Igneous

In: Science

Submitted By monkey7
Words 1623
Pages 7
Abstract
Large igneous provinces are conspicuous features of late Phanerozoic geology, and include continental flood basalts, rifted continental margin volcanic sequences and oceanic plateaus. Many large igneous provinces can be associated with mantle plumes. Where plumes ascend beneath spreading ridges, their energy is transformed into a large melt volume, producing over-thickened plateau crust. Comparing the timing of mass extinctions with the formation age of large igneous provinces reveals a close correspondence in several cases. The Columbia River Basalt Group is a large igneous province, which covers parts of the western United States. There are significant landforms associated with this formation that provide evidence as to the age and controlling mechanisms of its emplacement.

1. Introduction
Large igneous provinces (LIPs) are massive emplacements of extrusive and intrusive mafic rock. Processes other than seafloor spreading form these mass emplacements and they are the primary mechanism of terrestrial magmatism on earth. LIPs are distinguishable from mid-ocean ridge magmatism and arc magmatism on the basis of petrologic, geochemical, geochronological and physical volcanological data. Large igneous provinces occur in both continental and oceanic crust.(Coffin and Eldholm, 1991). The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the types of LIPs, their formation, and the possibility of their contribution to mass extinction events.

2. Types of Large Igneous Provinces
LIPs are characterized by the attributes of their primary mafic rocks. Research has primarily focused on continental flood basalts such as the Deccan Traps or the Columbia River Flood Basalt (Map 1). Most continental flood basalts are part of extensional sedimentary basins. It is not currently ascertainable as to whether magmatism or extension occurred first (Coffin and Eldholm,…...

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