 Le Grand-Saconnex, Geneva,
Switzerland by the
International Baccalaureate Organization (UK) Ltd
Peterson House, Malthouse Avenue, Cardiff Gate
Cardiff, Wales CF23 8GL
United Kingdom
Website: www.ibo.org
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2014
The International Baccalaureate Organization (known as the IB) offers four high-quality and challenging educational programmes for a worldwide community of schools, aiming to create a better, more peaceful world. This publication is one of a range of materials produced to support these programmes.
The IB may use a variety of sources in its work and checks information to verify accuracy and authenticity, particularly when using community-based knowledge sources such as
Wikipedia. The IB respects the principles of intellectual property and makes strenuous efforts to identify and obtain permission before publication from rights holders of all copyright material used. The IB is grateful for permissions received for material used in this publication and will be pleased to correct any errors or omissions at the earliest opportunity. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the IB, or as expressly permitted by law or by the IB’s own rules and policy. See http://www.ibo.org/copyright. IB merchandise and publications can be purchased through the IB store at http://store.ibo.org. Email: sales@ibo.org

International Baccalaureate, Baccalauréat International and Bachillerato…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Ib Biology Respiration Lab Paper

...respiratory needs of a human. After this, they will have to do a set of 10 push-ups and 15 jumping jacks. If 10 push-ups are not possible, a substitute of 15 curl-ups should be administered instead. Hypothesis: When exercise is complete, the respiratory needs of one human should be significantly higher than it was previous to the exercise. Independent Variable: Human fitness level, exercise set Dependent Variable: How fast the human goes Controlled Variable: Temperature, time for exercise, amount of oxygen in air Materials: * Piece of paper for general observations as well as data recording * 4-6 humans * Timer (ipod, clock, something) * Water (if needed for human) Procedure: 1. Use the stairs next to the Biology classroom, select one human to go first and rotate turns until all humans have gone or until necessary data is gathered 2. Record the rate of exhales of the human (normal breathing) for 30 seconds and any other general observations 3. Have the human do the following: a. 3 sets of running up and down the stairs (going down and up constitutes as 1 set for a total of 6 ups and downs) as fast as they possibly can b. 10 push-ups OR 15 curl-ups c. 15 jumping jacks 4. Afterwards, record the rate of exhale of the human (after exercise) for 30 seconds and any other general observations 5. Look over data to see any patterns or items that should be noted. Compare the increase (if any) in the rate of......

Words: 354 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Ib Exam2

...CCR5 is most common in European populations, but HIV infection is low there. Selection due to HIV is strongest in Africa, but the delta-32 allele is very rare there. [pic] 7. Eastern grey squirrels (the common urban squirrel of most of the United States) sometimes can be completely black. Black squirrels usually are seen in certain isolated squirrel populations in city parks of the northeastern U.S., and are particularly common around the campus of Princeton University, in New Jersey. Black color appears to be caused by a single dominent allele, and squirrel litters can include both black and grey pups. [pic] In 1986, 1987, and 1994, three different Princeton biology classes walked the campus and counted the number of black and grey squirrels. Here are their results. (Data from Ken Nicholson, Woodrow Wilson Biology Institute, 1994). [pic] Part I: Referring to the information about Eastern grey squirrels, calculate the percentage of black squirrels in each year. Have phenotype frequencies changed over time in this population, and if so, can you tell why? Can you determine if the population is in, or close to, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? Part II: Referring again to the information about Eastern grey squirrels, assuming the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, calculate the frequencies of the black and grey alleles in each year. | ......

Words: 9821 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

Biology Study Guide

...utalize energy (metabolism, cellular respiration), DNA and heredity, maintain a stable environment (homeostasis), react to stimulus, evolve Stimulus: signal organisms respond to Pie chart: compares things to a whole Line graph: shows change over time Bar graph: compares differences between more than one group over time Hypothesis: educated guess, tentative, specific, backed by one scientist Theory: we'll tested idea, backed by many scientists, broad Prokaryote: bacteria, no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, 3.5 billion years, 1-10mm Eukaryote: all other cells, nucleus, organelles, 1.5 billion years ago, 2-1000 mm Data: information collected while experimenting Qualitative: descriptive Quantitative: numerical Biology: study of life Cells: smallest unit and structure in all living things DNA: found in chromosomes, contain heredity and information on how to grow, reproduce and live Sexual reproduction: two organisms make another Asexual reproduction: when one organism makes another Metabolism: breakdown of chemical energy into compounds Robert Hooke: first to use a microscope to see cork cells Anton van Leeuwenhoek: first to look at living cells under a microscope Theodor Schwann: all animals are made of cells Rudolf Virchow: cells can only come from pre existing cells Microscope: tool used to magnify objects Compound light: uses lenses and light to magnify, see living organisms Electron: produces much clearer images than compound......

Words: 1061 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Ibs-Point

...IBS–CIDB COLUMN INTRODUCTION TO THE IBS CONTENT SCORING SYSTEM (IBS SCORE) MANUAL By: Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) INTRODUCTION Prosperity and high economic growth in Malaysia has created a high demand for construction activities. As a consequence, this has attracted a huge number of foreign workers into this country to take up employment on site as unskilled labour doing manual jobs. Despite their contributions, the country is in a quagmire with a host of problems such low quality works, delays, wastages, social problems, diseases, etc. Likewise, the minimum percentage requirement is also needed for CIDB Levy exemptions. Consequently, some form of IBS content assessment is needed for the purpose. The IBS Content Scoring System (IBS Score) is a systematic and structured assessment system that can be used to measure the usage of Industrialised Building Systems (IBS) in a consistent way. wastage, less site materials, a cleaner environment, better quality, a neater and safer construction site, faster project completion, as well as lower total construction costs. The method of determining the IBS Score is designed to be a simple but effective process. Points are awarded based on the IBS Factors of the structural and wall elements used. The presence of high repetitiveness in the design as well as other simplified construction solutions shall also contribute to the total score. The points are summed up to give the IBS Score of the building. The IBS......

Words: 868 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Biology

...UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN CENTRE FOR FOUNDATION STUDIES FOUNDATION IN SCIENCE MAY 2014 FHSB 1214 BIOLOGY I TUTORIAL 4 MOLECULAR GENETICS Student’s Guide: At university level, the tutor facilitates student learning without spoon-feeding. Therefore, you are expected to: • Read your textbook, attempt the questions before the tutorial • You may enter the class and sign your attendance after showing your tutor that all tutorial questions have been completed; even if you don’t know how to do, write something - you’re not advised to leave answers blank in the finals. • Write answers on board if you wish to receive tutor feedback (no answer, no feedback) • Be independent: consult textbooks or dictionaries on your own first before asking the tutor • All questions are compulsory. 1 mark may reflect 1 answer point. (No half mark is awarded in the finals marks) (Source: Final Examination, Sept 2010) Q1. (a) Figure 1.1 shows the process of DNA replication. [pic] Figure 1.1 Based on Figure 1.1, identify which of the labels A-I correctly represent the following structures: (4 marks) (6 marks) i) DNA polymerase ii) 5’ end of a nucleic acid (state one label only) iii) Daughter strand synthesized in pieces iv) The template strand at which replication is......

Words: 557 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Study Guide for Biology

...BIOL 1201, Section 2 Study Guide for New Material for Final Examination FOR THE TEST PLEASE BRING PENCILS (PLURAL), ERASER, CALCULATOR AND SPARE BATTERIES. While this study guide can help you prepare for our Final Examination, please understand that you are fully responsible for all materials covered in class and the problem sets, including materials not in this guide. Note that this study guide is only for the new materials covered since the 4th Examination. The Final Examination is comprehensive. About 20% of the points will be taken from this new material. The other 80% will be taken from material covered earlier in the semester. DNA Replication, basics of semi-conservative replication, names and functions of the 5 enzymes required for replication, origins of replication, replication bubbles, differences between leading and trailing strand replication, details of the processes occurring at the replication fork, characteristics of DNA replication, replication problems at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, functions of telomers and teleomerases, chromosome packing, etc. Genes to Proteins, “One gene – one polypeptide chain, flow of genetic information - prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes, mRNA, details of Transcription – initiation, elongation and termination, processing of eukaryotic transcript into mRNA - 5’ cap and poly A tail and their functions, RNA splicing with intron excision by “spliceosomes”, Translation components, mRNA, the genetic code, how the code......

Words: 361 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Biology Study Guide

...Biology 10 Study Guide #1 1. List some of the characteristics that distinguish living from non-living things. 2. Outline the basic steps of inquiry included in the scientific method. 3. What is the difference between a hypothesis, a theory and an opinion? 4. What is homeostasis? 5. Be able to summarize the basic idea represented by each of the 10 majors themes that form the cornerstones for understanding Biology. Be able to provide an example for each of these. The Chemistry of Life: 1. If you were probing for life on a distant planet, what could you look for to determine whether it was even possible for life to exist, or to have existed, there. Why is each of things you’ve identified important to life. 2. Review the definition of an atom. What is meant by the idea that it is “the smallest unit of a pure substance that retains properties of that substance”? 3. Understand the nature and arrangement of the subatomic structure of atoms. Where are the subatomic particles found? 4. Why are we concerned about whether atoms are reactive or not? 5. What determines whether a particular element (type of atom) is reactive? 6. Understand the difference between inert elements and those that are reactive and capable of forming chemical bonds. What is the significance of the valance shell of electrons? 7. Why do atoms seek to form bonds with other atoms? How does this correlate with their stability? 8. Understand the nature......

Words: 662 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Biology

...UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN CENTRE FOR FOUNDATION STUDIES FOUNDATION IN SCIENCE MAY 2015 FHSB1214 BIOLOGY I TUTORIAL 4 ENZYMOLGY ESSENTIAL Student’s Guide: At university level, the tutor facilitates student learning without spoon-feeding. Therefore, you are expected to: • Read your textbook, attempt the questions before the tutorial • You may enter the class and sign your attendance after showing your tutor that all tutorial questions have been completed; even if you don’t know how to do, write something - you’re not advised to leave answers blank in the finals. • Write answers on board if you wish to receive tutor feedback (no answer, no feedback) • Be independent: consult textbooks or dictionaries on your own first before asking the tutor • All questions are compulsory. 1 mark may reflect 1 answer point. (No half mark is awarded in the finals marks) (Source : Final Examination, Apr 2015) Q1. (a) Pyruvate kinase is an enzyme that catalyse the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate to adenosine diphosphate during glycolysis. i) Define the term “enzyme” and state its function. (2 marks) ii) Explain why pyruvate kinase can only catalyse this reaction but not other reactions. (3 marks) (b) Figure 1.1 shows the result of an investigation using enzyme sucrose to break down sucrose......

Words: 707 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Biology

...and altruism, endosymbiosis and eukaryotic cell evolution, evolutionary developmental biology, phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic inheritance and molecular evolution, experimental bacterial evolution, and computer simulations (in silico evolution of digital organisms). In addition, we discuss the expansion of the modern synthesis, embracing all branches of scientific disciplines. It is concluded that the basic tenets Dedicated to Prof. Dr. Dr. hc mult. Ernst Mayr on the occasion of his 100th birthday U. Kutschera ()) Institut für Biologie, Universität Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Strasse 40, 34109 Kassel, Germany e-mail: kut@uni-kassel.de Fax: +49-561-8044009 K. J. Niklas Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA of the synthetic theory have survived, but in modified form. These sub-theories require continued elaboration, particularly in light of molecular biology, to answer openended questions concerning the mechanisms of evolution in all five kingdoms of life. Introduction Physicists and chemists investigate the properties and interactions of objects, such as electrons, photons, and atoms, which are physically uniform and invariant in their characteristic traits and behavior. Accordingly, a single experiment adducing the properties of a single entity (e.g., electron or proton) can be used to extrapolate the properties of all comparable entities in the universe. In biology, the “science of the living world,” both past and present (Mayr 1997), the......

Words: 17126 - Pages: 69

Premium Essay

Biology

...AS Biology: OCR Syllabus Module 1.1.1 3.1 AS Unit: Cells, Exchange and Transport Module 1: Cells 1.1.1 Cell Structure Candidates should be able to: (a) state the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a light microscope, a transmission electron microscope and a scanning electron microscope; Light Microscope Transmission Electron Microscope Scanning Electron Microscope Resolution 0.2 μ (200nm) 0.2nm 0.2nm Magnification ≈ ×1500 / 2000 Over 500 000 250 000 (b) explain the difference between magnification and resolution; Resolution “the ability of an optical system to distinguish between two adjacent objects” Magnification increases the apparent size of an object” Resolving power “the degree of detail that can be seen with a microscope” The resolving power is inversely proportional to the wavelength of the radiation used (i.e. the shorter the wavelength, the greater the resolution). (c) Stains: (d) explain the need for staining samples for use in light microscopy and electron microscopy; - most biological structures are transparent the stain gives a contrast between different structures the stain combines with certain chemicals in the structure - Iodine solution: Starch → blue-black - Eosin solution: cytoplasm → pink - Feulgens agent DNA → dark red / purple - Aceto-orcein agent calculate the linear magnification of an image (HSW3); Page 1 of 8 AS Biology:......

Words: 1909 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Question for Biology Study Guide

...BIO 100--STUDY GUIDE--EXAM 1 STUFF TO BRING: A Scantron Form 882-E; number 2 pencil STUFF TO KNOW: What do all living organisms do? Surface to Volume Ratio (compare big to small organisms), Atom (what is it and what is it made from); the 4 major elements that make up living organisms; why antioxidants are good; What are the 4 main molecules of living organisms; What are the main functions of each of these types of molecules; Know the main organelles of the cell, and their function Three Primary tissues; layers of the skin (2 main layers); Two main regions of the skeleton; regions of the spine; bones of the arm and leg; ball and socket joints; three types of muscle and the function of each; the BASICS or muscle contraction; 2 types of muscle contraction; fast and slow muscle fibers, which type of athlete would have which kind of muscles?; know the three types of levers described in class, and be able to give an example or each Immune system Cold vs the flu; what is a virus? What is a bacteria? Which is killed by antibiotics?; know the components of the: FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE; SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE; THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE; what is immunity? How do you acquire immunity? Why is the flu a serious disease (I am not referring to the flu you typically get) Cardiovascular system Know the chambers of the heart; Sino-Atrial Node; Atrio-ventrical Node’ Blood flow through the heart and out to the body, and blood returning to the heart. Arteries, veins and capillaries......

Words: 369 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Biology 150 Exam 1 Study Guide

...Biology 150 Study Guide 1. Scientific Method 1. Obeservation 2. Question 3. Hypothesis 4. Test 5. Result 6. Conclusion 2. Properties of Living Things 1. Highly ordered 2. Use energy/source of energy 3. Genetic Information 4. Cells 5. Reproductive 3. pH and what pH values represent? 1. pH is negative concentration of protons in solutions 2. 0-7 Acidic (Increase concentration) 3. 7-14 Basic/Alkaline (Decrease concentration) 4. ORGANISMS ARE VERY SENSITIVE TO pH 5. Disrupt protien structure 6. Shut down important chemical reactions 7. Break down chemical membranes 4. Ionic, Covalent, and Hydrogen Bonds 1. Ionic Bonds - Electrons transferred between atoms 2. Covalent Bonds- Valence electron shared between atoms 3. Hydrogen Bond-Hydrogen attached to electronegative atom of one molecule and another molecule 5. The Molecular Structure of Water 1. 2. H2O 6. Saturated and Unsaturated Fat 1. Saturated Fat - Single Bond between Carbons 2. Unsaturated Fat - Double Bond between Carbons 7. The four levels of protein structure 1. Primary Structure - Peptide Bonds & Sequence 1. DNA determines Primary Structure 2. Secondary Structure 1. Alpha Helix 2. Pleated Sheet 3. Tertiary Structure 1. Three Dimensional configuration of proteins 4. Quaternary Structure 1. MANY CHAINS OF AMINO ACIDS! 2. Combination of multiple types of tertiary structures 8. Complimentary Based Pairing in DNA 1. A binds with T 2. G binds with C 9. Structural Features......

Words: 526 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Biology Study Guide

...BY 101 Study Guide Chapter 9 – Cell Division Cell division is an elegant process that enables organisms to grow and reproduce. Through a sequence of steps, the replicated genetic material (chromosomes) in a parent cell is equally distributed to two daughter cells. While there are some subtle differences, mitosis is remarkably similar across organisms. Before a dividing cell enters mitosis, it undergoes a period of growth called interphase. Interphase is the "holding" stage or the stage between two successive cell divisions. In this stage, the cell replicates its genetic material and organelles in preparation for division. The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication). The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis). M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: mitosis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided between the two daughter cells, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming distinct cells. Activation of each phase is dependent on the proper progression and completion of the previous one. Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. Mitosis is composed of several stages: * Prophase * Metaphase * Anaphase * Telophase......

Words: 1342 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Biology

...photosynthetic activity? Explain. 7. What role do the carotenoids play in photosynthesis? 8. Why was isopropyl alcohol used to ZERO the spectrophotometer? (to get the 100 % T setting) 9. What is the significance of the rf values? FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONS 1. How do you think the results would differ if you had used spinach leaves which had been stored in a dark room for five days before the experiment? Explain your answer. 9 ULTRAVIOLET/VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY PURDUE UNIVERSITY INSTRUMENT VAN PROJECT TEACHERS' GUIDE ANALYSIS OF PLANT PIGMENTS USING PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY AND VISIBLE AND/OR UV SPECTROSCOPY (1-31-96) CLASSROOM USAGE First or second year high school biology First or second year chemistry Biochemistry Physical science Physics CONCEPT MAP Suggested terms: energy photosynthesis color carotenoids light chlorophyll separation absorption solubility transmission absorbance rf paper chromatography spectrophotometer CURRICULUM INTEGRATION Photosynthesis unit in biology Biochemistry unit in first or second year chemistry Solutions unit in first year chemistry Separation of mixtures in first year chemistry Light unit in physics or physical science Environmental science Ecology 10 ULTRAVIOLET/VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY PURDUE UNIVERSITY INSTRUMENT VAN PROJECT INDIANA STATE SCIENCE PROFICIENCIES 1, 2, 3, 4, 5a, 5b, 5e, 5f, 6a, 6d, 8, 11 KEY UNDERSTANDINGS Use of paper chromatography Use of spectrophotometer Interpreting results of spectrophotometer Graphing skills......

Words: 2526 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Biology

...Biology: Concepts and Connections, 6e (Campbell) Chapter 1 Introduction: The Scientific Study of Life 1) Which of the following statements about the leopard is false? A) Leopards are the largest cat in the genus Panthera. B) Leopards, like lions, can roar. C) Leopards prefer to eat their kill in trees. D) Leopards are well-adapted for nocturnal hunting. E) Leopards are normally solitary animals. Answer: A Topic: Opening Essay Skill: Factual Recall 2) Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which of the following sequences correctly lists that hierarchy as it increases in complexity? A) ecosystem, population, organ system, cell, community, molecule, organ, organism, tissue B) cell, molecule, organ system, organ, population, tissue, organism, ecosystem, community C) organism, organ system, tissue, population, organ, community, cell, ecosystem, molecule D) molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem E) ecosystem, molecule, cell, tissue, organism, organ system, organ, community Answer: D Topic: 1.1 Skill: Factual Recall 3) What is the difference between a tissue and an organ system? A) The tissue level of organization is more inclusive than the organ system level. B) Tissues are not composed of cells; organ systems are composed of......

Words: 9744 - Pages: 39